Interleukin 17 and peripheral IL-17-expressing T cells are negatively correlated with the overall survival of head and neck cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: The presence and clinical significance of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-17-expressing cells have recently been studied in several types of cancer, but their correlation to tumor development remains controversial. Additionally, the contribution of peripheral IL-17-expressing cells to head and neck cancer (HNC) progression is still poorly understood. We collected peripheral blood from healthy donors and HNC patients to isolate PBMCs. The percentages of IL-17-expressing cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines in PBMCs were measured to determine their association with clinical outcomes and overall survival in HNC. We evaluated the effect and potential mechanism of IL-17 on human oral squamous carcinomas in vitro using exogenous IL-17 stimulation. In comparison to healthy donors, the PBMCs of HNC patients have a significant accumulation of IL-17-expressing T cells and their frequencies were positively correlated with the disease stage. A significantly higher production of PBMC IL-17, TGF-? and IL-21 and plasma VEGF-A were found in HNC patients. Importantly, the 5-years overall survival of HNC patients with a higher percentage of IL-17-expressing cells is significantly decreased. Furthermore, the addition of IL-17 appeared to promote human oral squamous carcinoma cell proliferation via the production of IL-6 and VEGF-A. Our findings suggest that IL-17 has the potential to mediate pro-tumor immunity in the HNC tumor microenvironment. Enhanced IL-17-expressing cells, including Th17 and Tc17 cells, in the peripheral blood could be a significant predictor of a poor prognosis for HNC patients.
Project description:Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disorder affecting millions of people worldwide and inflammation resulting from the immune response targeting Propionibacterium acnes has a significant role in its pathogenesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that P. acnes is a potent inducer of T helper 17 (Th17) and Th1, but not Th2 responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). P. acnes stimulated expression of key Th17-related genes, including IL-17A, ROR?, RORc, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC, and triggered IL-17 secretion from CD4(+), but not from CD8(+) T cells. Supernatants from P. acnes-stimulated PBMCs were sufficient to promote the differentiation of naive CD4(+)CD45RA T cells into Th17 cells. Furthermore, we found that the combination of IL-1?, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-?-neutralizing antibodies completely inhibited P. acnes-induced IL-17 production. Importantly, we showed that IL-17-expressing cells were present in skin biopsies from acne patients but not from normal donors. Finally, vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid) and vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) inhibited P. acnes-induced Th17 differentiation. Together, our data demonstrate that IL-17 is induced by P. acnes and expressed in acne lesions and that both vitamin A and D could be effective tools to modulate Th17-mediated diseases such as acne.
Project description:Pollution, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), may contribute to increased prevalence of asthma. PAH can bind to the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), a transcription factor involved in Th17/Th22 type polarization. These cells produce IL17A and IL-22, which allow neutrophil recruitment, airway smooth muscle proliferation and tissue repair and remodeling. Increased IL-17 and IL-22 productions have been associated with asthma. We hypothesized that PAH might affect, through their effects on AhR, IL-17 and IL-22 production in allergic asthmatics. Activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 16 nonallergic nonasthmatic (NA) and 16 intermittent allergic asthmatic (AA) subjects were incubated with PAH, and IL-17 and IL-22 productions were assessed. At baseline, activated PBMCs from AA exhibited an increased IL-17/IL-22 profile compared with NA subjects. Diesel exhaust particle (DEP)-PAH and Benzo[a]Pyrene (B[a]P) stimulation further increased IL-22 but decreased IL-17A production in both groups. The PAH-induced IL-22 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Among PBMCs, PAH-induced IL-22 expression originated principally from single IL-22- but not from IL-17- expressing CD4 T cells. The Th17 transcription factors RORA and RORC were down regulated, whereas AhR target gene CYP1A1 was upregulated. IL-22 induction by DEP-PAH was mainly dependent upon AhR whereas IL-22 induction by B[a]P was dependent upon activation of PI3K and JNK. Altogether, these data suggest that DEP-PAH and B[a]P may contribute to increased IL22 production in both healthy and asthmatic subjects through mechanisms involving both AhR -dependent and -independent pathways.
