Raddeanin A suppresses breast cancer-associated osteolysis through inhibiting osteoclasts and breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Bone metastasis is a severe complication of advanced breast cancer, resulting in osteolysis and increased mortality in patients. Raddeanin A (RA), isolated from traditional Chinese herbs, is an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin with anticancer potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of RA in breast cancer-induced osteolysis and elucidated the possible mechanisms involved in this process. We first verified that RA could suppress osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. Next, we confirmed that RA suppressed Ti-particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvarial model, possibly through inhibition of the SRC/AKT signaling pathway. A breast cancer-induced osteolysis mouse model further revealed the positive protective effects of RA by micro-computed tomography and histology. Finally, we demonstrated that RA inhibited invasion and AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results indicate that RA is an effective inhibitor of breast cancer-induced osteolysis.
Project description:Natural compounds extracted from plants have gained immense importance in the fight against cancer cells due to their lesser toxicity and potential therapeutic effects. Raddeanin A (RA), an oleanane type triterpenoid is a major compound isolated from Anemone raddeana Regel. As an anticancer agent, RA induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibits invasion, migration and angiogenesis in malignant cell lines as well as in preclinical models. In this systemic review, the pharmacological effects of RA and its underlying molecular mechanisms were carefully analyzed and potential molecular targets have been highlighted. The apoptotic potential of RA can be mediated through the modulation of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, cytochrome c and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway serves as the major molecular target affected by RA. Furthermore, RA can block cell proliferation through inhibition of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. RA can also alter the activation of NF-?B and STAT3 signaling pathways to suppress invasion and metastasis. RA has also exhibited promising anticancer potential against drug resistant cancer cells and can enhance the anticancer effects of several chemotherapeutic agents. Overall, RA may function as a promising compound in combating cancer, although further in-depth study is required under clinical settings to validate its efficacy in cancer patients.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor. Raddeanin A (RA) is an active oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Anemone raddeana Regel that exerts antitumor activity against several cancer types. However, the effect of RA on osteosarcoma remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that RA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent way in vitro and in vivo. RA treatment resulted in excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. Apoptosis induction was evaluated by the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. RA-induced cell death was significantly restored by the ROS scavenger glutathione (GSH), the pharmacological inhibitor of JNK SP600125, or specific JNK knockdown by shRNA. Additionally, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation was suppressed by RA in human osteosarcoma, and this suppression was restored by GSH, SP600125, and JNK-shRNA. Further investigation showed that STAT3 phosphorylation was increased after JNK knockdown. In a tibial xenograft tumor model, RA induced osteosarcoma apoptosis and notably inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that RA suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis by modulating the JNK/c-Jun and STAT3 signaling pathways in human osteosarcoma. Therefore, RA may be a promising candidate antitumor drug for osteosarcoma intervention.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy in adolescents. One major obstacle for current OS treatment is drug-resistance. Raddeanin A (RA), an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin, exerts anti-tumor effects in several tumor models, but the effect of RA in human drug-resistant OS remained to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of RA in both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant OS cells and its underlying mechanism. RA inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner in both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells. Moreover, RA exposure resulted in the inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway activation and target gene expression in both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells. Meanwhile, we observed significantly increased MDR1 and STAT3 expression in drug-resistant OS cells compared with parental cells. STAT3 overexpression promoted chemo-resistance and MDR1 protein expression in both drug-sensitive OS cells and drug-resistant OS cells, while inhibiting STAT3 with siRNA sensitized OS cells to doxorubicin treatment. In addition, RA synergistically increased doxorubicin toxicity by increasing its cellular uptake, ablating efflux and downregulating MDR1 in drug-resistant cells with attenuation of STAT3 Phosphorylation. Finally, RA suppressed in vivo tumor growth and induced apoptosis in nude mouse using drug-resistant OS tibia orthotopic model. Taken together, RA is a promising potential therapeutic for the treatment of doxorubicin resistance in OS.
