100 Days of marine Synechococcus-Ruegeria pomeroyi interaction: A detailed analysis of the exoproteome.
ABSTRACT: Marine phototroph and heterotroph interactions are vital in maintaining the nutrient balance in the oceans as essential nutrients need to be rapidly cycled before sinking to aphotic layers. The aim of this study was to highlight the molecular mechanisms that drive these interactions. For this, we generated a detailed exoproteomic time-course analysis of a 100-day co-culture between the model marine picocyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 and the Roseobacter strain Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, both in nutrient-enriched and natural oligotrophic seawater. The proteomic data showed a transition between the initial growth phase and stable-state phase that, in the case of the heterotroph, was caused by a switch in motility attributed to organic matter availability. The phototroph adapted to seawater oligotrophy by reducing its selective leakiness, increasing the acquisition of essential nutrients and secreting conserved proteins of unknown function. We also report a surprisingly high abundance of extracellular superoxide dismutase produced by Synechococcus and a dynamic secretion of potential hydrolytic enzyme candidates used by the heterotroph to cleave organic groups and hydrolase polymeric organic matter produced by the cyanobacterium. The time course dataset we present here will become a reference for understanding the molecular processes underpinning marine phototroph-heterotroph interactions.
Project description:Biological interactions underpin the functioning of marine ecosystems, be it via competition, predation, mutualism or symbiosis processes. Microbial phototroph-heterotroph interactions propel the engine that results in the biogeochemical cycling of individual elements, and they are critical for understanding and modelling global ocean processes. Unfortunately, studies thus far have focused on exponentially growing cultures in nutrient-rich media, meaning knowledge of such interactions under in situ conditions is rudimentary at best. Here, we have performed long-term phototroph-heterotroph co-culture experiments under nutrient-amended and natural seawater conditions, and show that it is not the concentration of nutrients but rather their circulation that maintains a stable interaction and a dynamic system. Using the Synechococcus-Roseobacter interaction as a model phototroph-heterotroph case study, we show that although Synechococcus is highly specialized for carrying out photosynthesis and carbon fixation, it relies on the heterotroph to remineralize the inevitably leaked organic matter, making nutrients circulate in a mutualistic system. In this sense we challenge the general belief that marine phototrophs and heterotrophs compete for the same scarce nutrients and niche space, and instead suggest that these organisms more probably benefit from each other because of their different levels of specialization and complementarity within long-term stable-state systems.
Project description:Microbial photoautotroph-heterotroph interactions underlie marine food webs and shape ecosystem diversity and structure in upper ocean environments. Here, bacterial community composition, lifestyle preference, and genomic- and proteomic-level metabolic characteristics were investigated for an open ocean Synechococcus ecotype and its associated heterotrophs over 91?days of cocultivation. The associated heterotrophic bacterial assembly mostly constituted five classes, including Flavobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Phycisphaerae, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria The seven most abundant taxa/genera comprised >90% of the total heterotrophic bacterial community, and five of these displayed distinct lifestyle preferences (free-living or attached) and responses to Synechococcus growth phases. Six high-quality genomes, including Synechococcus and the five dominant heterotrophic bacteria, were reconstructed. The only primary producer of the coculture system, Synechococcus, displayed metabolic processes primarily involved in inorganic nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, and organic matter biosynthesis and release. Two of the flavobacterial populations, Muricauda and Winogradskyella, and an SM1A02 population, displayed preferences for initial degradation of complex compounds and biopolymers, as evinced by high abundances of TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs), glycoside hydrolase, and peptidase proteins. Polysaccharide utilization loci present in the flavobacterial genomes influence their lifestyle preferences and close associations with phytoplankton. In contrast, the alphaproteobacterium Oricola sp. population mainly utilized low-molecular-weight dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through ATP-binding cassette (ABC), tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP), and tripartite tricarboxylate transporter (TTT) transport systems. The heterotrophic bacterial populations exhibited complementary mechanisms for degrading Synechococcus-derived organic matter and driving nutrient cycling. In addition to nutrient exchange, removal of reactive oxygen species and vitamin trafficking might also contribute to the maintenance of the Synechococcus-heterotroph coculture system and the interactions shaping the system.IMPORTANCE The high complexity of in situ ecosystems renders it difficult to study marine microbial photoautotroph-heterotroph interactions. Two-member coculture systems of picocyanobacteria and single heterotrophic bacterial strains have been thoroughly investigated. However, in situ interactions comprise far more diverse heterotrophic bacterial associations with single photoautotrophic organisms. In the present study, combined metagenomic and metaproteomic data supplied the metabolic potentials and activities of uncultured dominant bacterial populations in the coculture system. The results of this study shed light on the nature of interactions between photoautotrophs and heterotrophs, improving our understanding of the complexity of in situ environments.
