Differential role of MyD88 and TRIF signaling in myeloid cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. While the role of adaptive immunity has been extensively studied, the role of innate immune responses and particularly of Toll- like Receptor (TLR) signaling in T1D remains poorly understood. Here we show that myeloid cell-specific MyD88 deficiency considerably protected mice from the development of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The protective effect of MyD88 deficiency correlated with increased expression of the immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in pancreatic lymph nodes from STZ-treated mice and in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) stimulated with apoptotic cells. Mice with myeloid cell specific TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-? (TRIF) knockout showed a trend towards accelerated onset of STZ-induced diabetes, while TRIF deficiency resulted in reduced IDO expression in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, myeloid cell specific MyD88 deficiency delayed the onset of diabetes in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice, whereas TRIF deficiency had no effect. Taken together, these results identify MyD88 signaling in myeloid cells as a critical pathogenic factor in autoimmune diabetes, which is antagonized by TRIF-dependent responses. This differential function of MyD88 and TRIF depends at least in part on their opposite effects in regulating IDO expression in phagocytes exposed to apoptotic cells.
Project description:The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, the gut microbiota have been identified to be an important environmental factor that could modify diabetes susceptibility. We have previously shown that Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), a major adaptor protein downstream of most innate immune Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, is important for mediating diabetes susceptibility in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of human T1D. Here we report the role of TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-? (TRIF) in T1D development, as TRIF is an important adaptor protein downstream of TLR3 and TLR4 signaling. We found that TRIF-deficient (TRIF-/-) NOD mice were protected from development of diabetes, but only when housed with TRIF-deficient (TRIF-/-) NOD mice. When housed with TRIF-sufficient wild type (WT, i.e., TRIF+/+) NOD mice, the mice developed diabetes. We further investigated the gut microbiota as a potential cause for the altered diabetes development. Interestingly, TRIF-/-NOD mice had a different microbiota composition compared to WT NOD mice, only if they were housed with TRIF-/-NOD mice. However, the composition of gut microbiota in the TRIF-/-NOD mice was indistinguishable from WT NOD mice, if they were housed with WT NOD mice. The difference in the gut microbiota in TRIF-/-NOD mice, due to cohousing, accorded with the diabetes development in TRIF-/-NOD mice. Comparing the gut microbiota in TRIF-/- and WT NOD mice, we identified changes in percentage of Sutterella, Rikenella and Turicibacter species. Moreover, bacteria from WT NOD mice induced significantly stronger inflammatory immune responses in vitro compared to those from TRIF-/-NOD mice. Further immunological analysis revealed impaired function of dendritic cells and reduced T cell activation and proliferation in TRIF-/-NOD mice. Our data show that TRIF-deficiency protects NOD mice from diabetes development through alteration of the gut microbiota and reduced immune cell activation; however, that protection is over-ridden upon exposure to WT NOD bacteria. Therefore exposure to different microbiota can modify disease susceptibility determined by genetic factors related to innate immunity.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize the conserved molecular patterns in microorganisms and trigger myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and/or TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-? (TRIF) pathways that are critical for host defense against microbial infection. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern TLR signaling remain incompletely understood. Regulator of calcineurin-1 (RCAN1), a small evolutionarily conserved protein that inhibits calcineurin phosphatase activity, suppresses inflammation during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Here, we define the roles for RCAN1 in P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated TLR4 signaling. We compared the effects of P. aeruginosa LPS challenge on bone marrow-derived macrophages from both wild-type and RCAN1-deficient mice and found that RCAN1 deficiency increased the MyD88-NF-?B-mediated cytokine production (IL-6, TNF and MIP-2), whereas TRIF-interferon-stimulated response elements (ISRE)-mediated cytokine production (IFN?, RANTES and IP-10) was suppressed. RCAN1 deficiency caused increased I?B? phosphorylation and NF-?B activity in the MyD88-dependent pathway, but impaired ISRE activation and reduced IRF7 expression in the TRIF-dependent pathway. Complementary studies of a mouse model of P. aeruginosa LPS-induced acute pneumonia confirmed that RCAN1-deficient mice displayed greatly enhanced NF-?B activity and MyD88-NF-?B-mediated cytokine production, which correlated with enhanced pulmonary infiltration of neutrophils. By contrast, RCAN1 deficiency had little effect on the TRIF pathway in vivo. These findings demonstrate a novel regulatory role of RCAN1 in TLR signaling, which differentially regulates MyD88 and TRIF pathways.