Project description:IL17-dependent autoimmunity to collagen type V (Col V) has been associated with lung transplant obliterative bronchiolitis. Unlike the T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent immune responses to Tetanus Toxoid (TT), the Th17 response to Col V in lung transplant patients and its Th1/17 variant observed in coronary artery disease patients requires IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor ? and CD14(+) cells. Given the involvement of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in monocyte IL-1? responses, we investigated its role in Th17-, Th1/17- and Th1-mediated proinflammatory responses. Transfer of antigen-pulsed peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) from Col V-reactive patients into SCID mouse footpads along with P2X7R antagonists revealed a selective inhibition of Col V-, but not TT-specific swelling responses. P2X7R inhibitors blocked IL-1? induction from monocytes, including both Col V-?1 peptide-induced (T-dependent), as well as native Col V-induced (T-independent) responses. Significantly higher P2X7R expression was found on CXCR3(neg) CCR4(+)/6(+) CD4(+) [Th17] versus CXCR3(+)CCR4/6(neg) CD4(+) [Th1] subsets in PBMCs, suggesting that the paradigm of selective dependence on P2X7R might extend beyond Col V autoimmunity. Indeed, P2X7R inhibitors suppressed not only anti-Col V, but also Th1/17-mediated alloimmunity, in a heart transplant patient without affecting anti-viral Epstein-Barr virus responses. These results suggest that agents targeting the P2X7R might effectively treat Th17-related transplant pathologies, while maintaining Th1-immunity to infection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>IL-17 and IL-22 cytokines play an important role in protective immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Information on the production of these cytokines and the factors that regulate their production in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or active tuberculosis disease (ATB) is limited. In the current study, we compared the production of these two cytokines by PBMC of HIV-LTBI+ and HIV?+?LTBI+ individuals in response to Mtb antigens CFP-10 (culture filtrate protein) and ESAT-6 (Early Secretory Antigenic Target). We also determined the mechanisms involved in their production.<h4>Methods</h4>We cultured Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from HIV- individuals and HIV+ patients with latent tuberculosis and active disease with CFP-10 and ESAT-6. Production of IL-17, IL-22 and PD1 (Programmed Death 1), ICOS (Inducible T-cell Costimulator), IL-23R and FoxP3 (Forkhead box P3) expression on CD4+ T cells was measured.<h4>Results</h4>In response to Mtb antigens CFP-10 and ESAT-6, freshly isolated PBMCs from HIV+ LTBI+ and HIV+ active TB patients produced less IL-17 and IL-22 and more IL-10, expressed less IL-23R, and more PD1 and expanded to more FoxP3+ cells. Active TB infection in HIV+ individuals further inhibited antigen specific IL-17 and IL-22 production compared to those with LTBI. Neutralization of PD1 restored IL-23R expression, IL-17 and IL-22 levels and lowered IL-10 production and reduced expansion of FoxP3 T cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In the current study we found that increased PD1 expression in HIV?+?LTBI+ and HIV+ active TB patients inhibits IL-17, IL-22 production and IL-23R expression in response to Mtb antigens CFP-10 and ESAT-6.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be a Th17-mediated dysimmune disease of the central nervous system. However, recent publications have questioned the pathogenicity of IL-17 per se and rather suggest the implication of other Th17-related inflammatory mediators. Therefore, we studied the expression of GM-CSF, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26 and CD39 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MS patients during relapses, remission and following corticosteroid treatment. We performed qPCR to measure mRNA levels from ex vivo or in vitro-stimulated PBMCs. Cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. We used flow cytometry to assess GM-CSF+, IL-22+ and CD39+ cells in relationship to IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. Our results showed that IL-22 mRNA and IL-22+CD4+ lymphocytes are increased in circulating cells of relapsing MS patients compared to remitting patients while GM-CSF was unchanged. We have further shown that 12.9, 39 and 12.4% of Th17 cells from MS patients during relapses expressed IL-22, GM-CSF and CD39 respectively. No changes in these proportions were found in stable MS patients. However, the majority of GM-CSF+ or IL-22+ T cells did not co-express IL-17. GM-CSF mRNA, but not IL-22 mRNA, was dramatically decreased ex vivo by ivMP. Our results contribute to a better characterisation of Th17, Th22 and ThGM-CSF cells in the setting of MS and according to disease activity.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function associated with increased local and systemic inflammatory markers, such as TNF? and IL-1?. Glucocorticoids are used to treat this chronic disease, however their efficacy is low and new drugs are very much required. 17-oxo-DHA is a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent, electrophilic, ?,?-unsaturated keto-derivative of docosahexaenoic acid with anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the action of 17-oxo-DHA alone or in combination with the steroid fluticasone propionate (FP) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COPD patients and healthy individuals exposed to lipopolysaccharide. We show that PBMCs from COPD patients released higher levels of TNF? and IL-1? compared to controls. 17-oxo-DHA displayed strong anti-inflammatory effects. The addition of 17-oxo-DHA in combination with FP showed enhanced anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. 17-oxo-DHA, but not FP, was able to suppress the release of mature IL-1? through inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, 17-oxo-DHA inhibited inflammasome-dependent degradation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Our findings suggest that 17-oxo-DHA in combination with FP or other steroids might achieve higher therapeutic efficacy than steroids alone. Combined treatment might be particularly relevant in those conditions where increased inflammasome activation may lead to GR degradation and steroid-unresponsive inflammation.