Project description:Polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are aliphatic organic compounds with multiple amino groups. They are found ubiquitously in marine systems. However, compared with the extensive studies on the concentration and fate of other dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in seawater, such as dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), investigations of bacterially-mediated polyamine transformations have been rare. Bioinformatic analysis identified genes encoding polyamine transporters in 74 of 109 marine bacterial genomes surveyed, a surprising frequency for a class of organic nitrogen compounds not generally recognized as an important source of carbon and nitrogen for marine bacterioplankton. The genome sequence of marine model bacterium Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3 contains a number of genes putatively involved in polyamine use, including six four-gene ATP-binding cassette transport systems. In the present study, polyamine uptake and metabolism by S. pomeroyi was examined to confirm the role of putative polyamine-related genes, and to investigate how well current gene annotations reflect function. A comparative whole-genome microarray approach (Bürgmann et al., 2007) allowed us to identify key genes for transport and metabolism of spermidine in this bacterium, and specify candidate genes for in situ monitoring of polyamine transformations in marine bacterioplankton communities. Overall design: Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3 cells were grown in chemostat in a modified marine basal medium (MBM) containing spermidine as sole carbon and nitrogen source. Serine was used as a substrate to provide comparative data for an amino acid. After reach stable condition, total RNA were extracted, mRNA were purified and aa-aRNA were amplified and fluoresently labled before hybridize on array chips. The array design is described in Burgmann et al., 2007
Project description:Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 strictly depends upon the generation of photosynthetically derived energy for growth and is incapable of biomass increase in the absence of light energy. Obligate phototrophs' core metabolism is very similar to that of heterotrophic counterparts exhibiting diverse trophic behavior. Most characterized cyanobacterial species are obligate photoautotrophs under examined conditions. Here we determine that sugar transporter systems are the necessary genetic factors in order for a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, to grow continuously under diurnal (light/dark) conditions using saccharides such as glucose, xylose, and sucrose. While the universal causes of obligate photoautotrophy may be diverse, installing sugar transporters provides new insight into the mode of obligate photoautotrophy for cyanobacteria. Moreover, cyanobacterial chemical production has gained increased attention. However, this obligate phototroph is incapable of product formation in the absence of light. Thus, converting an obligate photoautotroph to a heterotroph is desirable for more efficient, economical, and controllable production systems.
Project description:The marine picocyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 possesses two glutamine synthetases (GSs; EC 22.214.171.124), GSI encoded by glnA and GSIII encoded by glnN. This is the first work addressing the physiological regulation of both enzymes in a marine cyanobacterial strain. The increase of GS activity upon nitrogen starvation was similar to that found in other model cyanobacteria. However, an unusual response was found when cells were grown under darkness: the GS activity was unaffected, reflecting adaptation to the environment where they thrive. On the other hand, we found that GSIII did not respond to nitrogen availability, in sharp contrast with the results observed for this enzyme in other cyanobacteria thus far studied. These features suggest that GS activities in Synechococcus sp. WH7803 represent an intermediate step in the evolution of cyanobacteria, in a process of regulatory streamlining where GSI lost the regulation by light, while GSIII lost its responsiveness to nitrogen. This is in good agreement with the phylogeny of Synechococcus sp. WH7803 in the context of the marine cyanobacterial radiation.
Project description:The exported protein fraction of an organism may reflect its life strategy and, ultimately, the way it is perceived by the outside world. Bioinformatic prediction of the exported pan-proteome of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus lineages demonstrated that (i) this fraction of the encoded proteome had a much higher incidence of lineage-specific proteins than the cytosolic fraction (57% and 73% homologue incidence respectively) and (ii) exported proteins are largely uncharacterized to date (54%) compared with proteins from the cytosolic fraction (35%). This suggests that the genomic and functional diversity of these organisms lies largely in the diverse pool of novel functions these organisms export to/through their membranes playing a key role in community diversification, e.g. for niche partitioning or evading predation. Experimental exoproteome analysis of marine Synechococcus showed transport systems for inorganic nutrients, an interesting array of strain-specific exoproteins involved in mutualistic or hostile interactions (i.e. hemolysins, pilins, adhesins), and exoenzymes with a potential mixotrophic goal (i.e. exoproteases and chitinases). We also show how these organisms can remodel their exoproteome, i.e. by increasing the repertoire of interaction proteins when grown in the presence of a heterotroph or decrease exposure to prey when grown in the dark. Finally, our data indicate that heterotrophic bacteria can feed on the exoproteome of Synechococcus.
