Evaluation of the Trypanosoma brucei 6-oxopurine salvage pathway as a potential target for drug discovery.
ABSTRACT: Due to toxicity and compliance issues and the emergence of resistance to current medications new drugs for the treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis are needed. A potential approach to developing novel anti-trypanosomal drugs is by inhibition of the 6-oxopurine salvage pathways which synthesise the nucleoside monophosphates required for DNA/RNA production. This is in view of the fact that trypanosomes lack the machinery for de novo synthesis of the purine ring. To provide validation for this approach as a drug target, we have RNAi silenced the three 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase) isoforms in the infectious stage of Trypanosoma brucei demonstrating that the combined activity of these enzymes is critical for the parasites' viability. Furthermore, we have determined crystal structures of two of these isoforms in complex with several acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), a class of compound previously shown to inhibit 6-oxopurine PRTases from several species including Plasmodium falciparum. The most potent of these compounds have Ki values as low as 60 nM, and IC50 values in cell based assays as low as 4 ?M. This data provides a solid platform for further investigations into the use of this pathway as a target for anti-trypanosomal drug discovery.
Project description:Crystal structures have been determined for free Escherichia coli hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) (2.9 A resolution) and for the enzyme in complex with the reaction products, inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) (2.8 A resolution). Of the known 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase) structures, E. coli HPRT is most similar in structure to that of Tritrichomonas foetus HGXPRT, with a rmsd for 150 Calpha atoms of 1.0 A. Comparison of the free and product bound structures shows that the side chain of Phe156 and the polypeptide backbone in this vicinity move to bind IMP or GMP. A nonproline cis peptide bond, also found in some other 6-oxopurine PRTases, is observed between Leu46 and Arg47 in both the free and complexed structures. For catalysis to occur, the 6-oxopurine PRTases have a requirement for divalent metal ion, usually Mg(2+) in vivo. In the free structure, a Mg(2+) is coordinated to the side chains of Glu103 and Asp104. This interaction may be important for stabilization of the enzyme before catalysis. E. coli HPRT is unique among the known 6-oxopurine PRTases in that it exhibits a marked preference for hypoxanthine as substrate over both xanthine and guanine. The structures suggest that its substrate specificity is due to the modes of binding of the bases. In E. coli HPRT, the carbonyl oxygen of Asp163 would likely form a hydrogen bond with the 2-exocyclic nitrogen of guanine (in the HPRT-guanine-PRib-PP-Mg(2+) complex). However, hypoxanthine does not have a 2-exocyclic atom and the HPRT-IMP structure suggests that hypoxanthine is likely to occupy a different position in the purine-binding pocket.
Project description:TT1426, from Thermus thermophilus HB8, is a conserved hypothetical protein with a predicted phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase) domain, as revealed by a Pfam database search. The 2.01 A crystal structure of TT1426 has been determined by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. TT1426 comprises a core domain consisting of a central five-stranded beta sheet surrounded by four alpha-helices, and a subdomain in the C terminus. The core domain structure resembles those of the type I PRTase family proteins, although a significant structural difference exists in an inserted 43-residue region. The C-terminal subdomain corresponds to the "hood," which contains a substrate-binding site in the type I PRTases. The hood structure of TT1426 differs from those of the other type I PRTases, suggesting the possibility that TT1426 binds an unknown substrate. The structure-based sequence alignment provides clues about the amino acid residues involved in catalysis and substrate binding.
Project description:Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei (Tbr). Due to the debilitating side effects of the current therapeutics and the emergence of resistance to these drugs, new medications for this disease need to be developed. One potential new drug target is 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRT), an enzyme central to the purine salvage pathway and whose activity is critical for the production of the nucleotides (GMP and IMP) required for DNA/RNA synthesis within this protozoan parasite. Here, the first crystal structures of this enzyme have been determined, these in complex with GMP and IMP and with three acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (ANP) inhibitors. The Ki values for GMP and IMP are 30.5??M and 77??M, respectively. Two of the ANPs have Ki values considerably lower than for the nucleotides, 2.3??M (with guanine as base) and 15.8??M (with hypoxanthine as base). The crystal structures show that when two of the ANPs bind, they induce an unusual conformation change to the loop where the reaction product, pyrophosphate, is expected to bind. This and other structural differences between the Tbr and human enzymes suggest selective inhibitors for the Tbr enzyme can be designed.