Project description:Although Th17 cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, their roles in malignancies are currently under debate. The role and mechanism of Th17 cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that the frequency of Th17 cells was significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells from AML patients compared with healthy donors. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-23, IL-1?, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 were significantly increased in blood and bone marrow in AML patients compared with healthy donors. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-1?, IL-6, IL-23, but not TGF-?1 promoted the generation and differentiation of Th17 cells from naive CD4(+) T cells in humans. IL-17A, a signature cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, induced the proliferation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R)-positive AML cells via IL-17R, in which activation of PI3K/Akt and Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway may play important roles. In addition, combination of IL-17A and IL-22 significantly reduced the generation of Th1 cells and the production of interferon (IFN)-? from healthy donor or AML patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patients with high Th17 cell frequency had poor prognosis, whereas patients with high Th1 cell frequency had prolonged survival. Combined analysis of Th1 and Th17 cell frequencies improved the ability to predict patient outcomes. In conclusion, Th17 cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AML and may be an important therapeutic target and prognostic predictor.
Project description:Recent studies identified an association between Behcet's disease (BD) and the IL-23R gene polymorphism (rs17375018) in different populations. This study examined whether this IL-23R gene polymorphism is associated with enhanced inflammatory responses.We recruited 27 BD patients and 32 controls with three genotypes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were seeded with or without anti-CD3 and CD28. Cells were incubated for 24 hours, and then supernatants were collected and stored at -20?C until analyzed. Levels of interferon (IFN)-?, tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. IL-23R expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The expression of IL-23R was significantly higher in both BD patients and healthy controls with the GG genotype compared to the AG and AA genotype with anti-CD3 and CD28 stimulation (all P-value < 0.05). Among the PBMCs cultured with anti-CD3 and CD28 stimulation, there was an elevated secretion of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-17 in BD patients and healthy controls with the GG genotype. However, there was no significant change in secretion of IFN- ? in BD patients and healthy controls among the genotype of this IL-23R gene polymorphism.The results suggest that the GG genotype of the rs17375018 variant in the IL-23R gene enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, which may increase the risk of colon cancer. Andrographolide is a main active component of Andrographis paniculata. The anti-inflammatory ability of andrographolide suggested its potential therapeutic effect against UC. In the present study, elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory factors, including (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and IL-23, as well as increased percentages of Th17 cells (IL-17+CD4+ cells) in CD4+ cells were detected in UC patients compared to that in healthy donors. These data suggested that Th17 immune responses may involve in the pathogenesis of UC. Experimental colitis mouse model was then established. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated the therapeutic effect of andrographolide on colitis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and western blotting analyses showed that andrographolide could decreased the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum and in the colon tissues, reduced the percentages of Th17 cells in CD4+ cells, and suppressed the levels of IL-23, IL-17A, ROR-?t (key transcription factor of Th17 cells) and p-STAT3 in the colon tissues. Further, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from UC patients and treated with various concentrations of andrographolide (0, 10, 20 and 30 ?g/ml). Andrographolide also showed inhibitory effects on the levels of proinflammatory factors, the percentages of Th17 cells and the expression of relative proteins. Similar results were obtained in lipopolysaccharide-treated normal PBMCs. These data suggested that andrographolide may inhibit Th17 immune response via STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited the activity of IL-23/IL-17 axis and down-stream pro-inflammatory factors so as to suppress inflammation response, resulting in the relieving of UC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Interleukin (IL)-17 produced by mainly T helper 17 (Th17) cells may play an important destructive role in chronic periodontitis (CP). Thus, anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-35, might have a beneficial effect in periodontitis by inhibiting differentiation of Th17 cells. Th17 differentiation is regulated by the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) <i>?</i> (encoded by <i>RORA</i>) and ROR<i>?</i>t (encoded by <i>RORC</i>). However, the role of IL-35 in periodontitis is not clear and the effect of IL-35 on the function of Th17 cells is still incompletely understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL-35 on Th17 cells.<h4>Methods</h4>Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were sampled from three healthy volunteers and three CP patients and were analyzed by flow cytometry for T cell population. Th17 cells differentiated by a cytokine cocktail (recombinant transforming growth factor-<i>?</i>, rIL-6, rIL-1<i>?</i>, anti-interferon (IFN)-<i>?</i>, anti-IL-2 and anti-IL-4) from PBMCs were cultured with or without rIL-35. <i>IL17A</i> (which usually refers to IL-17), <i>RORA</i> and <i>RORC</i>mRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and IL-17A production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.<h4>Results</h4>The proportion of IL-17A<sup>+</sup>CD4<sup>+</sup> slightly increased in CP patients compared with healthy controls, however, there were no significant differences in the percentage of IL-17A<sup>+</sup>CD4<sup>+</sup> as well as IFN-<i>?</i><sup>+</sup>CD4<sup>+</sup> and Foxp3<sup>+</sup>CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells between healthy controls and CP patients. <i>IL17A</i>, <i>RORA</i> and <i>RORC</i> mRNA expression was significantly increased in Th17 cells induced by the cytokine cocktail, and the induction was significantly inhibited by addition of rIL-35 (1 ng/mL). IL-17A production in Th17 cells was significantly inhibited by rIL-35 addition (1 ng/mL).<h4>Discussion</h4>The present study suggests that IL-35 could directly suppress IL-17 expression via ROR<i>?</i> and ROR<i>?</i>t inhibition and might play an important role in inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis.