The Conserved ESCRT-III Machinery Participates in the Phagocytosis of Entamoeba histolytica.
ABSTRACT: The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) orchestrates cell membrane-remodeling mechanisms in eukaryotes, including endocytosis. However, ESCRT functions in phagocytosis (ingestion of ?250 nm particles), has been poorly studied. In macrophages and amoebae, phagocytosis is required for cell nutrition and attack to other microorganisms and cells. In Entamoeba histolytica, the voracious protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, phagocytosis is a land mark of virulence. Here, we have investigated the role of ESCRT-III in the phagocytosis of E. histolytica, using mutant trophozoites, recombinant proteins (rEhVps20, rEhVps32, rEhVps24, and rEhVps2) and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Confocal images displayed the four proteins located around the ingested erythrocytes, in erythrocytes-containing phagosomes and in multivesicular bodies. EhVps32 and EhVps2 proteins co-localized at the phagocytic cups. Protein association increased during phagocytosis. Immunoprecipitation and flow cytometry assays substantiated these associations. GUVs revealed that the protein assembly sequence is essential to form intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). First, the active rEhVps20 bound to membranes and recruited rEhVps32, promoting membrane invaginations. rEhVps24 allowed the detachment of nascent vesicles, forming ILVs; and rEhVps2 modulated their size. The knock down of Ehvps20 and Ehvps24genes diminished the rate of erythrophagocytosis demonstrating the importance of ESCRT-III in this event. In conclusion, we present here evidence of the ESCRT-III participation in phagocytosis and delimitate the putative function of proteins, according to the in vitro reconstruction of their assembling.
Project description:Degradation of most integral membrane proteins is directed by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, which selectively targets ubiquitin-modified cargoes into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) within multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). To better understand the mechanisms underlying ESCRT-mediated formation of ILVs, we exploited the rapid, de novo biogenesis of MVEs during the oocyte-to-embryo transition in C. elegans. In contrast to previous models suggesting that ILVs form individually, we demonstrate that they remain tethered to one another subsequent to internalization, arguing that they bud continuously from stable subdomains. In addition, we show that membrane bending and ILV formation are directed specifically by the ESCRT-III complex in vivo in a manner regulated by Ist1, which promotes ESCRT-III assembly and inhibits the incorporation of upstream ESCRT components into ILVs. Our findings underscore essential actions for ESCRT-III in membrane remodeling, cargo selection, and cargo retention, which act repetitively to maximize the rate of ILV formation.
Project description:The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) protein complexes function at the endosome in the formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) containing cargo proteins destined for the vacuolar/lysosomal lumen. The early ESCRTs (ESCRT-0 and -I) are likely involved in cargo sorting, whereas ESCRT-III and Vps4 function to sever the neck of the forming ILVs. ESCRT-II links these functions by initiating ESCRT-III formation in an ESCRT-I-regulated manner. We identify a constitutively active mutant of ESCRT-II that partially suppresses the phenotype of an ESCRT-I or ESCRT-0 deletion strain, suggesting that these early ESCRTs are not essential and have redundant functions. However, the ESCRT-III/Vps4 system alone is not sufficient for ILV formation but requires cargo sorting mediated by one of the early ESCRTs.
Project description:The intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of endosomes mediate the delivery of activated signaling receptors and other proteins to lysosomes for degradation, but they also modulate intercellular communication when secreted as exosomes. The formation of ILVs requires four complexes, ESCRT-0, -I, -II, and -III, with ESCRT-0, -I, and -II presumably involved in cargo sorting and ESCRT-III in membrane deformation and fission. Here, we report that an active form of the ESCRT-associated protein ALIX efficiently recruits ESCRT-III proteins to endosomes. This recruitment occurs independently of other ESCRTs but requires lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) in vivo, and can be reconstituted on supported bilayers in vitro. Our data indicate that this ALIX- and ESCRT-III-dependent pathway promotes the sorting and delivery of tetraspanins to exosomes. We conclude that ALIX provides an additional pathway of ILV formation, secondary to the canonical pathway, and that this pathway controls the targeting of exosomal proteins.
Project description:Ubiquitinated plasma membrane proteins (cargo) are delivered to endosomes and sorted by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery into endosome intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) for degradation. In contrast to the current model that postulates that ILVs form individually from inward budding of the endosomal limiting membrane, plant ILVs form as networks of concatenated vesicle buds by a novel vesiculation mechanism. We ran computational simulations based on experimentally derived diffusion coefficients of an ESCRT cargo protein and electron tomograms of Arabidopsis thaliana endosomes to measure cargo escape from budding ILVs. We found that 50% of the ESCRT cargo would escape from a single budding profile in 5-20 ms and from three concatenated ILVs in 80-200 ms. These short cargo escape times predict the need for strong diffusion barriers in ILVs. Consistent with a potential role as a diffusion barrier, we find that the ESCRT-III protein SNF7 remains associated with ILVs and is delivered to the vacuole for degradation.
