Pharmacological activation of TAZ enhances osteogenic differentiation and bone formation of adipose-derived stem cells.
ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering and have great potential for bone regeneration and defect repair. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) has been demonstrated to modulate osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, its roles during ADSC differentiation and therapeutic potentials for bone regeneration have as yet not been well established.TAZ expression was measured during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs in vitro. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches by TAZ knockdown or enforced overexpression were utilized to determine its functions during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. TM-25659, a chemical activator of TAZ, was used to determine whether pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying TAZ in promoting osteogenesis of ADSCs were also explored.Increased TAZ expression was observed during osteogenic differentiation of human ADSCs. TAZ knockdown resulted in compromised osteogenic differentiation and enhanced adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. In contrast, enforced TAZ overexpression yielded increased osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vivo, and impaired adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Pharmacological activation of TAZ by its chemical activator TM-25659 facilitated osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Noticeably, transient treatment of ADSCs with TM-25659 or intraperitoneal injection of TM-25659 significantly enhanced bone regeneration of ADSCs loaded with porous ?-TCP in vivo. Mechanistically, TM-25659 exposure significantly promoted TAZ phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and potentiated the assembly of the TAZ-Runx2 complex. Subsequently, the TAZ-Runx2 complex was further recruited to the promoter of osteocalcin and in turn enhanced its transcription.Our findings indicate that TAZ is a key mediator that promotes ADSC commitment to the osteoblast lineage. Pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs might become a feasible and promising approach to enhance bone regeneration and repair.
Project description:BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of three-dimensional (3D) printed titanium (3DTi) scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation by 3D cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro, and the effects of bone regeneration in vivo using a full-thickness mandibular defect rat model, and the mechanisms involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS Alpha-beta titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) 3DTi scaffolds were prepared with Cellmatrix hydrogel and 3D culture medium. ADSCs were impregnated into the 3DTi scaffolds. ADSC viability and proliferation were assessed using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were measured. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were performed to assess the expression of osteogenesis-related mRNA for RUNX2, OPN, OCN, and IGF-1 genes and proteins. A rat model of full-thickness mandibular defect was evaluated with micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning, and histochemistry with Alizarin red and von Giesen's stain were used to evaluate osteogenesis. RESULTS ADSC viability and proliferation were not affected by culture with 3DTi scaffolds. Expression of osteogenesis-related mRNA and proteins for RUNX2, OPN, OCN, and IGF-1, expression of ALP, and histochemical findings showed that the use of 3DTi scaffolds enhanced osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation by ADSCs, with upregulation of components of the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway. CONCLUSIONS The 3D culture of ADSCs with 3DTi scaffolds enhanced osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation through the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway. This improved method of osteointegration may have clinical application in the preparation of bone grafts before implantation for improved repair of mandibular bone defects.
Project description:Tissue regeneration is impaired in aged individuals. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADSCs), a promising source for cell therapy, were shown to secrete various angiogenic factors and improve vascularization of ischemic tissues. We analyzed how patient age affected the angiogenic properties of ADSCs. ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; n = 64, 43-77 years old) and without CAD (n = 31, 2-82 years old). ADSC phenotype characterized by flow cytometry was CD90(+)/CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) for all samples, and these cells were capable of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. ADSCs from aged patients had shorter telomeres (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and a tendency to attenuated telomerase activity. ADSC-conditioned media (ADSC-CM) stimulated capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells (EA.hy926), and this effect significantly decreased with the age of patients both with and without CAD. Angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, angiopoetin-1, and angiogenin) in ADSC-CM measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay significantly decreased with patient age, whereas levels of antiangiogenic factors thrombospondin-1 and endostatin did not. Expression of angiogenic factors in ADSCs did not change with patient age (real-time polymerase chain reaction); however, gene expression of factors related to extracellular proteolysis (urokinase and its receptor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor surface expression increased in ADSCs from aged patients with CAD. ADSCs from aged patients both with and without CAD acquire aging characteristics, and their angiogenic potential declines because of decreasing proangiogenic factor secretion. This could restrict the effectiveness of autologous cell therapy with ADSCs in aged patients.
Project description:Increasing evidence has indicated that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) coordinates with microRNAs (miRNAs) to form intracellular networks regulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) osteogenesis. This study aimed to identify specific miRNAs in rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) during BMP2-induced osteogenesis, we selected the most significantly down-regulated miRNA, miR-146a, to systematically investigate its role in regulating osteogenesis and bone regeneration. Overexpressing miR-146a notably repressed ADSC osteogenesis, whereas knocking down miR-146a greatly promoted this process. Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4), an important co-activator in the BMP signaling pathway, was miR-146a's direct target and miR-146a exerted its repressive effect on SMAD4 through interacting with 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of SMAD4 mRNA. Furthermore, knocking down SMAD4 attenuated the ability of miR-146a inhibitor to promote ADSC osteogenesis. Next, transduced ADSCs were incorporated with poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD) porous scaffolds for repairing critical-sized cranial defect, the treatment of miR-146a inhibitor greatly enhanced ADSC-mediated bone regeneration with higher expression levels of SMAD4, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix in newly formed bone. In summary, our study showed that miR-146a negatively regulates the osteogenesis and bone regeneration from ADSCs both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether secreted Klotho (SKL) affects the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that short-form Klotho was expressed in mouse ADSCs. The Klotho gene mutation KL(-/-) significantly decreased proliferation of ADSCs and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Nanog, Sox-2, and Oct-4) in mice. The adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs was also decreased in KL(-/-) mice. Incubation with Klotho-deficient medium decreased ADSC proliferation, pluripotent transcription factor levels, and adipogenic differentiation, which is similar to what was found in KL(-/-) mice. These results indicate that Klotho deficiency suppresses ADSC proliferation and differentiation. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant SKL protein rescued the Klotho deficiency-induced impairment in ADSC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. SKL also regulated ADSCs' differentiation to other cell lineages (osteoblasts, myofibroblasts), indicating that SKL maintains stemness of ADSCs. It is intriguing that overexpression of SKL significantly increased PPAR-? expression and lipid formation in ADSCs following adipogenic induction, indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Overexpression of SKL inhibited expression of TGF?1 and its downstream signaling mediator Smad2/3. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that SKL is essential to the maintenance of normal proliferation and differentiation in ADSCs. Klotho regulates adipogenic differentiation in ADSCs, likely via inhibition of TGF?1 and activation of PPAR-?. Stem Cells 2016;34:1615-1625.
Project description:Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are being explored for the repair of craniofacial defects due to their multi-differentiation potential and ease of isolation and expansion. Crucial to using ADSCs for craniofacial repair is the availability of materials with appropriate biomechanical properties that can support their differentiation into bone and cartilage. We tested the hypothesis that different modifications of chemical groups on the surface of a nanocomposite polymer could increase human ADSC adhesion and selectively enhance their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. We show that the COOH modification significantly promoted initial cell adhesion and proliferation over 14days compared to NH2 surfaces. Expression of focal adhesion kinase and vinculin was enhanced after plasma surface polymerisation at 24h. The COOH modification significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by up-regulation of aggrecan and collagen II transcripts. In contrast, NH2 group functionalised scaffolds promoted osteogenic differentiation with significantly enhanced expression of collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin both at the gene and protein level. Finally, chorioallantoic membrane grafting demonstrated that both NH2 and COOH functionalised scaffolds seeded with ADSCs were biocompatible and supported vessel ingrowth apparently to a greater degree than unmodified scaffolds. In summary, our study shows the ability to direct ADSC chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation by deposition of different chemical groups through plasma surface polymerisation. Hence this approach could be used to selectively enhance bone or cartilage formation before implantation in vivo to repair skeletal defects.Human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are an exciting stem cell source for regenerative medicine due to their plentiful supply and ease of isolation. However, the optimal environmental cues to direct stem cells towards certain lineages change have to has not been identified. We have shown that by modifying the surface of the scaffold with specific chemical groups using plasma surface polymerisation techniques we can control ADSCs differentiation. This study shows that ADSCs can be differentiated towards osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages on amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) modified scaffolds respectively. Plasma polymerisation can be easily applied to other biomaterial surfaces to direct stem cell differentiation for the regeneration of bone and cartilage.
Project description:The successful implementation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in bone regeneration depends on efficient osteogenic differentiation. However, a literature survey and our own experience demonstrated that current differentiation methods are not effective enough. Since the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts and adipocytes can be regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, we investigated the effects of cAMP activator, forskolin, and inhibitor, SQ 22,536, on the early and late osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs cultured in spheroids or in a monolayer. Intracellular cAMP concentration, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) expression examination confirmed cAMP up- and downregulation. cAMP upregulation inhibited the cell cycle and protected ADSCs from osteogenic medium (OM)-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, the upregulation of cAMP level at the early stages of osteogenic differentiation downregulated the expression of osteogenic markers RUNX2, Osterix, and IBSP, which was more significant in spheroids, and it is used for the more efficient commitment of ADSCs into preosteoblasts, according to the previously reported protocol. However, cAMP upregulation in a culture of ADSCs in spheroids resulted in significantly increased osteocalcin production and mineralization. Thus, undifferentiated and predifferentiated ADSCs respond differently to cAMP pathway stimulation in terms of osteogenesis, which might explain the ambiguous results from the literature.
Project description:Both stem cell therapy and physical treatments have been shown to be beneficial in accelerating bone healing. However, the efficacy of combined treatment with stem cells and physical stimuli for large bone defects remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) and human adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) treatments during fracture repair using a comparative rat calvarial defect model. We evaluated the viability of human ADSCs, which were cultured on a porous PLGA scaffold using an MTS assay. The critical-sized calvarial bone defect rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, LPLI group, ADSC group, and ADSC+LPLI group. Bone formation was evaluated using micro-CT. New bone formation areas and osteogenic factor expression levels were then examined by histomorphological analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Our data showed that PLGA had no cytotoxic effect on human ADSCs. Micro-CT analyses revealed that both the LPLI and ADSC groups showed improved calvarial bone defect healing compared to the control group. In addition, the ADSC+LPLI group showed significantly increased bone volume at 16 weeks after surgery. The area of new bone formation ranked as follows: control group < LPLI group < ADSC group < ADSC+LPLI group. There were significant differences between the groups. In addition, both ADSC and ADSC+LPLI groups showed strong signals of vWF expression. ADSC and LPLI treatments improved fracture repair in critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. Importantly, the combined treatment of ADSCs and LPLI further enhances the bone healing process.
Project description:Leydig cells (LCs) are the primary source of testosterone in the testis, and testosterone deficiency caused by LC functional degeneration can lead to male reproductive dysfunction. LC replacement transplantation is a very promising approach for this disease therapy. Here, we report that human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be differentiated into Leydig-like cells using a novel differentiation method based on molecular compounds. The isolated human ADSCs expressed positive CD29, CD44, CD59 and CD105, negative CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR using flow cytometry, and had the capacity of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. ADSCs derived Leydig-like cells (ADSC-LCs) acquired testosterone synthesis capabilities, and positively expressed LC lineage-specific markers LHCGR, STAR, SCARB1, SF-1, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 as well as negatively expressed ADSC specific markers CD29, CD44, CD59 and CD105. When ADSC-LCs labelled with lipophilic red dye (PKH26) were injected into rat testes which were selectively eliminated endogenous LCs using ethylene dimethanesulfonate (EDS, 75 mg/kg), the transplanted ADSC-LCs could survive and function in the interstitium of testes, and accelerate the recovery of blood testosterone levels and testis weights. These results demonstrated that ADSCs could be differentiated into Leydig-like cells by few defined molecular compounds, which might lay the foundation for further clinical application of ADSC-LC transplantation therapy.
Project description:Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive multipotent stem cell source with therapeutic applicability across diverse fields for the repair and regeneration of acute and chronically damaged tissues. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in ADSC for tissue engineering applications. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ADSC proliferation are not fully understood. Here we show that 47 transcripts are up-regulated while 23 are down-regulated in ADSC compared to terminally differentiated cells based on global mRNA profiling and microRNA profiling. Among the up-regulated genes, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is fine-tuned by miR-199a-5p. Further investigation indicates that VEGF accelerates ADSC proliferation whereas the multipotency of ADSC remains stable in terms of adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic potentials after VEGF treatment, suggesting that VEGF may serve as an excellent supplement for accelerating ADSC proliferation during in vitro expansion.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can self-renew, differentiate into specialised cells and have different embryonic origins-ectodermal for dental pulp-derived MSCs (DPSCs) and mesodermal for adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADSCs). Data on DPSCs adipogenic differentiation potential and timing vary, and the lack of molecular and genetic information prompted us to gain a better understanding of DPSCs adipogenic differentiation potential and gene expression profile. While DPSCs differentiated readily along osteogenic and chondrogenic pathways, after 21 days in two different types of adipogenic induction media, DPSCs cultures did not contain lipid vacuoles and had low expression levels of the adipogenic genes proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA). To better understand this limitation in adipogenesis, transcriptome analysis in undifferentiated DPSCs was carried out, with the ADSC transcriptome used as a positive control. In total, 14,871 transcripts were common to DPSCs and ADSCs, some were unique (DPSCs: 471, ADSCs: 1032), and 510 were differentially expressed genes. Detailed analyses of overrepresented transcripts showed that DPSCs express genes that inhibit adipogenic differentiation, revealing the possible mechanism for their limited adipogenesis.