Project description:Bone is the most common site of distant relapse in breast cancer, leading to severe complications which dramatically affect the patients' quality of life. It is believed that the crosstalk between metastatic breast cancer cells and osteoclasts is critical for breast cancer-induced osteolysis. In this study, the effects of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on osteoclast formation, bone resorption, osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were initially assessed in vitro, followed by further investigation in a titanium-particle-induced osteolysis model in vivo. Based on the proved inhibitory effect of DHA on osteolysis, DHA was further applied to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer-induced mouse osteolysis model, with the underlying molecular mechanisms further investigated. Here, we verified for the first time that DHA suppressed osteoclast differentiation, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption through suppressing AKT/SRC pathways, leading to the preventive effect of DHA on titanium-particle-induced osteolysis without affecting osteoblast function. More importantly, we demonstrated that DHA inhibited breast tumor-induced osteolysis through inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells via modulating AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, DHA effectively inhibited osteoclastogenesis and prevented breast cancer-induced osteolysis.
Project description:Chemotherapy resistance is the major issue of choriocarcinoma. Apoptosis always is the ultimate outcome of chemotherapeutic drugs, which considered one of the reasons of resistance. We investigated the role of STAT3/NFIL3 signaling-inhibited apoptosis in chemotherapy resistance and whether Raddeanin A (RA) could be a new drug to reverse resistance. Established three drug-resistant cell lines as JEG-3/MTX, JEG-3/5-FU, and JEG-3/VP16. NFIL3 and STAT3 expression was evaluated in the cells. The IC50 value, apoptosis rate and apoptins were observed with transfection of siNFIL3, Lenti-OE™-NFIL3, shSTAT3, and Lenti-OE™-STAT3 or RA treatment. In addition, the luciferase reporter analysis and co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to investigate the relation of STAT3 and NFIL3. Hyper-activation of STAT3 and NFIL3 expression were observed in three drug-resistant cell lines. STAT3 enhanced NFIL3 transcriptional activity by binding the relative promoter region. Activated STAT3/NFIL3 pathway caused low rate of apoptosis which resulted in chemotherapy resistance. RA reduced the resistance index of resistant cells and induced caspase 3 dependent apoptosis, meanwhile it repressed the STAT3/NFIL3 activation. STAT3/NFIL3 axis-inhibited apoptosis is a novel mechanism of chemotherapy resistance in choriocarcinoma. With the suppression of STAT3/NFIL3 axis and apoptosis induction, RA is a potential agent or lead candidate for improving chemotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women with malignant tumors worldwide. Bone metastasis is the main factor affecting the prognosis of breast cancer. Therefore, both antitumor and anti-breast-cancer-induced osteolysis agents are urgently needed. METHODS:We examined the effect of Asperolide A (AA), a marine-derived agent, on osteolysis and RANKL-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR/c-FOS/nuclear factor-activated T cell 1 (NFATc1) pathway activation, F-actin ring formation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in vitro. We evaluated AA effect on breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells in vitro through CCK8 assay, wound healing assay, transwell assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining for cell apoptosis, and cell cycle assay. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of AA in vivo using a breast cancer-induced bone osteolysis nude mouse model, followed by micro-computed tomography, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and hematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS:Asperolide A inhibited osteoclast formation and differentiation, bone resorption, F-actin belt formation, ROS activity, and osteoclast-specific gene and protein expressions and prevented PI3K/AKT/mTOR/c-FOS/NFATc1 signaling activation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. AA also inhibited breast cancer growth and breast cancer-induced bone osteolysis by reducing osteoclast formation and function and inactivated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrated that AA suppressed bone metastatic breast cancer. These findings indicate AA as a potential, novel curative drug candidate for patients with bone metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:Bone destruction induced by breast cancer metastasis causes severe complications, including death, in breast cancer patients. Communication between cancer cells and skeletal cells in metastatic bone microenvironments is a principal element that drives tumor progression and osteolysis. Tumor-derived factors play fundamental roles in this form of communication. To identify soluble factors released from cancer cells in bone metastasis, we established a highly bone-metastatic subline of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This subline (mtMDA) showed a markedly elevated ability to secrete S100A4 protein, which directly stimulated osteoclast formation via surface receptor RAGE. Recombinant S100A4 stimulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and bone loss in vivo. Conditioned medium from mtMDA cells in which S100A4 was knocked down had a reduced ability to stimulate osteoclasts. Furthermore, the S100A4 knockdown cells elicited less bone destruction in mice than the control knockdown cells. In addition, administration of an anti-S100A4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that we developed attenuated the stimulation of osteoclastogenesis and bone loss by mtMDA in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that S100A4 released from breast cancer cells is an important player in the osteolysis caused by breast cancer bone metastasis.