Project description:Cobamides are coenzymes used by cells from all domains of life but made de novo by only some bacteria and archaea. The last steps of the cobamide biosynthetic pathway activate the corrin ring and the lower ligand base, condense the activated intermediates, and dephosphorylate the product prior to the release of the biologically active coenzyme. In bacteria, a phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase) enyzme activates the base into its ?-mononucleotide. The enzyme from Salmonella enterica ( SeCobT) has been extensively biochemically and structurally characterized. The crystal structure of the putative PRTase from the archaeum Methanocaldococcus jannaschii ( MjCobT) is known, but its function has not been validated. Here we report the in vivo and in vitro characterization of MjCobT. In vivo, in vitro, and phylogenetic data reported here show that MjCobT belongs to a new class of NaMN-dependent PRTases. We also show that the Synechococcus sp. WH7803 CobT protein has PRTase activity in vivo. Lastly, results of isothermal titration calorimetry and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis show that the biologically active form of MjCobT is a dimer, not a trimer, as suggested by its crystal structure.
Project description:Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), such as (S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl)]cytosine (HPMPC), are an important group of broad-spectrum antiviral agents with activity against DNA viruses. In this report, we present the in vitro potencies of novel ANPs against gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and three animal gammaherpesviruses. 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-5-azacytosine (HPMP-5-azaC), (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-3-deazaadenine (3-deaza-HPMPA), and their cyclic derivatives have emerged as highly potent antigammaherpesvirus agents. Interestingly, cyclic prodrugs of ANPs exhibited reduced activities against EBV strain P3HR-1, but not against EBV strain Akata. Cell culture metabolism studies with HPMPC and cyclic HPMPC revealed that these differences were attributable to an altered drug metabolism in P3HR-1 cells after EBV reactivation and, more specifically, to a reduced hydrolysis of cyclic HPMPC by cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase. We did not correlate this effect with phosphodiesterase downregulation, or to functional mutations. Instead, altered cyclic AMP levels in P3HR-1 cells indicated a competitive inhibition of the phosphodiesterase by this cyclic nucleotide. Finally, both HPMPC and HPMP-5-azaC emerged as highly effective inhibitors in vivo through significant inhibition of murine gammaherpesvirus replication and dissemination. With the current need for potent antigammaherpesvirus agents, our findings underline the requirement of appropriate surrogate viruses for antiviral susceptibility testing and highlight HPMP-5-azaC as a promising compound for future clinical development.
Project description:Nucleotide degradation is a universal metabolic capability. Here we combine metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry to characterize the yeast pathway. Nutrient starvation, via PKA, AMPK/SNF1, and TOR, triggers autophagic breakdown of ribosomes into nucleotides. A protein not previously associated with nucleotide degradation, Phm8, converts nucleotide monophosphates into nucleosides. Downstream steps, which involve the purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Pnp1, and pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase, Urh1, funnel ribose into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. During carbon starvation, the ribose-derived carbon accumulates as sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, whose consumption by transaldolase is impaired due to depletion of transaldolase's other substrate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Oxidative stress increases glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, resulting in rapid consumption of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to make NADPH for antioxidant defense. Ablation of Phm8 or double deletion of Pnp1 and Urh1 prevent effective nucleotide salvage, resulting in metabolite depletion and impaired survival of starving yeast. Thus, ribose salvage provides means of surviving nutrient starvation and oxidative stress.
