MiR-16-5p targets SESN1 to regulate the p53 signaling pathway, affecting myoblast proliferation and apoptosis, and is involved in myoblast differentiation.
ABSTRACT: The proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of myoblasts are essential processes in skeletal muscle development. During this developmental process, microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles. In our previous RNA-seq study (accession number GSE62971), we found that miR-16-5p was differentially expressed between fast and slow growth in chicken. In this study, we report that miR-16-5p could inhibit myoblast proliferation, promote myoblast apoptosis, and repress myoblast differentiation by directly binding to the 3' UTR of SESN1, which is also differentially expressed. Overexpression of SESN1 significantly promoted the proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and induced differentiation of myoblasts. Conversely, its loss of function hampered myoblast proliferation, facilitated myoblast apoptosis, and inhibited myoblast differentiation. Interestingly, we found SESN1 could regulate p53 by a feedback mechanism, thereby participating in the regulation of p53 signaling pathway, which suggests that this feedback is indispensable for myoblast proliferation and apoptosis. Altogether, these data demonstrated that miR-16-5p directly targets SESN1 to regulate the p53 signaling pathway, and therefore affecting myoblast proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, SESN1 targets myogenic genes to control myoblast differentiation.
Project description:miR-17 family microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for embryo development, however, their role in muscle development is still unclear. miR-20a-5p and miR-20b-5p belong to the miR-17 family and are transcribed from the miR-17~92 and miR-106a~363 clusters respectively. In this study, we found that miR-20a-5p and miR-20b-5p promoted myoblast differentiation and repressed myoblast proliferation by directly binding the 3' UTR of E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) mRNA. E2F1 is an important transcriptional factor for organism's normal development. Overexpression of E2F1 in myoblasts promoted myoblast proliferation and inhibited myoblast differentiation. Conversely, E2F1 inhibition induced myoblast differentiation and repressed myoblast proliferation. Moreover, E2F1 can bind directly to promoters of the miR-17~92 and miR-106a~363 clusters and activate their transcription, and E2F1 protein expression is correlated with the expression of pri-miR-17~92 and pri-miR-106a~363 during myoblast differentiation. These results suggested an auto-regulatory feedback loop between E2F1 and miR-20a-5p/20b-5p, and indicated that miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p and E2F1 are involved in myoblast proliferation and differentiation through the auto-regulation between E2F1 and miR-20a-5p/20b-5p. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of muscle differentiation, and further shed light on the understanding of muscle development and muscle diseases.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are involved in the regulation of the formation, maintenance, and function of skeletal muscle. Using miRNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we previously found that the miRNA miR-664-5p is significantly differentially expressed in longissimus dorsi muscles of Rongchang pigs. However, the molecular mechanism by which miR-664-5p regulates myogenesis remains unclear. In this study, using flow cytometry, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine staining, and cell count and immunofluorescent assays, we found that cell-transfected miR-664-5p mimics greatly promoted proliferation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts by increasing the proportion of cells in the S- and G<sub>2</sub>-phases and up-regulating the expression of cell cycle genes. Moreover, miR-664-5p inhibited myoblast differentiation by down-regulating myogenic gene expression. In contrast, miR-664-5p inhibitor repressed myoblast proliferation and promoted myoblast differentiation. Mechanistically, using dual-luciferase reporter gene experiments, we demonstrated that miR-664-5p directly targets the 3'-UTR of serum response factor (<i>SRF</i>) and <i>Wnt1</i> mRNAs. We also observed that miR-664-5p inhibits both mRNA and protein levels of <i>SRF</i> and <i>Wnt1</i> during myoblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation, respectively. Furthermore, the activating effect of miR-664-5p on myoblast proliferation was attenuated by <i>SRF</i> overexpression, and miR-664-5p repressed myogenic differentiation by diminishing the accumulation of nuclear ?-catenin. Of note, miR-664-5p's inhibitory effect on myogenic differentiation was abrogated by treatment with Wnt1 protein, the key activator of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that miR-664-5p controls <i>SRF</i> and canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways in myogenesis.
Project description:MicroRNAs are a class of 18-22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and have been shown to play an important role during myoblast differentiation. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-145a-5p was gradually increased during C2C12 myoblast differentiation, and miR-145a-5p inhibitors or mimics significantly suppressed or promoted the relative expression of specific myogenesis related marker genes. Moreover, overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p enhanced or repressed the expression of some special genes involved in the endogenous Wnt signaling pathway during C2C12 myoblast differentiation, including Wnt5a, LRP5, Axin2, and ?-catenin. These results indicated that miR-145a-5p might be considered as a new myogenic differentiation-associated microRNA that can promote C2C12 myoblast differentiation by enhancing genes related to myoblasts differentiation.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a highly ordered and complex biological process that is mediated by numerous regulatory factors. In previous studies, it has been demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) and long non?coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve key roles in skeletal myogenesis. The present study showed that the expression levels of miR?23a?5p showed a dynamic change from decrease to increase during C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Functional analysis using 5?ethynyl?2'?deoxyuridine proliferation and Cell Counting Kit?8 detection assays indicated that overexpression of miR?23a?5p significantly promoted C2C12 myoblast proliferation compared with the negative control. In addition, in C2C12 myoblasts transfected with miR?23a?5p mimics, increased expression levels of regulators associated with cell proliferation (Cyclin E, CCND1 and Cyclin B) were observed compared with the negative control. By contrast, overexpression of miR?23a?5p decreased the expression levels of specific?myogenesis factors (MyoD, MyoG and Myf5) and decreased C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Luciferase activity assays indicated that miR?23a?5p suppressed the luciferase activity of lncDum. Further analysis demonstrated that miR?23a?5p not only showed an opposite expression level pattern compared with lncDum, which was first increased and then decreased, but also had an opposite effect on the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts compared with lncDum which inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell differentiation. Taken together, these results indicated that miR?23a?5p may mediate the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, which may be involved in lncDum regulation.
Project description:We previously reported that Wnt5a/CaMKII? (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta) pathway was involved in the embryonic tongue deformity induced by excess retinoic acid (RA). Our latest study found that the expression of miR-31-5p, which was predicted to target the 3'UTR of CamkII?, was raised in the RA-treated embryonic tongue. Thus, we hypothesized that the excess RA regulated Wnt5a/CaMKII? pathway through miR-31-5p in embryonic tongue.C2C12 myoblast line was employed as an in vitro model to examine the suppression of miR-31-5p on CamkII? expression, through which RA impaired the myoblast proliferation and differentiation in embryonic tongue.RA stimulated the expression of miR-31-5p in both embryonic tongue and C2C12 myoblasts. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the 3'UTR of CamkII? was a target of miR-31-5p. MiR-31-5p mimics disrupted CamkII? expression, C2C12 proliferation and differentiation as excess RA did, while miR-31-5p inhibitor partially rescued these defects in the presence of RA.Excess RA can stimulate miR-31-5p expression to suppress CamkII?, which represses the proliferation and differentiation of tongue myoblasts.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a multi-stage process that includes the cell cycle exit, myogenic transcriptional activation, and morphological changes to form multinucleated myofibers. Recent studies have shown that saturated fatty acids (SFA) and miRNAs play crucial roles in myogenesis and muscle homeostasis. Nevertheless, the target molecules and myogenic regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs are largely unknown, particularly when myogenesis is dysregulated by SFA deposition. This study investigated the critical role played by miR-96-5p on the myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Long-chain SFA palmitic acid (PA) significantly reduced FHL1 expression and inhibited the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts but induced miR-96-5p expression. The knockdown of FHL1 by siRNA stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited myogenic differentiation of myoblasts. Interestingly, miR-96-5p suppressed FHL1 expression by directly targeting the 3'UTR of <i>FHL1</i> mRNA. The transfection of an miR-96-5p mimic upregulated the expressions of cell cycle-related genes, such as PCNA, CCNB1, and CCND1, and increased myoblast proliferation. Moreover, the miR-96-5p mimic inhibited the expressions of myogenic factors, such as myoblast determination protein (MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), and dramatically impeded differentiation and fusion of myoblasts. Overall, this study highlights the role of miR-96-5p in myogenesis via FHL1 suppression and suggests a novel regulatory mechanism for myogenesis mediated by miRNA in a background of obesity.
Project description:microRNAs play an important role in the growth and development of chicken embryos, including the regulation of skeletal muscle genesis, myoblast proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Our previous RNA-seq studies showed that microRNA-27b-3p (miR-27b-3p) might play an important role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of chicken primary myoblasts (CPMs). However, the mechanism of miR-27b-3p regulating the proliferation and differentiation of CPMs is still unclear. In this study, the results showed that miR-27b-3p significantly promoted the proliferation of CPMs and inhibited the differentiation of CPMs. Then, myostatin (<i>MSTN</i>) was confirmed to be the target gene of miR-27b-3p by double luciferase reporter assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blot. By overexpressing and interfering with <i>MSTN</i> expression in CPMs, the results showed that overexpression of <i>MSTN</i> significantly inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of CPMs. In contrast, interference of <i>MSTN</i> expression had the opposite effect. This study showed that miR-27b-3p could promote the proliferation of CPMs by targeting <i>MSTN</i>. Interestingly, both miR-27b-3p and <i>MSTN</i> can inhibit the differentiation of CPMs. These results provide a theoretical basis for further understanding the function of miR-27b-3p in chicken and revealing its regulation mechanism on chicken muscle growth.
Project description:Satellite cells are adult muscle stem cells residing in a specialized niche that regulates their homeostasis. How niche-generated signals integrate to regulate gene expression in satellite cell-derived myoblasts is poorly understood. We undertook an unbiased approach to study the effect of the satellite cell niche on satellite cell-derived myoblast transcriptional regulation and identified the tumor suppressor p53 as a key player in the regulation of myoblast quiescence. After activation and proliferation, a subpopulation of myoblasts cultured in the presence of the niche upregulates p53 and fails to differentiate. When satellite cell self-renewal is modeled ex vivo in a reserve cell assay, myoblasts treated with Nutlin-3, which increases p53 levels in the cell, fail to differentiate and instead become quiescent. Since both these Nutlin-3 effects are rescued by small interfering RNA-mediated p53 knockdown, we conclude that a tight control of p53 levels in myoblasts regulates the balance between differentiation and return to quiescence.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is an important metabolic organ of the body, and impaired skeletal muscle differentiation can result in a wide range of metabolic diseases. It has been shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in skeletal muscle differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mmu-miR-324-5p in the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts and lipid droplet deposition in myotubes for future targeted therapies. We found that mmu-miR-324-5p was highly expressed in mouse skeletal muscle. Overexpression of miR-324-5p significantly inhibited C2C12 myoblast differentiation while promoting oleate-induced lipid accumulation and ?-oxidation in C2C12 myoblasts. Conversely, inhibition of mmu-miR-324-5p promoted C2C12 myoblast differentiation and inhibited lipid deposition in myotubes. Mechanistically, mmu-miR-324-5p negatively regulated the expression of long non-coding Dum (lncDum) and peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (Pm20d1) in C2C12 myoblasts. Reduced lncDum expression was associated with a significant decrease in the expression of myogenesis-related genes. Knockdown of mmu-miR-324-5p increased the levels of lncDum and myogenesis-related gene expression. Following oleate-induced lipid deposition in C2C12 myoblasts, overexpression of mmu-miR-324-5p decreased the expression of Pm20d1 while increasing the expression of mitochondrial ?-oxidation and long-chain fatty acid synthesis-related genes. In conclusion, we provide evidence that miR-324-5p inhibits C2C12 myoblast differentiation and promotes intramuscular lipid deposition by targeting lncDum and Pm20d1, respectively.
Project description:The production of goat meat is determined by the growth speed of muscle fibers, and the autophagy and apoptosis of myoblast cells is a crucial process in the growth of muscle fibers. The rapid growth of muscle fibers occurs from one month old to nine months old in goats; however, the mechanisms of myoblast cells' autophagy and apoptosis in this process are still unknown. To identify candidate genes and signaling pathway mechanisms involved in myoblast apoptosis and autophagy, we compared the expression characteristics of longissimus dorsi tissues from Wu'an goats-a native goat breed of China-at 1 month old (mon1 group) and 9 months old (mon9 group). Herein, a total of 182 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEGs) in the mon1 vs. mon9 comparison, along with the KEGG enrichments, showed that the PI3K-Akt pathway associated with autophagy and apoptosis was significantly enriched. Among these DEGs, expression of vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1)-a key gene for the PI3K-Akt pathway-was significantly upregulated in the older goats relative to the 1-month-old goats. We demonstrated that VMP1 promotes the proliferation and autophagy of myoblasts, and inhibits their apoptosis. The integration analysis of miRNA-mRNA showed that miR-124a was a regulator of VMP1 in muscle tissue, and overexpression and inhibition of miR-124a suppressed the proliferation and autophagy of myoblasts. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was an important pathway for cell autophagy. Additionally, the activator of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, the expression of VMP1, and ULK1 were higher than the negative control, and the expression of mTOR was depressed. The expression of VMP1, ULK1, and mTOR was the opposite when the inhibitor was added to the myoblasts. These results show that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway promoted the expression of VMP1 and ULK1. By using adenovirus-mediated apoptosis and proliferation assays, we found that that miR-124a inhibits myoblast proliferation and autophagy, and promotes their apoptosis by targeting VMP1. In conclusion, our results indicated that VMP1 was highly expressed in the LD muscle tissues of nine-month-old goats, and that it was regulated by miR-124a to inhibit myoblast cells' apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and to promote proliferation and autophagy. These findings contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in myoblast proliferation, autophagy, and apoptosis.