Early life Triclosan exposure and child adiposity at 8 Years of age: a prospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that may affect the gut microbiome and endocrine system to influence adiposity. However, little data from prospective studies examining prenatal and childhood exposures exist. We investigated the relationship between multiple, prospective early life measure of triclosan exposure and child adiposity. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 220 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, OH (enrolled 2003-2006), we quantified triclosan in urine samples collected twice during pregnancy, annually from 1 to 5 years of age, and once at 8 years. We assessed child adiposity at age 8 years using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and bioelectric impedance. We estimated covariate-adjusted associations of child adiposity with a 10-fold increase in average prenatal, average early childhood (average of 1-5 years), and 8-year triclosan concentrations.Among all children, there was no association between triclosan and child adiposity. While urinary triclosan concentrations at all three time periods were weakly, imprecisely, and inversely associated with all three measures of adiposity among girls, these associations did not differ significantly from those in boys (sex x triclosan p-values>?0.35). Among girls, the strongest associations were generally observed for prenatal triclosan when we adjusted for all three triclosan concentrations and covariates in the same model; BMI z-score (?: -0.13; 95% CI: -0.42, 0.15), waist circumference (?: -?1.7 cm; 95% CI: -4.2, 0.7), and percent body fat (? :-0.6; 95% CI: -2.7, 1.3). In contrast, the associations between triclosan concentrations and adiposity measures were inconsistent among boys.We did not observe evidence of an association of repeated urinary triclosan concentrations during pregnancy and childhood with measures of child adiposity at age 8 years in this cohort.
Project description:Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) may contribute to the development of obesity. Prospective evidence in humans on this topic is limited.We examined prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures in relation to childhood measures of adiposity in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) New York City birth cohort.BPA concentrations were measured in prenatal (n = 375) and child ages 3 (n = 408) and 5 years (n = 518) spot urine samples. Childhood anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance outcomes included body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) at 5 and 7 years, and fat mass index (FMI), percent body fat (%BF), and waist circumference (WC) at 7 years. Associations were evaluated using multiple linear regression with continuous and tertile BPA concentrations.Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were positively associated with child age 7 FMI (? = 0.31 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.60, p = 0.04), %BF (? = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.03, 1.55, p = 0.04), and WC (? = 1.29 cm; 95% CI: 0.29, 2.30, p = 0.01), but not BMIZ, or change in BMIZ between ages 5 and 7 years (all p-values > 0.1). FMI results were sex-specific. Child urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric outcomes (all p-values > 0.05).Analyses of the CCCEH longitudinal birth cohort found associations between prenatal urinary BPA concentrations and FMI, %BF, and WC. Our results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to developmental origins of adiposity. These findings are consistent with several prior studies, raising concern about the pervasiveness of BPA.Hoepner LA, Whyatt RM, Widen EM, Hassoun A, Oberfield SE, Mueller NT, Diaz D, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Rundle AG. 2016. Bisphenol A and adiposity in an inner-city birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1644-1650;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP205.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In cross-sectional studies triclosan and parabens, ubiquitous ingredients in personal care and other products, are associated with allergic disease. OBJECTIVES:We investigated the association between prenatal and early-life triclosan and paraben exposure and childhood allergic disease in a prospective longitudinal study. METHODS:Subjects were enrollees in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial. Triclosan, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben concentrations were quantified in maternal plasma samples pooled from the first and third trimesters and urine samples from children at age 3 or 4 years. Outcomes were parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma or recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization to food or environmental antigens based on serum specific IgE levels at age 3 years in high-risk children. RESULTS:The analysis included 467 mother-child pairs. Overall, there were no statistically significant associations of maternal plasma or child urine triclosan or paraben concentrations with asthma or recurrent wheeze or food or environmental sensitization at age 3 years. A trend toward an inverse association between triclosan and paraben exposure and allergic sensitization was observed. There was evidence of effect measure modification by sex, with higher odds of environmental sensitization associated with increasing paraben concentrations in male compared with female subjects. CONCLUSIONS:We did not identify a consistent association between prenatal and early-life triclosan or paraben concentrations and childhood asthma, recurrent wheeze, or allergic sensitization in the overall study population. The differential effects of triclosan or paraben exposure on allergic sensitization by sex observed in this study warrant further exploration.