Project description:Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) and prostaglandins are both involved in inflammation, cancer and bone turnover, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and H(2)S donors exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties. H(2)S-releasing diclofenac (S-DCF) derivatives are a novel class of NSAIDs combining the properties of a H(2)S donor with those of a conventional NSAID.We studied the effects of the S-DCF derivatives ACS15 and ACS32 on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and activity in vitro, human and mouse breast cancer cells support for osteoclast formation and signalling in vitro, and osteolysis ex vivo.The S-diclofenac derivatives ACS15 and ACS32 inhibited the increase in osteoclast formation induced by human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 and mouse 4T1 breast cancer cells without affecting breast cancer cell viability. Conditioned media from human MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced I?B phosphorylation and osteoclast formation and these effects were significantly inhibited following treatment by ACS15 and ACS32, whereas the parent compound diclofenac had no effects. ACS15 and ACS32 inhibited receptor activator of NF?B ligand-induced osteoclast formation and resorption, and caused caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in mature osteoclasts via a mechanism dependent on IKK/NF?B inhibition. In calvaria organ culture, human MDA-MB-231 cells caused osteolysis, and this effect was completely prevented following treatment with ACS15 and ACS32.S-diclofenac derivatives inhibit osteoclast formation and activity, suppress breast cancer cell support for osteoclastogenesis and prevent osteolysis. This suggests that H(2)S-releasing diclofenac derivatives exhibit anti-resorptive properties, which might be of clinical value in the treatment of osteolytic bone disease.
Project description:A variety of osteolytic factors have been identified from breast cancer cells leading to osteolysis, but less is known about which factor plays an essential role in the initiation process prior to the overt vicious osteolytic cycle. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences to clarify the role of interleukin-11 (IL-11) as an essential contributor to breast cancer bone metastasis mediated osteolysis. Animal studies showed that bone specific metastatic BoM-1833 cells induce earlier onset of osteolysis and faster tumor growth compared with MCF7 and parental MDA-MB-231 cells in BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. IL-11 was further screened and identified as the indispensable factor secreted by BoM-1833 cells inducing osteoclastogenesis independently of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Mechanistic investigation revealed that the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway as a downstream effector of IL-11, STAT3 activation further induces the expression of c-Myc, a necessary factor required for osteoclastogenesis. By inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation, AG-490 was shown effective in reducing osteolysis and tumor growth in the metastatic niche. Overall, our results revealed the essential role and the underlying molecular mechanism of IL-11 in breast cancer bone metastasis mediated osteolysis. STAT3 targeting through AG-490 is a potential therapeutic strategy for mitigating osteolysis and tumor growth of bone metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:There is growing interest in development of natural products as anti-cancer and chemopreventive agents. Many triterpenoids have been proved as potential agents for chemoprevention and therapy of breast cancer. Ginsenosides from ginseng, which mostly belong to dammarane-type triterpenoids, have gained great attention for their anti-breast cancer activity with diverse mechanisms. However, studies of other kinds of triterpenoid saponins on breast cancer are limited. Previously, we purified and identified a novel oleanane-type triterpene saponin named D Rhamnose ?-hederin (DR?-H) from Clematis ganpiniana, a Chinese traditional anti-tumor herb. In the present study, DR?-H showed strong inhibitory activity on the growth of various breast cancer cells and induced apoptosis in these cells. DR?-H inhibited PI3K/AKT and activated ERK signaling pathway. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 synergistically enhanced DR?-H-induced apoptosis whereas MEK inhibitor U0126 reduced the apoptosis rate. Moreover, DR?-H regulated the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Furthermore, DR?-H induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential which released Apaf-1 and Cytochrome C from the inter membrane space into the cytosol, where they promoted caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. This is the first report on the pro-apoptotic effects of DR?-H, a novel oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin, on breast cancer cells and its comprehensive apoptosis pathways. It implied that oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin DR?-H could be a promising candidate for chemotherapy of breast cancer.