Project description:A series of 13 acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) as bisamidate prodrugs was prepared. Five compounds were found to be non-cytotoxic and selective inhibitors of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) in J774A.1 macrophage cell-based assays. The 8-aza-7-deazapurine derivative of adefovir (PMEA) was found to be the most potent ACT inhibitor in the series (IC50 =16?nm) with substantial selectivity over mammalian adenylate cyclases (mACs). AC inhibitory properties of the most potent analogues were confirmed by direct evaluation of the corresponding phosphonodiphosphates in cell-free assays and were found to be potent inhibitors of both ACT and edema factor (EF) from Bacillus anthracis (IC50 values ranging from 0.5 to 21?nm). Moreover, 7-halo-7-deazapurine analogues of PMEA were discovered to be potent and selective mammalian AC1 inhibitors (no inhibition of AC2 and AC5) with IC50 values ranging from 4.1 to 5.6??m in HEK293 cell-based assays.
Project description:Species differences in renal drug transporters continue to plague drug development with animal models failing to adequately predict renal drug toxicity. For example, adefovir, a renally excreted antiviral drug, failed clinical studies for human immunodeficiency virus due to pronounced nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, we demonstrated that there are large species differences in the kinetics of interactions of a key class of antiviral drugs, acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), with organic anion transporter 1 [(OAT1) SLC22A6] and identified a key amino acid residue responsible for these differences. In OAT1 stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells, the Km value of tenofovir for human OAT1 (hOAT1) was significantly lower than for OAT1 orthologs from common preclinical animals, including cynomolgus monkey, mouse, rat, and dog. Chimeric and site-directed mutagenesis studies along with comparative structure modeling identified serine at position 203 (S203) in hOAT1 as a determinant of its lower Km value. Furthermore, S203 is conserved in apes, and in contrast alanine at the equivalent position is conserved in preclinical animals and Old World monkeys, the most related primates to apes. Intriguingly, transport efficiencies are significantly higher for OAT1 orthologs from apes with high serum uric acid (SUA) levels than for the orthologs from species with low serum uric acid levels. In conclusion, our data provide a molecular mechanism underlying species differences in renal accumulation of nephrotoxic ANPs and a novel insight into OAT1 transport function in primate evolution.
Project description:Purine metabolism plays a ubiquitous role in the physiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria. The purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is essential for M. tuberculosis growth in vitro; however, its precise role in M. tuberculosis physiology is unclear. Membrane-permeable prodrugs of specifically designed HGPRT inhibitors arrest the growth of M. tuberculosis and represent potential new antituberculosis compounds. Here, we investigated the purine salvage pathway in the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis Using genomic deletion analysis, we confirmed that HGPRT is the only guanine and hypoxanthine salvage enzyme in M. smegmatis but is not required for in vitro growth of this mycobacterium or survival under long-term stationary-phase conditions. We also found that prodrugs of M. tuberculosis HGPRT inhibitors displayed an unexpected antimicrobial activity against M. smegmatis that is independent of HGPRT. Our data point to a different mode of mechanism of action for these inhibitors than was originally proposed.IMPORTANCE Purine bases, released by the hydrolytic and phosphorolytic degradation of nucleic acids and nucleotides, can be salvaged and recycled. The hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), which catalyzes the formation of guanosine-5'-monophosphate from guanine and inosine-5'-monophosphate from hypoxanthine, represents a potential target for specific inhibitor development. Deletion of the HGPRT gene (?hgprt) in the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis confirmed that this enzyme is not essential for M. smegmatis growth. Prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), originally designed against HGPRT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, displayed anti-M. smegmatis activities comparable to those obtained for M. tuberculosis but also inhibited the ?hgprt M. smegmatis strain. These results confirmed that ANPs act in M. smegmatis by a mechanism independent of HGPRT.
Project description:Carbocyclic nucleoside analogues are an essential class of antiviral agents and are commonly used in the treatment of viral diseases (hepatitis B, AIDS). Recently, we reported the racemic synthesis and the anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities (HIV) of 3'-fluoro-5'-norcarbocyclic nucleoside phosphonates bearing purines as heterocyclic base. Based on these results, the corresponding racemic norcarbocyclic nucleoside phosphonates bearing pyrimidine bases were synthesized. The prepared compounds were evaluated against HIV, but none of them showed marked antiviral activity compared to their purine counterparts.