Project description:There is compelling evidence that glial-immune interactions contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The adaptive immune response has been implicated in disease processes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it remains unknown if innate immune signaling also contributes to ALS progression. Here we report that deficiency of the innate immune adaptor TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-? (TRIF), which is essential for certain Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling cascades, significantly shortens survival time and accelerates disease progression of ALS mice. While myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is also a crucial adaptor for most TLR signaling pathways, MyD88 deficiency had only a marginal impact on disease course. Moreover, TRIF deficiency reduced the number of natural killer (NK), NK-T-lymphocytes, and CD8-T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord of ALS mice, but experimental modulation of these populations did not substantially influence survival time. Instead, we found that aberrantly activated astrocytes expressing Mac2, p62, and apoptotic markers were accumulated in the lesions of TRIF-deficient ALS mice, and that the number of aberrantly activated astrocytes was negatively correlated with survival time. These findings suggest that TRIF pathway plays an important role in protecting a microenvironment surrounding motor neurons by eliminating aberrantly activated astrocytes.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a debilitating autoimmune disease that results from T-cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells. Its incidence has increased during the past several decades in developed countries, suggesting that changes in the environment (including the human microbial environment) may influence disease pathogenesis. The incidence of spontaneous T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be affected by the microbial environment in the animal housing facility or by exposure to microbial stimuli, such as injection with mycobacteria or various microbial products. Here we show that specific pathogen-free NOD mice lacking MyD88 protein (an adaptor for multiple innate immune receptors that recognize microbial stimuli) do not develop T1D. The effect is dependent on commensal microbes because germ-free MyD88-negative NOD mice develop robust diabetes, whereas colonization of these germ-free MyD88-negative NOD mice with a defined microbial consortium (representing bacterial phyla normally present in human gut) attenuates T1D. We also find that MyD88 deficiency changes the composition of the distal gut microbiota, and that exposure to the microbiota of specific pathogen-free MyD88-negative NOD donors attenuates T1D in germ-free NOD recipients. Together, these findings indicate that interaction of the intestinal microbes with the innate immune system is a critical epigenetic factor modifying T1D predisposition.
Project description:Innate responses combine with adaptive immunity to generate the most effective form of anti-Aspergillus immune resistance. Whereas the pivotal role of dendritic cells in determining the balance between immunopathology and protective immunity to the fungus is well established, we determined that epithelial cells (ECs) also contributes to this balance. Mechanistically, EC-mediated protection occurred through a Toll-like receptor 3/Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon (TLR3/TRIF)-dependent pathway converging on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) via non-canonical nuclear factor-κB activation. Consistent with the high susceptibility of TRIF-deficient mice to pulmonary aspergillosis, bone marrow chimeric mice with TRIF unresponsive ECs exhibited higher fungal burdens and inflammatory pathology than control mice, underexpressed the IDO-dependent T helper 1/regulatory T cell (Th1/Treg) pathway and overexpressed the Th17 pathway with massive neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs. Further studies with interferon (IFN)-γ, IDO or IL-17R unresponsive cells confirmed the dependency of immune tolerance to the fungus on the IFN-γ/IDO/Treg pathway and of immune resistance on the MyD88 pathway controlling the fungal growth. Thus, distinct immune pathways contribute to resistance and tolerance to the fungus, to which the hematopoietic/non-hematopoietic compartments contribute through distinct, yet complementary, roles.
Project description:Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic disease. Results from mouse models utilizing a high-fat diet (HFD) have indicated that an increase in activated macrophages, including CD11c<sup>+</sup> adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), contributes to insulin resistance. Obesity primes myeloid cell production from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the downstream TIR domain-containing adapter protein-inducing interferon-? (TRIF)- and MyD88-mediated pathways regulate production of similar myeloid cells after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. However, the role of these pathways in HFD-induced myelopoiesis is unknown. We hypothesized that saturated fatty acids and HFD alter myelopoiesis by activating TLR4 pathways in HSCs, differentially producing pro-inflammatory CD11c<sup>+</sup> myeloid cells that contribute to obesity-induced metabolic disease. Results from reciprocal bone marrow transplants (BMTs) with <i>Tlr4</i><sup>-/-</sup> and WT mice indicated that TLR4 is required for HFD-induced myelopoiesis and production of CD11c<sup>+</sup> ATMs. Experiments with homozygous knockouts of <i>Irakm</i> (encoding a suppressor of MyD88 inactivation) and <i>Trif</i> in competitive BMTs revealed that MyD88 is required for HFD expansion of granulocyte macrophage progenitors and that <i>Trif</i> is required for pregranulocyte macrophage progenitor expansion. A comparison of WT, <i>Tlr4</i><sup>-/-</sup>, <i>Myd88</i><sup>-/-</sup>, and <i>Trif</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice on HFD demonstrated that TLR4 plays a role in the production of CD11c<sup>+</sup> ATMs, and both <i>Myd88</i><sup>-/-</sup> and <i>Trif</i><sup>-/-</sup> mice produced fewer ATMs than WT mice. Moreover, HFD-induced TLR4 activation inhibited macrophage proliferation, leading to greater accumulation of recruited CD11c<sup>+</sup> ATMs. Our results indicate that HFD potentiates TLR4 and both its MyD88- and TRIF-mediated downstream pathways within progenitors and adipose tissue and leads to macrophage polarization.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of insulin producing ? cells of the pancreatic islets. Curbing autoimmunity at the initiation of T1D can result in recovery of residual ? cells and consequently remission of diabetes. Here we report a cell-based therapy for autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice using dermal fibroblasts. This was achieved by a single injection of fibroblasts, expressing the immunoregulatory molecule indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), into peritoneal cavity of NOD mice shortly after the onset of overt hyperglycemia. Mice were then monitored for reversal of hyperglycemia and changes in inflammatory/regulatory T cell profiles. Blood glucose levels dropped into the normal range in 82% of NOD mice after receiving IDO-expressing fibroblasts while all control mice remained diabetic. We found significantly reduced islet inflammation, increased regulatory T cells, and decreased T helper 17 cells and ? cell specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells following IDO cell therapy. We further showed that some of intraperitoneal injected fibroblasts migrated to local lymph nodes and expressed co-inhibitory molecules. These findings suggest that IDO fibroblasts therapy can reinstate self-tolerance and alleviate ? cell autoreactivity in NOD mice, resulting in remission of autoimmune diabetes.
Project description:Although a correlation between polymorphisms of NOD-like receptor family-pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and predisposition to type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been identified, the potential function and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in T1D have not been clarified. The present study shows that non-obese diabetic mice exhibited increased NLRP3, and pro-IL-1? gene expression in pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs). Similar increases in gene expression of NLRP3, apoptosis associated speck like protein (ASC) and pro-IL-1? were induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, diabetic C57BL/6 mice also exhibited increased IL-1? protein expression in the pancreatic tissue at day 7, which remained elevated until day 15. Diabetic mice also showed increased positive caspase-1 macrophages in the PLNs, which were decreased in NLRP3<sup>-/-</sup> mice, but not in ASC<sup>-/-</sup> mice, after STZ treatment. NLRP3- and IL-1R-deficient mice, but not ASC-deficient mice, showed reduced incidence of diabetes, less insulitis, lower hyperglycemia, and normal insulin levels compared to wild-type (WT) diabetic mice. Notably, these mice also displayed a decrease in IL-17-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells (Th17 and Tc17) and IFN-?-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells (Th1 and Tc1) in the PLNs. Following STZ treatment to induce T1D, NLRP3-deficient mice also exhibited an increase in myeloid-derived suppressor cell and mast cell numbers in the PLNs along with a significant increase in IL-6, IL-10, and IL-4 expression in the pancreatic tissue. Interestingly, diabetic mice revealed increased circulating expression of genes related to mitochondrial DNA, such as cytochrome <i>b</i> and cytochrome <i>c</i>, but not NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (NADH). Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) from diabetic mice, but not from non-diabetic mice, induced significant IL-1? production and caspase-1 activation by WT macrophages, which was reduced in NLRP3<sup>-/-</sup> macrophages. Finally, mDNA administration <i>in vivo</i> increased Th17/Tc17/Th1/Tc1 cells in the PLNs and precipitated T1D onset, which was abolished in NLRP3<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Overall, our results demonstrate that mDNA-mediated NLRP3 activation triggers caspase-1-dependent IL-1? production and contributes to pathogenic cellular responses during the development of STZ-induced T1D.
Project description:Hypertension is recognized as an immune disorder whereby immune cells play a defining role in the genesis and progression of the disease. The innate immune system and its component toll-like receptors are key determinants of the immunologic outcome through their proinflammatory response. Toll-like receptor-activated signaling pathways use several adaptor proteins of which adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) and toll-interleukin receptor domain-containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon-? (TRIF) define 2 major inflammatory pathways. In this study, we compared the contributions of MyD88 and TRIF adaptor proteins to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Deletion of MyD88 did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy and the pressor response to Ang II tended to increase. Moreover, the increase in inflammatory gene expression (Tnfa, Nox4, and Agtr1a) was significantly greater in the heart and kidney of MyD88-deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice. Thus, pathways involving MyD88 may actually restrain the inflammatory responses. However, in mice with nonfunctional TRIF (Trif(mut) mice), Ang II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were abrogated, and proinflammatory gene expression in heart and kidneys was unchanged or decreased. Our results indicate that Ang II induces activation of a proinflammatory innate immune response, causing hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. These effects require functional adaptor protein TRIF-mediated pathways. However, the common MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, which is also activated simultaneously by Ang II, paradoxically exerts a negative regulatory influence on these responses.
Project description:Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a central role in host responses to bacterial infection, but the precise mechanism(s) by which its downstream signaling components coordinate the bone marrow response to sepsis is poorly understood. Using mice deficient in TLR4 downstream adapters MYD88 or TRIF, we demonstrate that both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous MYD88 activation are major causes of myelosuppression during sepsis, while having a modest impact on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions. In contrast, cell-intrinsic TRIF activation severely compromises HSC self-renewal without directly affecting myeloid cells. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of MYD88 or TRIF contributes to cell-cycle activation of HSC and induces rapid and permanent changes in transcriptional programs, as indicated by persistent downregulation of Spi1 and CebpA expression after transplantation. Thus, distinct mechanisms downstream of TLR4 signaling mediate myelosuppression and HSC exhaustion during sepsis through unique effects of MyD88 and TRIF.