Project description:Phenolic compounds represent a class of environmental chemicals with potentially endocrine-disrupting capabilities. We investigated longitudinal associations between childhood exposure to phenols, from both manmade and natural sources, and subsequent measures of adiposity among girls enrolled in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program between 2004 and 2007. Baseline (ages 6-8 years) urinary concentrations were obtained for creatinine and phenol metabolites: enterolactone, genistein, daidzein, benzophenone-3, bisphenol A, the sum of parabens (methyl, ethyl, and propyl parabens), 2,5-dichlorophenol, and triclosan. Body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), waist circumference, and percent body fat were measured at annual or semiannual examinations through 2015 (n = 1,017). Linear mixed-effects regression was used to estimate how baseline concentrations of phenols (tertile groups) were related to changes in girls' adiposity measurements from ages 7 through 15 years. Enterolactone was inversely associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and percent body fat, while 2,5-dichlorophenol was positively associated with these measurements. A nonmonotonic association was observed for triclosan and girls' adiposity; however, it was due to effect modification by baseline overweight status. Triclosan was positively associated with adiposity only among overweight girls. These results suggest that exposure to specific phenols during childhood may influence adiposity through adolescence.
Project description:Few studies have examined whether prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is associated with childhood adiposity.We examined associations of prenatal exposure to PFASs with adiposity in early and mid-childhood.We measured plasma PFAS concentrations in 1,645 pregnant women (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts (USA), between 1999 and 2002. We assessed overall and central adiposity in 1,006 children in early childhood (median, 3.2 years) and 876 in mid-childhood (median, 7.7 years) using anthropometric and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. We fitted multivariable linear regression models to estimate exposure-outcome associations and evaluated effect modification by child sex.Median (25-75th percentiles) prenatal plasma perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations in children assessed in early childhood were 5.6 (4.1-7.7), 24.8 (18.4-33.9), 2.4 (1.6-3.8), and 0.6 (0.5-0.9) ng/mL, respectively. Among girls, each interquartile range increment of prenatal PFOA concentrations was associated with 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.05, 0.48) higher body mass index, 0.76 mm (95% CI: -0.17, 1.70) higher sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, and 0.17 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.02, 0.36) higher DXA total fat mass index in mid-childhood. Similar associations were observed for PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA. We observed null associations for boys and early-childhood adiposity measures.In this cohort, prenatal exposure to PFASs was associated with small increases in adiposity measurements in mid-childhood, but only among girls. Citation: Mora AM, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Webster TF, Gillman MW, Calafat AM, Ye X, Sagiv SK. 2017. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and adiposity in early and mid-childhood. Environ Health Perspect 125:467-473;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP246.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and because of its use in many consumer products, exposure is ubiquitous. Gestational BPA exposure has been associated with excess adiposity in rodent studies, but not consistently in human studies. We investigated the relation between gestational BPA exposure and early childhood adiposity in a prospective cohort study of 719 mother-child pairs. METHODS:We used data from the MIREC Study, a prospective Pan-Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort study. We measured BPA in urine samples collected at an average of 12.1 weeks (range: 6.3-15 weeks) gestation and measured children's weight, height, waist/hip circumference, and subscapular/triceps skinfold thickness at an average age of 3.5 years (range: 1.9-6.2). We estimated covariate-adjusted associations of log2-transformed BPA concentrations with child adiposity measures and examined whether these associations differed in boys and girls. RESULTS:Median BPA concentrations were 0.8?ng/mL (IQR: 0.5-1.4). Among both boys and girls, each 2-fold increase in BPA concentrations was associated with higher waist-to-hip ratio (?: 0.003; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.005). The association of BPA with waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness was modified by sex (sex x BPA interaction p-values<0.2). In girls, each 2-fold increase in BPA concentrations was associated with a 0.2?cm (95% CI: 0.0, 0.5) and 0.15?mm (95% CI: 0.01, 0.30) increase in waist circumference and subscapular skinfolds, respectively. Associations were generally null or slightly inverse in boys. CONCLUSIONS:In this cohort, gestational urinary BPA concentrations were associated with subtle increases in girl's central adiposity during early childhood.