Project description:In the Chesapeake Bay, picocyanobacteria were usually 100-fold less abundant in winter than in summer. However, little is known about how picocyanobacterial populations shift between winter and summer in the bay. This is due mainly to undetectable winter picocyanobacterial populations in bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries. In this study, the winter and summer picocyanobacterial populations in the bay were detected using picocyanobacterium-specific primers and were compared based on the analysis of rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Temperature was found to be the dominant environmental factor controlling picocyanobacterial populations in the Chesapeake Bay. In the summer, marine cluster B Synechococcus dominated the upper bay, while a unique cluster, CB1 (marine cluster A [MC-A] Synechococcus), made up the vast majority in the middle and lower bay. In the winter, the picocyanobacteria shifted to completely different populations. Subclades CB6 and CB7, which belong to MC-A Synechococcus and Cyanobium, respectively, made up the entire winter picocyanobacterial populations in the bay. Interestingly, the winter members in subclade CB6 clustered closely with Synechococcus CC9311, a coastal strain known to have a greater capacity to sense and respond to changing environments than oceanic strains.
Project description:Polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are aliphatic organic compounds with multiple amino groups. They are found ubiquitously in marine systems. However, compared with the extensive studies on the concentration and fate of other dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in seawater, such as dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), investigations of bacterially-mediated polyamine transformations have been rare. Bioinformatic analysis identified genes encoding polyamine transporters in 74 of 109 marine bacterial genomes surveyed, a surprising frequency for a class of organic nitrogen compounds not generally recognized as an important source of carbon and nitrogen for marine bacterioplankton. The genome sequence of marine model bacterium Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3 contains a number of genes putatively involved in polyamine use, including six four-gene ATP-binding cassette transport systems. In the present study, polyamine uptake and metabolism by S. pomeroyi was examined to confirm the role of putative polyamine-related genes, and to investigate how well current gene annotations reflect function. A comparative whole-genome microarray approach (Bürgmann et al., 2007) allowed us to identify key genes for transport and metabolism of spermidine in this bacterium, and specify candidate genes for in situ monitoring of polyamine transformations in marine bacterioplankton communities. Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3 cells were grown in chemostat in a modified marine basal medium (MBM) containing spermidine as sole carbon and nitrogen source. Serine was used as a substrate to provide comparative data for an amino acid. After reach stable condition, total RNA were extracted, mRNA were purified and aa-aRNA were amplified and fluoresently labled before hybridize on array chips. The array design is described in Burgmann et al., 2007
Project description:The assimilation of organic nutrients by autotrophs, a form of mixotrophy, has been demonstrated in the globally abundant marine picocyanobacterial genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. However, the range of compounds used and the distribution of organic compound uptake genes within picocyanobacteria are unknown. Here we analyze genomic and metagenomic data from around the world to determine the extent and distribution of mixotrophy in these phototrophs. Analysis of 49 Prochlorococcus and 18 Synechococcus isolate genomes reveals that all have the transporters necessary to take up amino acids, peptides and sugars. However, the number and type of transporters and associated catabolic genes differ between different phylogenetic groups, with low-light IV Prochlorococcus, and 5.1B, 5.2 and 5.3 Synechococcus strains having the largest number. Metagenomic data from 68 stations from the Tara Oceans expedition indicate that the genetic potential for mixotrophy in picocyanobacteria is globally distributed and differs between clades. Phylogenetic analyses indicate gradual organic nutrient transporter gene loss from the low-light IV to the high-light II Prochlorococcus. The phylogenetic differences in genetic capacity for mixotrophy, combined with the ubiquity of picocyanobacterial organic compound uptake genes suggests that mixotrophy has a more central role in picocyanobacterial ecology than was previously thought.
Project description:Marine picocyanobacteria belonging to Synechococcus are major contributors to the global carbon cycle, however the genomic information of its cold-adapted members has been lacking to date. To fill this void the genome of a cold-adapted planktonic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. CS-601 (SynAce01) has been sequenced. The genome of the strain contains a single chromosome of approximately 2.75 MBp and GC content of 63.92%. Gene prediction yielded 2984 protein coding sequences and 44 tRNA genes. The genome contained evidence of horizontal gene transfer events during its evolution. CS-601 appears as a transport generalist with some specific adaptation to an oligotrophic marine environment. It has a broad repertoire of transporters of both inorganic and organic nutrients to survive in inhospitable environments. The cold adaptation of the strain exhibited characteristics of a psychrotroph rather than psychrophile. Its salt adaptation strategy is likely to rely on the uptake and synthesis of osmolytes, like glycerol or glycine betaine. Overall, the genome reveals two distinct patterns of adaptation to the inhospitable environment of Antarctica. Adaptation to an oligotrophic marine environment is likely due to an abundance of genes, probably acquired horizontally, that are associated with increased transport of nutrients, osmolytes, and light harvesting. On the other hand, adaptations to low temperatures are likely due to prolonged evolutionary changes.