NFAT-mediated defects in erythropoiesis cause anemia in Il2-/- mice.
ABSTRACT: The role of NFAT family transcription factors in erythropoiesis is so far unknown, although their involvement has been suggested previously. We have shown recently that Il2-/- mice develop severe anemia due to defects in KLF1 activity during BM erythropoiesis. Although, KLF1 activity is indispensable for erythropoiesis, the molecular details of Klf1 expression have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that an enhanced NFATc1 activity induced by increased integrin-cAMP signaling plays a critical role in the dysregulation of Klf1 expression and thereby cause anemia in Il2-/- mice. Interestingly, enhanced NFATc1 activity augmented apoptosis of immature erythrocytes in Il2-/- mice. On the other hand, ablation of NFATc1 activity enhanced differentiation of Ter119+ cells in BM. Restoring IL-2 signaling in Il2-/- mice reversed the increase in cAMP-NFAT signaling and facilitated normal erythropoiesis. Altogether, our study identified an NFAT-mediated negative signaling axis, manipulation of which could facilitate erythropoiesis and prevent anemia development.
Project description:A key regulatory gene in definitive erythropoiesis is the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 1 (Klf1). Klf1 null mice die in utero by day 15.5 (E15.5) due to impaired definitive erythropoiesis and severe anemia. Definitive erythropoiesis takes place in erythroblastic islands in mammals. Erythroblastic islands are formed by a central macrophage (Central Macrophage of Erythroblastic Island, CMEI) surrounded by maturating erythroblasts. Interferon-? (IFN-?) is activated in the fetal liver's CMEI of Klf1 null mice. The inhibitory effect of IFN-? on erythropoiesis is known and, therefore, we speculated that IFN-? could have contributed to the impairment of definitive erythropoiesis in Klf1 knockout (KO) mice fetal liver. To validate this hypothesis, in this work we determined whether the inactivation of type I interferon receptor (Ifnar1) would ameliorate the phenotype of Klf1 KO mice by improving the lethal anemia. Our results show a prolonged survival of Klf1/Ifnar1 double KO embryos, with an improvement of the definitive erythropoiesis and erythroblast enucleation, together with a longer lifespan of CMEI in the fetal liver and also a restoration of the apoptotic program. Our data indicate that the cytotoxic effect of IFN-? activation in CMEI contribute to the impairment of definitive erythropoiesis associated with Klf1 deprivation.
Project description:The role of IL-2 in HSC maintenance is unknown. Here we show that Il2-/- mice develop severe anomalies in HSC maintenance leading to defective hematopoiesis. Whereas, lack of IL-2 signaling was detrimental for lympho- and erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis was enhanced in Il2-/- mice. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of dysregulated hematopoiesis in Il2-/- mice shows that the IL-2-Treg cell axis is indispensable for HSC maintenance and normal hematopoiesis. Lack of Treg activity resulted in increased IFN-? production by activated T cells and an expansion of the HSCs in the bone marrow (BM). Though, restoring Treg population successfully rescued HSC maintenance in Il2-/- mice, preventing IFN-? activity could do the same even in the absence of Treg cells. Our study suggests that equilibrium in IL-2 and IFN-? activity is critical for steady state hematopoiesis, and in clinical conditions of BM failure, IL-2 or anti-IFN-? treatment might help to restore hematopoiesis.
Project description:An important comorbidity of chronic inflammation is anemia, which may be related to dysregulated activity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Among HSPCs, we found that the receptor for IL-33, ST2, is expressed preferentially and highly on erythroid progenitors. Induction of inflammatory spondyloarthritis in mice increased IL-33 in BM plasma, and IL-33 was required for inflammation-dependent suppression of erythropoiesis in BM. Conversely, administration of IL-33 in healthy mice suppressed erythropoiesis, decreased hemoglobin expression, and caused anemia. Using purified erythroid progenitors in vitro, we show that IL-33 directly inhibited terminal maturation. This effect was dependent on NF-?B activation and associated with altered signaling events downstream of the erythropoietin receptor. Accordingly, IL-33 also suppressed erythropoietin-accelerated erythropoiesis in vivo. These results reveal a role for IL-33 in pathogenesis of anemia during inflammatory disease and define a new target for its treatment.
Project description:The Krüppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) and KLF2 positively regulate embryonic ?-globin expression and have additional overlapping roles in embryonic (primitive) erythropoiesis. KLF1(-/-) KLF2(-/-) double knockout mice are anemic at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and die by E11.5, in contrast to single knockouts. To investigate the combined roles of KLF1 and KLF2 in primitive erythropoiesis, expression profiling of E9.5 erythroid cells was performed. A limited number of genes had a significantly decreasing trend of expression in wild-type, KLF1(-/-), and KLF1(-/-) KLF2(-/-) mice. Among these, the gene for Myc (c-Myc) emerged as a central node in the most significant gene network. The expression of the Myc gene is synergistically regulated by KLF1 and KLF2, and both factors bind the Myc promoters. To characterize the role of Myc in primitive erythropoiesis, ablation was performed specifically in mouse embryonic proerythroblast cells. After E9.5, these embryos exhibit an arrest in the normal expansion of circulating red cells and develop anemia, analogous to KLF1(-/-) KLF2(-/-) embryos. In the absence of Myc, circulating erythroid cells do not show the normal increase in ?- and ?-like globin gene expression but, interestingly, have accelerated erythroid cell maturation between E9.5 and E11.5. This study reveals a novel regulatory network by which KLF1 and KLF2 regulate Myc to control the primitive erythropoietic program.
Project description:Anemic Nan mice carry a mutation (E339D) in the second zinc finger of erythroid transcription factor KLF1. Nan-KLF1 fails to bind a subset of normal KLF1 targets and ectopically binds a large set of genes not normally engaged by KLF1, resulting in a corrupted fetal liver transcriptome. Here, we performed RNAseq using flow cytometric-sorted spleen erythroid precursors from adult Nan and WT littermates rendered anemic by phlebotomy to identify global transcriptome changes specific to the Nan Klf1 mutation as opposed to anemia generally. Mutant Nan-KLF1 leads to extensive and progressive transcriptome corruption in adult spleen erythroid precursors such that stress erythropoiesis is severely compromised. Terminal erythroid differentiation is defective in the bone marrow as well. Principle component analysis reveals two major patterns of differential gene expression predicting that defects in basic cellular processes including translation, cell cycle, and DNA repair could contribute to disordered erythropoiesis and anemia in Nan. Significant erythroid precursor stage specific changes were identified in some of these processes in Nan. Remarkably, however, despite expression changes in large numbers of associated genes, most basic cellular processes were intact in Nan indicating that developing red cells display significant physiological resiliency and establish new homeostatic set points in vivo.
Project description:KLF1 regulates definitive erythropoiesis of red blood cells by facilitating transcription through high affinity binding to CACCC elements within its erythroid specific target genes including those encoding erythrocyte membrane skeleton (EMS) proteins. Deficiencies of EMS proteins in humans lead to the hemolytic anemia Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) which includes a subpopulation with no known genetic defect. Here we report that a mutation, E339D, in the second zinc finger domain of KLF1 is responsible for HS in the mouse model Nan. The causative nature of this mutation was verified with an allelic test cross between Nan/+ and heterozygous Klf1(+/-) knockout mice. Homology modeling predicted Nan KLF1 binds CACCC elements more tightly, suggesting that Nan KLF1 is a competitive inhibitor of wild-type KLF1. This is the first association of a KLF1 mutation with a disease state in adult mammals and also presents the possibility of being another causative gene for HS in humans.
Project description:Anemia of inflammation (AI) is the second most prevalent anemia after iron deficiency anemia and results in persistent low blood erythrocytes and hemoglobin, fatigue, weakness, and early death. Anemia of inflammation is common in people with chronic inflammation, chronic infections, or sepsis. Although several studies have reported the effect of inflammation on stress erythropoiesis and iron homeostasis, the mechanisms by which inflammation suppresses erythropoiesis in the bone marrow (BM), where differentiation and maturation of erythroid cells from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) occurs, have not been extensively studied. Here we show that in a mouse model of acute sepsis, bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) suppress medullary erythroblastic islands (EBIs) and erythropoiesis in a TLR-4- and MyD88-dependent manner with concomitant mobilization of HSCs. LPS suppressive effect on erythropoiesis is indirect as erythroid progenitors and erythroblasts do not express TLR-4 whereas EBI macrophages do. Using cytokine receptor gene knock-out mice LPS-induced mobilization of HSCs is G-CSF-dependent whereas LPS-induced suppression of medullary erythropoiesis does not require G- CSF-, IL- 1-, or TNF-mediated signaling. Therefore suppression of medullary erythropoiesis and mobilization of HSCs in response to LPS are mechanistically distinct. Our findings also suggest that EBI macrophages in the BM may sense innate immune stimuli in response to acute inflammation or infections to rapidly convert to a pro-inflammatory function at the expense of their erythropoietic function.
Project description:Both nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) and nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) are Rel homology domain (RHD)-containing transcription factors whose independent activities are critically involved in regulating cardiac hypertrophy and failure.To determine the potential functional interaction between NFAT and NF?B signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes and its role in cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.We identified a novel transcriptional regulatory mechanism whereby NF?B and NFAT directly interact and synergistically promote transcriptional activation in cardiomyocytes. We show that the p65 subunit of NF?B coimmunoprecipitates with NFAT in cardiomyocytes, and this interaction maps to the RHD within p65. Overexpression of the p65-RHD disrupts the association between endogenous p65 and NFATc1, leading to reduced transcriptional activity. Overexpression of I?B kinase ? (IKK?) or p65-RHD causes nuclear translocation of NFATc1, and expression of a constitutively nuclear NFATc1-SA mutant similarly facilitated p65 nuclear translocation. Combined overexpression of p65 and NFATc1 promotes synergistic activation of NFAT transcriptional activity in cardiomyocytes, whereas inhibition of NF?B with I?B?M or dominant negative IKK? reduces NFAT activity. Importantly, agonist-induced NFAT activation is reduced in p65 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) compared with wild-type MEFs. In vivo, cardiac-specific deletion of p65 using a Cre-loxP system causes a ?50% reduction in NFAT activity in luciferase reporter mice. Moreover, ablation of p65 in the mouse heart decreases the hypertrophic response after pressure overload stimulation, reduces the degree of pathological remodeling, and preserves contractile function.Our results suggest a direct interaction between NFAT and NF?B that effectively integrates 2 disparate signaling pathways in promoting cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling.
Project description:Krüppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) regulates erythroid lineage commitment, globin switching, and the terminal maturation of red blood cells. Variants in human KLF1 have been identified as an important causative factor in a wide spectrum of phenotypes. This study investigated two unrelated male children in China who had refractory anemia associated with poikilocythemia. These were accompanied by an upregulation of biochemical markers of hemolysis, along with abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) level and elevated reticulocyte counts. Next-generation sequencing revealed that the patients were compound heterozygotes for a KLF1 frameshift mutation c.525_526insCGGCGCC (p.(Gly176ArgfsTer179)) and one of two missense variants, c.892?G>C (p.(Ala298Pro)) and c.1012C>T (p.(Pro338Ser)). The subjects had microcytic hypochromic anemia, and their healthy parents had single mutation. The two missense mutations affected a highly conserved codon in the zinc finger DNA-binding domain of KLF1, but the protein stability was unaffected in K-562 cells. A KLF1-targeted promoter-reporter assay showed that the two mutations reduce the expression of the HBB, BCL11A, and CD44 genes involved in erythropoiesis, with consequent dyserythropoiesis and an ?/non-? chain imbalance. A systematic analysis was performed of the phenotypes associated with the KLF1 mutations in the two families, and the clinical characteristics and differential diagnoses of the disease are presented. This is the first report of an autosomal recessive anemia presenting with microcytic hypochromia, abnormal Hb profile, and other distinctive erythrocyte phenotypes, and provides insight into the multiple roles of KLF1 during erythropoiesis.
Project description:NFATc1 transcription factor is critical for lineage selection in T-cell differentiation, cardiac valve morphogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We identified a role for calcineurin-NFAT signaling in lymphatic development and patterning. NFATc1 was colocalized with lymphatic markers Prox-1, VEGFR-3 and podoplanin on cardinal vein as lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) are specified and as they segregate into lymph sacs and mature lymphatics. In NFATc1 null mice, Prox-1, VEGFR-3 and podoplanin positive endothelial cells sprouted from the cardinal vein at E11.5, but poorly coalesced into lymph sacs. NFAT activation requires the phosphatase calcineurin. Embryos treated in utero with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine-A showed cytoplasmic NFATc1, diminished podoplanin and FGFR-3 expression by the lymphatics and irregular patterning of the LEC sprouts coming off the jugular lymph sac, which suggests a role for calcineurin-NFAT signaling in lymphatic patterning. In a murine model of injury-induced lymphangiogenesis, NFATc1 was expressed on the neolymphatics induced by lung-specific overexpression of VEGF-A. Mice lacking the calcineurin Abeta regulatory subunit, with diminished nuclear NFAT, failed to respond to VEGF-A with increased lymphangiogenesis. In vitro, endogenous and VEGF-A-induced VEGFR-3 and podoplanin expression by human microvascular endothelial cells was reduced by siRNA to NFATc1, to levels comparable to reductions seen with siRNA to Prox-1. In reporter assays, NFATc1 activated lymphatic specific gene promoters. These results demonstrate the role of calcineurin-NFAT pathway in lymphangiogenesis and suggest that NFATc1 is the principle NFAT involved.