Project description:Early-life phthalate exposure may influence child adiposity, but prior studies have not determined if there are periods of enhanced vulnerability to phthalates.To examine the relationship between child adiposity at 8 y of age and repeated urinary biomarkers of phthalate exposure from gestation through childhood to determine if there are distinct periods of vulnerability.In 219 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio, we quantified nine urinary phthalate metabolites up to two times prenatally and six times from 1-8 y of age. We measured child body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat at 8 y of age. To identify periods of vulnerability, we used two statistical methods to estimate phthalate-adiposity associations at each visit, test differences in phthalate-adiposity associations across visits, and model trajectories of phthalate concentrations for children at different levels of adiposity.Prenatal phthalate concentrations were not associated with excess child adiposity. Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations during pregnancy and childhood were inversely associated with adiposity. The associations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (?DEHP) metabolites and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) with child adiposity depended on the timing of exposure. A 10-fold increase in ?DEHP at 1 and 5 y was associated with a 2.7% decrease [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8, -0.5] and 2.9% increase (95% CI: 0.3, 5.5) in body fat, respectively. MEP concentrations at 5 and 8 y of age were associated with higher child adiposity, but earlier childhood concentrations were not.In this cohort, we did not find evidence of an obesogenic effect of prenatal phthalate exposure. Positive associations between postnatal MEP and ?DEHP concentrations depended on the timing of exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1022.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Triclosan exposure may decrease circulating thyroxine levels or cause neuron apoptosis, which in turn may adversely affect neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined the association of early life triclosan exposure with child behavior. OBJECTIVE:To quantify the association between early-life triclosan exposure and child behavior at age 8-years in 202 mother-child pairs from the HOME study (Cincinnati, OH; enrolled: 2003-2006). METHODS:We quantified urinary triclosan concentrations up to 3 times in mothers (16-weeks, 26-weeks, and delivery) and up to 6 times in children (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8?years). Parents rated children's problem behaviors at age 8-years using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2). Adjusting for covariates and accounting for exposure measurement error, we estimated changes in behavior problem scores per 10-fold increase in mean gestational and childhood triclosan concentrations. In addition, we estimated sex-specific associations. RESULTS:Child sex modified the association of gestational and childhood triclosan with several BASC-2 scales (sex?×?triclosan p-values?<?0.2). In boys, increasing gestational triclosan was associated with higher behavioral symptom index (?: 4.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 8.1), externalizing problems (?: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 9.0), attention problem (?: 6.6; 95% CI: 2.4, 11), hyperactivity (?: 6.4; 95% CI: 2.1, 11), and somatization (?: 3.8; 95% CI: 0.3, 7.3) scores. In contrast, triclosan-BASC-2 associations in girls were generally null and not statistically significant. We observed similar patterns of associations between childhood triclosan and these same behavioral scores; however, their magnitude decreased substantially after adjusting for gestational triclosan and associations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION:In this cohort, increasing gestational and childhood urinary triclosan concentrations were associated with higher behavior problem scores in 8-year old boys, but not girls.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Animal studies suggest polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may be obesogens. However, epidemiologic studies investigating childhood exposure to PBDEs and adiposity are limited, with several reporting an inverse association. OBJECTIVES:To investigate associations between repeated childhood PBDE concentrations and adiposity measures at age 8?years. METHODS:We examined 206 children from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a birth cohort in Cincinnati, OH (2003-2006). Serum PBDEs were measured at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8?years. We used multiple imputation to estimate missing PBDE concentrations. At 8?years, we measured weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. We used multiple informant models to estimate age-specific associations between PBDEs and adiposity measures. RESULTS:We observed significant inverse associations between BDE-153 with all adiposity measures that became increasingly stronger with later childhood measurements. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 at ages 1 and 8?years was associated with 2% (95% CI -3.9, -0.1) and 7% (95% CI -9.1, -4.7) lower body fat, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found with BDE-28, -47, -99, or -100. Child sex modified some associations; inverse associations between BDE-153 and body fat were stronger among boys, while positive and null associations were noted among girls. CONCLUSIONS:Childhood BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with adiposity measures and these associations became stronger as BDE-153 measurements were more proximal to adiposity measures. Inverse associations could be attributed to reverse causality arising from greater storage of PBDEs in adipose tissue of children with higher adiposity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to triclosan, an antimicrobial chemical, is ubiquitous among pregnant women and may reduce thyroid hormone levels that are important for fetal neurodevelopment. Few studies have examined the association between prenatal triclosan exposure and children's neurobehavior. OBJECTIVE:We investigated the relationship of prenatal urinary triclosan concentrations with children's behavior and cognitive abilities at age three years in a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort in Canada. METHODS:We measured triclosan in urine samples collected at ~12?weeks of gestation in 794 Canadian women enrolled in a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort study (MIREC) from 2008 to 2011. Around age 3?years, we assessed children's cognitive abilities using the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence-III (WPPSI-III), and two scales of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P). Parents reported children's problem and reciprocal social behaviors using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) and Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2), respectively. RESULTS:After adjusting for confounders using multivariable linear regression, triclosan was not associated with most of the 30 examined neurobehavioral scales. Each 10-fold increase in triclosan was associated with better WPPSI-III picture completion scores (?: 0.2; 95% CI: 0,0.5) and BASC-2 externalizing (?: -0.5; 95% CI: -1.1, 0) and hyperactivity (?: -0.6; 95% CI: -1.2, -0.1) scores, suggesting less externalizing and hyperactive behaviors. Child sex did not modify these associations. CONCLUSIONS:In this cohort, urinary triclosan concentrations measured once in early pregnancy were not associated with most assessed aspects of neurobehavior and weakly associated with a few others, but not in the hypothesized direction.
Project description:Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation.