Electroencephalographic prodromal markers of dementia across conscious states in Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT: In Parkinson's disease, electroencephalographic abnormalities during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep (spindles) were found to be predictive biomarkers of dementia. Because rapid eye movement sleep is regulated by the cholinergic system, which shows early degeneration in Parkinson's disease with cognitive impairment, anomalies during this sleep stage might mirror dementia development. In this prospective study, we examined baseline electroencephalographic absolute spectral power across three states of consciousness (non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and wakefulness) in 68 non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease and 44 healthy controls. All participants underwent baseline polysomnographic recordings and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Power spectral analyses were performed on standard frequency bands. Dominant occipital frequency during wakefulness and ratios of slow-to-fast frequencies during rapid eye movement sleep and wakefulness were also computed. At follow-up (an average 4.5 years after baseline), 18 patients with Parkinson's disease had developed dementia and 50 patients remained dementia-free. In rapid eye movement sleep, patients with Parkinson's disease who later developed dementia showed, at baseline, higher absolute power in delta and theta bands and a higher slowing ratio, especially in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions, compared to patients who remained dementia-free and controls. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, lower baseline sigma power in parietal cortical regions also predicted development of dementia. During wakefulness, patients with Parkinson's disease who later developed dementia showed lower dominant occipital frequency as well as higher delta and slowing ratio compared to patients who remained dementia-free and controls. At baseline, higher slowing ratios in temporo-occipital regions during rapid eye movement sleep were associated with poor performance on visuospatial tests in patients with Parkinson's disease. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we found that best predictors of dementia in Parkinson's disease were rapid eye movement sleep slowing ratios in posterior regions, wakefulness slowing ratios in temporal areas, and lower dominant occipital frequency. These results suggest that electroencephalographic slowing during sleep is a new promising predictive biomarker for Parkinson's disease dementia, perhaps as a marker of cholinergic denervation.
Project description:Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and loss of muscle atonia during rapid eye movement sleep. RBD is closely related to ?-synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Many studies have investigated the markers of imaging and neurophysiological, genetic, cognitive, autonomic function of RBD and their predictive value for neurodegenerative diseases. This report reviewed the progress of these studies and discussed their limitations and future research directions.Using the combined keywords: "RBD", "neurodegenerative disease", "Parkinson disease", and "magnetic resonance imaging", the PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was conducted up to January 1, 2018.A total of 150 published articles were initially identified citations. Of the 150 articles, 92 articles were selected after further detailed review. This study referred to all the important English literature in full.Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SCARB2 (rs6812193) and MAPT (rs12185268) were significantly associated with RBD. The olfactory loss, autonomic dysfunction, marked electroencephalogram slowing during both wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep, and cognitive impairments were potential predictive markers for RBD conversion to neurodegenerative diseases. Traditional structural imaging studies reported relatively inconsistent results, whereas reduced functional connectivity between the left putamen and substantia nigra and dopamine transporter uptake demonstrated by functional imaging techniques were relatively consistent findings.More longitudinal studies should be conducted to evaluate the predictive value of biomarkers of RBD. Moreover, because the glucose and dopamine metabolisms are not specific for assessing cognitive cognition, the molecular metabolism directly related to cognition should be investigated. There is a need for more treatment trials to determine the effectiveness of interventions of RBD on preventing the conversion to neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and homoeostatic regulation of slow wave activity may provide a complementary tool for the assessment of brain function in minimally conscious state and vegetative state patients.
Project description:C1 catecholaminergic neurons and neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus are integrative nodes within the brain stem network regulating cardiorespiratory reflexes elicited by hypoxia and hypercapnia, stimuli that also produce arousal from sleep. In the present study, Channelrhodopsin-2 was selectively introduced into these neurons with a lentiviral vector to determine whether their selective activation also produces arousal in sleeping rats. Sleep stages were identified from electroencephalographic and neck muscle electromyographic recordings. Breathing was measured using unrestrained whole body plethysmography and blood pressure by telemetry. During nonrapid eye movement sleep, unilateral photostimulation of the C1 region caused arousal in 83.0±14.7% of trials and immediate and intense cardiorespiratory activation. Arousal during photostimulation was also observed during rapid eye movement sleep (41.9±5.6% of trials), but less reliably than during nonrapid eye movement sleep. The cardiorespiratory responses elicited by photostimulation were dramatically smaller during rapid eye movement sleep than nonrapid eye movement sleep or wakefulness. Systemic ?1-adrenoreceptor blockade reduced the cardiorespiratory effects of photostimulation but had no effect on the arousal caused by photostimulation during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Postmortem histology showed that neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin 2-mCherry were predominantly catecholaminergic (81%). These results show that selective activation of C1 and retrotrapezoid nucleus neurons produces state-dependent arousal and cardiorespiratory stimulation. These neurons, which are powerfully activated by chemoreceptor stimulation, may contribute to the sleep disruption associated with obstructive sleep apnea.
Project description:Significant advances have been made in our understanding of subcortical processes related to anesthetic- and sleep-induced unconsciousness, but the associated changes in cortical connectivity and cortical neurochemistry have yet to be fully clarified.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented for simultaneous measurement of cortical acetylcholine and electroencephalographic indices of corticocortical connectivity-coherence and symbolic transfer entropy-before, during, and after general anesthesia (propofol, n = 11; sevoflurane, n = 13). In another group of rats (n = 7), these electroencephalographic indices were analyzed during wakefulness, slow wave sleep (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.Compared to wakefulness, anesthetic-induced unconsciousness was characterized by a significant decrease in cortical acetylcholine that recovered to preanesthesia levels during recovery wakefulness. Corticocortical coherence and frontal-parietal symbolic transfer entropy in high ? band (85 to 155 Hz) were decreased during anesthetic-induced unconsciousness and returned to preanesthesia levels during recovery wakefulness. Sleep-wake states showed a state-dependent change in coherence and transfer entropy in high ? bandwidth, which correlated with behavioral arousal: high during wakefulness, low during SWS, and lowest during REM sleep. By contrast, frontal-parietal ? connectivity during sleep-wake states was not correlated with behavioral arousal but showed an association with well-established changes in cortical acetylcholine: high during wakefulness and REM sleep and low during SWS.Corticocortical coherence and frontal-parietal connectivity in high ? bandwidth correlates with behavioral arousal and is not mediated by cholinergic mechanisms, while ? connectivity correlates with cortical acetylcholine levels.
Project description:To investigate age-related differences in polysomnographic and sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) measures, considering sex, pubertal stage, ethnicity, and scalp topography in a large group of adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA).Following an adaptation/clinical screening night, 141 healthy adolescents (12-21 y, 64 girls) had polysomnographic recordings, from which sleep staging and EEG measures were derived. The setting was the SRI International Human Sleep Laboratory and University of Pittsburgh Pediatric Sleep Laboratory.Older age was associated with a lower percentage of N3 sleep, accompanied by higher percentages of N2, N1, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Older boys compared with younger boys had more frequent awakenings and wakefulness after sleep onset, effects that were absent in girls. Delta (0.3-4 Hz) EEG power in nonrapid eye movement NREM sleep was lower in older than younger adolescents at all electrode sites, with steeper slopes of decline over the occipital scalp. EEG power in higher frequency bands was also lower in older adolescents than younger adolescents, with equal effects across electrodes. Percent delta power in the first NREM period was similar across age. African Americans had lower EEG power across frequency bands (delta to sigma) compared with Caucasians. Finally, replacing age with pubertal status in the models showed similar relationships.Substantial differences in sleep architecture and EEG were evident across adolescence in this large group, with sex modifying some relationships. Establishment and follow-up of this cohort allows the investigation of sleep EEG-brain structural relationships and the effect of behaviors, such as alcohol and substance use, on sleep EEG maturation.
Project description:Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the brain parenchyma is facilitated by the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). Homeostatically regulated electroencephalographic (EEG) slow waves are a hallmark of deep non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and have been implicated in the regulation of parenchymal CSF flow and brain clearance. The human AQP4 gene harbors several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AQP4 expression, brain-water homeostasis, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, their role in sleep-wake regulation is unknown. To investigate whether functional variants in AQP4 modulate human sleep, nocturnal EEG recordings and cognitive performance were investigated in 123 healthy participants genotyped for a common eight-SNP AQP4-haplotype. We show that this AQP4-haplotype is associated with distinct modulations of NREM slow wave energy, strongest in early sleep and mirrored by changes in sleepiness and reaction times during extended wakefulness. The study provides the first human evidence for a link between AQP4, deep NREM sleep, and cognitive consequences of prolonged wakefulness.
Project description:While dopamine affects fundamental brain processes such as movement control, emotional responses, addiction, and pain, the roles for this neurotransmitter in regulating wakefulness and sleep are incompletely understood. Genetically modified animal models with reduced dopamine clearance exhibit hypersensitivity to caffeine, reduced-responsiveness to modafinil, and increased homeostatic response to prolonged wakefulness when compared with wild-type animals. Here we studied sleep-wake regulation in humans and combined pharmacogenetic and neurophysiologic methods to analyze the effects of the 3'-UTR variable-number-tandem-repeat polymorphism of the gene (DAT1, SLC6A3) encoding dopamine transporter (DAT). Previous research demonstrated that healthy homozygous 10-repeat (10R/10R) allele carriers of this genetic variant have reduced striatal DAT protein expression when compared with 9-repeat (9R) allele carriers. Objective and subjective estimates of caffeine sensitivity were higher in 10R allele homozygotes than in carriers of the 9R allele. Moreover, caffeine and modafinil affected wakefulness-induced changes in functional bands (delta, sigma, beta) of rhythmic brain activity in wakefulness and sleep in a DAT1 genotype-dependent manner. Finally, the sleep deprivation-induced increase in well established neurophysiologic markers of sleep homeostasis, including slow-wave sleep, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (0.5-4.5 Hz), and number of low-frequency (0.5-2.0 Hz) oscillations in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, was significantly larger in the 10R/10R genotype than in the 9R allele carriers of DAT1. Together, the data suggest that the dopamine transporter contributes to homeostatic sleep-wake regulation in humans.
Project description:Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and GBA mutations are both associated with Parkinson's disease. The GBA gene was sequenced in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients (n = 265), and compared to controls (n = 2240). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder questionnaire was performed in an independent Parkinson's disease cohort (n = 120). GBA mutations carriers had an OR of 6.24 (10.2% in patients vs. 1.8% in controls, P < 0.0001) for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and among Parkinson's disease patients, the OR for mutation carriers to have probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was 3.13 (P = 0.039). These results demonstrate that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is associated with GBA mutations, and that combining genetic and prodromal data may assist in identifying individuals susceptible to Parkinson's disease.
Project description:Study Objectives:Cortical activity patterns develop rapidly over the equivalent of the last trimester of gestation, in parallel with the establishment of sleep architecture. However, the emergence of mature cortical activity in wakefulness compared with sleep states in healthy preterm infants is poorly understood. Methods:To investigate whether the cortical activity has a different developmental profile in each sleep-wake state, we recorded 11-channels electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), and respiratory movement for 1 hr from 115 infants 34 to 43 weeks-corrected age, with 0.5-17 days of postnatal age. We characterized the trajectory of ?, ?, and ?-? oscillations in wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM sleep by calculating the power spectrum of the EEG, averaged across artifact-free epochs. Results:?-Oscillations in wakefulness and REM sleep decrease with corrected age, particularly in the temporal region, but not in non-REM sleep. ?-Oscillations increase with corrected age in sleep, especially non-REM sleep, but not in wakefulness. On the other hand, ?-? oscillations decrease predominantly with postnatal age, independently of sleep-wake state, particularly in the occipital region. Conclusions:The developmental trajectory of ? and ? rhythms is state-dependent and results in changed cortical activity patterns between states with corrected age, which suggests that these frequency bands may have particular functional roles in each state. Interestingly, postnatal age is associated with a decrease in ?-? oscillations overlying primary visual cortex in every sleep-wake state, suggesting that postnatal experience (including the first visual input through open eyes during periods of wakefulness) is associated with resting-state visual cortical activity changes.
Project description:We screened for novel circuits in the mouse brain that promote wakefulness. Chemogenetic activation experiments and electroencephalogram recordings pointed to glutamatergic/nitrergic (NOS1) and GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Activating glutamatergic/NOS1 neurons, which were wake- and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-active, produced wakefulness through projections to the nucleus accumbens and the lateral hypothalamus. Lesioning the glutamate cells impaired the consolidation of wakefulness. By contrast, activation of GABAergic VTA neurons elicited long-lasting non-rapid-eye-movement-like sleep resembling sedation. Lesioning these neurons produced an increase in wakefulness that persisted for at least 4?months. Surprisingly, these VTA GABAergic neurons were wake- and REM sleep-active. We suggest that GABAergic VTA neurons may limit wakefulness by inhibiting the arousal-promoting VTA glutamatergic and/or dopaminergic neurons and through projections to the lateral hypothalamus. Thus, in addition to its contribution to goal- and reward-directed behaviors, the VTA has a role in regulating sleep and wakefulness.