Project description:ESCRT-III executes membrane scission during the budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) at endosomes. The scission mechanism is unknown but appears to be linked to the cycle of assembly and disassembly of ESCRT-III complexes at membranes. Regulating this cycle is therefore expected to be important for determining the timing of ESCRT-III-mediated membrane scission. We show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ESCRT-III complexes are stabilized and ILV membrane scission is delayed by Doa4, which is the ubiquitin hydrolase that deubiquitinates transmembrane proteins sorted as cargoes into ILVs. These results suggest a mechanism to delay ILV budding while cargoes undergo deubiquitination. We further show that deubiquitination of ILV cargoes is inhibited via Doa4 binding to Vps20, which is the subunit of ESCRT-III that initiates assembly of the complex. Current models suggest that ESCRT-III complexes surround ubiquitinated cargoes to trap them at the site of ILV budding while the cargoes undergo deubiquitination. Thus our results also propose a mechanism to prevent the onset of ILV cargo deubiquitination at the initiation of ESCRT-III complex assembly.
Project description:The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery mediates cargo sorting, membrane deformation and membrane scission on the surface of endosomes, generating intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) to degrade signaling receptors. By live-cell imaging of individual endosomes in human cells, we find that ESCRT proteins are recruited in a repetitive pattern: ESCRT-0 and -I show a gradual and linear recruitment and dissociation, whereas ESCRT-III and its regulatory ATPase VPS4 display fast and transient dynamics. Electron microscopy shows that ILVs are formed consecutively, starting immediately after endocytic uptake of cargo proteins and correlating with the repeated ESCRT recruitment waves, unraveling the timing of ILV formation. Clathrin, recruited by ESCRT-0, is required for timely ESCRT-0 dissociation, efficient ILV formation, correct ILV size and cargo degradation. Thus, cargo sorting and ILV formation occur by concerted, coordinated and repetitive recruitment waves of individual ESCRT subcomplexes and are controlled by clathrin.
Project description:Eukaryotic endocytosis involves multivesicular bodies formation, which is driven by endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT). Here, we showed the presence and expression of homologous ESCRT genes in Entamoeba histolytica. We cloned and expressed the Ehvps4 gene, an ESCRT member, to obtain the recombinant EhVps4 and generate specific antibodies, which immunodetected EhVps4 in cytoplasm of trophozoites. Bioinformatics and biochemical studies evidenced that rEhVps4 is an ATPase, whose activity depends on the conserved E211 residue. Next, we generated trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4 and mutant EhVps4-E211Q FLAG-tagged proteins. The EhVps4-FLAG was located in cytosol and at plasma membrane, whereas the EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG was detected as abundant cytoplasmic dots in trophozoites. Erythrophagocytosis, cytopathic activity, and hepatic damage in hamsters were not improved in trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4-FLAG. In contrast, EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG protein overexpression impaired these properties. The localization of EhVps4-FLAG around ingested erythrocytes, together with our previous results, strengthens the role for EhVps4 in E. histolytica phagocytosis and virulence.
Project description:The efficient formation of a variety of transport vesicles is influenced by the presence of cargo, suggesting that cargo itself might have a defining role in vesicle biogenesis. However, definitive in vivo experiments supporting this concept are lacking, as it is difficult to eliminate endogenous cargo. The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) apparatus sorts ubiquitinated membrane proteins into endosomal intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) that accumulate within multivesicular bodies. Here we show that cargo ubiquitination is required for effective recruitment of the ESCRT machinery onto endosomal membranes and for the subsequent formation of ILVs.
Project description:The sorting of signaling receptors to lysosomes is an essential regulatory process in mammalian cells. During degradation, receptors are modified with ubiquitin and sorted by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-0, -I, -II, and -III complexes into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, it remains unclear whether a single universal mechanism mediates MVB sorting of all receptors. We previously showed that protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is internalized after activation and sorted to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and the ubiquitin-binding ESCRT components hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate and Tsg101. In this paper, we report that PAR1 sorted to ILVs of MVBs through an ESCRT-III-dependent pathway independent of ubiquitination. We further demonstrate that ALIX, a charged MVB protein 4-ESCRT-III interacting protein, bound to a YPX(3)L motif of PAR1 via its central V domain to mediate lysosomal degradation. This study reveals a novel MVB/lysosomal sorting pathway for signaling receptors that bypasses the requirement for ubiquitination and ubiquitin-binding ESCRTs and may be applicable to a subset of GPCRs containing YPX(n)L motifs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and causes amebiasis affecting developing countries. Phagocytosis of epithelial cells, erythrocytes, leucocytes, and commensal microbiota bacteria is a major pathogenic mechanism used by this parasite. A Toll/IL-1R/Resistance (TIR) domain-containing protein is required in phagocytosis in the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum, an ameba closely related to Entamoeba histolytica in phylogeny. In insects and vertebrates, TIR domain-containing proteins regulate phagocytic and cell activation. Therefore, we investigated whether E. histolytica expresses TIR domain-containing molecules that may be involved in the phagocytosis of erythrocytes and bacteria. METHODS: Using in silico analysis we explored in Entamoeba histolytica databases for TIR domain containing sequences. After silencing TIR domain containing sequences in trophozoites by siRNA we evaluated phagocytosis of erythrocytes and bacteria. RESULTS: We identified an E. histolytica thioredoxin containing a TIR-like domain. The secondary and tertiary structure of this sequence exhibited structural similarity to TIR domain family. Thioredoxin transcripts silenced in E. histolytica trophozoites decreased erythrocytes and E. coli phagocytosis. CONCLUSION: TIR domain-containing thioredoxin of E. histolytica could be an important element in erythrocytes and bacteria phagocytosis.