Estimation of the Effect of Body Weight on the Development of Osteoarthritis Based on Cumulative Stresses in Cartilage: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.
ABSTRACT: Evaluation of the subject-specific biomechanical effects of obesity on the progression of OA is challenging. The aim of this study was to create 3D MRI-based finite element models of the knee joints of seven obese subjects, who had developed OA at 4-year follow-up, and of seven normal weight subjects, who had not developed OA at 4-year follow-up, to test the sensitivity of cumulative maximum principal stresses in cartilage in quantitative risk evaluation of the initiation and progression of knee OA. Volumes of elements with cumulative stresses over 5 MPa in tibial cartilage were significantly (p < 0.05) larger in obese subjects as compared to normal weight subjects. Locations of high peak cumulative stresses at the baseline in most of the obese subjects showed a good agreement with the locations of the cartilage loss and MRI scoring at follow-up. Simulated weight loss (to body mass index 24 kg/m2) in obese subjects led to significant reduction of the highest cumulative stresses in tibial and femoral cartilages. The modeling results suggest that an analysis of cumulative stresses could be used to evaluate subject-specific effects of obesity and weight loss on cartilage responses and potential risks for the progression of knee OA.
Project description:The objective of this study was to describe the rate of change in knee cartilage volume over 4.5 years in subjects with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine factors associated with cartilage loss. One hundred and five subjects were eligible for this longitudinal study. Subjects' tibial cartilage volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, at 2 years and at 4.5 years. Of 105 subjects, 78 (74%) completed the study. The annual percentage losses of medial and lateral tibial cartilage over 4.5 years were 3.7 +/- 4.7% (mean +/- SD; 95% confidence interval 2.7 to 4.8%) and 4.4 +/- 4.7% (mean +/- SD; 95% confidence interval 3.4 to 5.5%), respectively. Cartilage volume in each individual seemed to track over the study period, relative to other study participants. After multivariate adjustment, annual medial tibial cartilage loss was predicted by lesser severity of baseline knee pain but was independent of age, body mass index and structural factors. No factors specified a priori were associated with lateral cartilage volume rates of change. Tibial cartilage declines at an average rate of 4% per year in subjects with symptomatic knee OA. There was evidence to support the concept that tracking occurs in OA. This may enable the prediction of cartilage change in an individual. The only significant factor affecting the loss of medial tibial cartilage was baseline knee pain, possibly through altered joint loading.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Clinical evidence suggests that abnormal mechanical forces play a major role in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, few studies have examined the mechanical environment that leads to disease. Thus, using a mouse tibial loading model, we quantified the cartilage contact stresses and examined the effects of altering tissue material properties on joint stresses during loading.<h4>Design</h4>Using a discrete element model (DEA) in conjunction with joint kinematics data from a murine knee joint compression model, the magnitude and distribution of contact stresses in the tibial cartilage during joint loading were quantified at levels ranging from 0 to 9 N in 1 N increments. In addition, a simplified finite element (FEA) contact model was developed to simulate the knee joint, and parametric analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of altering bone and cartilage material properties on joint stresses during compressive loading.<h4>Results</h4>As loading increased, the peak contact pressures were sufficient to induce fibrillations on the cartilage surfaces. The computed areas of peak contact pressures correlated with experimentally defined areas of highest cartilage damage. Only alterations in cartilage properties and geometry caused large changes in cartilage contact pressures. However, changes in both bone and cartilage material properties resulted in significant changes in stresses induced in the bone during compressive loading.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The level of mechanical stress induced by compressive tibial loading directly correlated with areas of biological change observed in the mouse knee joint. These results, taken together with the parametric analyses, are the first to demonstrate both experimentally and computationally that the tibial loading model is a useful preclinical platform with which to predict and study the effects of modulating bone and/or cartilage properties on attenuating OA progression. Given the direct correlation between computational modeling and experimental results, the effects of tissue-modifying treatments may be predicted prior to <i>in vivo</i> experimentation, allowing for novel therapeutics to be developed.
Project description:To evaluate subchondral bone trabecular integrity (BTI) on radiographs as a predictor of knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression.Longitudinal (baseline, 12-month, and 24-month) knee radiographs were available for 60 female subjects with knee OA. OA progression was defined by 12- and 24-month changes in radiographic medial compartment minimal joint space width (JSW) and medial joint space area (JSA), and by medial tibial and femoral cartilage volume on magnetic resonance imaging. BTI of the medial tibial plateau was analyzed by fractal signature analysis using commercially available software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for BTI were used to predict a 5% change in OA progression parameters.Individual terms (linear and quadratic) of baseline BTI of vertical trabeculae predicted knee OA progression based on 12- and 24-month changes in JSA (P < 0.01 for 24 months), 24-month change in tibial (P < 0.05), but not femoral, cartilage volume, and 24-month change in JSW (P = 0.05). ROC curves using both terms of baseline BTI predicted a 5% change in the following OA progression parameters over 24 months with high accuracy, as reflected by the area under the curve measures: JSW 81%, JSA 85%, tibial cartilage volume 75%, and femoral cartilage volume 85%. Change in BTI was also significantly associated (P < 0.05) with concurrent change in JSA over 12 and 24 months and with change in tibial cartilage volume over 24 months.BTI predicts structural OA progression as determined by radiographic and MRI outcomes. BTI may therefore be worthy of study as an outcome measure for OA studies and clinical trials.
Project description:To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based knee cartilage T2 measurements and focal knee lesions and 36-month changes in these parameters among knees of normal controls and knees of normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA).A total of 267 subjects ages 45-55 years from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database were analyzed in this study. Two hundred thirty-one subjects had risk factors for knee OA, but no radiographic OA (Kellgren/Lawrence score ?1) at baseline. Thirty-six subjects were normal controls. Subjects with OA risk factors were stratified in 3 groups: normal weight (n = 78), overweight (n = 84), and obese (n = 69). All subjects underwent 3T MRI of the right knee at baseline and after 36 months. Focal knee lesions were assessed and cartilage T2 measurements (mean T2 and T2 texture analysis) were performed.The baseline prevalence and severity of meniscal and cartilage lesions were highest in obese subjects and lowest in normal controls (P < 0.05). Obese subjects had the highest mean T2 values and the most heterogeneous cartilage (as assessed by T2 texture analysis), while normal controls had the lowest mean T2 values and the most homogeneous cartilage at baseline (P < 0.05). Increased body mass index (BMI) was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with greater progression of cartilage lesions and constantly elevated cartilage T2 entropy over 36 months.In preclinical OA, increased BMI is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration as assessed by both morphologic and quantitative MRI measurements.
Project description:Objective: To examine the changes in tibial plateau cartilage in relation to body mass index (BMI) in patients with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Knees were obtained from 23 OA patients (3 non-obese, 20 obese) at the time of total knee replacement. RNA prepared from cartilage was probed for differentially expressed (DE) gene transcripts using RNA microarrays and validated via real-time PCR. Differences with regard to age, sex, and between medial and lateral compartments were also queried. Results: Microarrays revealed that numerous transcripts were significantly DE between non-obese and obese patients (≥1.5-fold) using pooled and separate data from medial and lateral compartments. Correlation analyses showed that 706 transcripts (459 positively, 247 negatively) were significantly correlated with BMI. Among these, HS3ST6, HSD17B12, and FAM26F were positively correlated while STAC3, PRSS21, and EDA were negatively correlated. Differentially correlated transcripts represented important biological processes e.g. cellular metabolic processes, anatomical structure morphogenesis and cellular response to growth factors. Although age and sex had some effect on transcript expression, most intriguing results were observed for comparison between medial and lateral compartments. Transcripts (MMP13, CLEC3A, MATN3, EPYC, SCARNA5, COL2A1) elevated in the medial compartment represented skeletal system development, cartilage development, collagen and proteoglycan metabolism, and extracellular matrix organization. Likewise, transcripts (SELE, CTSS, VSIG4, F13A1, and STEAP4) repressed in medial compartment represented host immune response, cell migration, wound healing, cell proliferation and response to cytokines. PCR data confirmed expression of DE transcripts. Conclusions: This study supports molecular interaction between obesity and OA and implies that BMI is an important determinant of transcript-level changes in cartilage. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from isolated from medial and lateral tibial plateau cartilage from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
Project description:We present a novel algorithm combined with computational modeling to simulate the development of knee osteoarthritis. The degeneration algorithm was based on excessive and cumulatively accumulated stresses within knee joint cartilage during physiological gait loading. In the algorithm, the collagen network stiffness of cartilage was reduced iteratively if excessive maximum principal stresses were observed. The developed algorithm was tested and validated against experimental baseline and 4-year follow-up Kellgren-Lawrence grades, indicating different levels of cartilage degeneration at the tibiofemoral contact region. Test groups consisted of normal weight and obese subjects with the same gender and similar age and height without osteoarthritic changes. The algorithm accurately simulated cartilage degeneration as compared to the Kellgren-Lawrence findings in the subject group with excess weight, while the healthy subject group's joint remained intact. Furthermore, the developed algorithm followed the experimentally found trend of cartilage degeneration in the obese group (R(2) = 0.95, p < 0.05; experiments vs. model), in which the rapid degeneration immediately after initiation of osteoarthritis (0-2 years, p < 0.001) was followed by a slow or negligible degeneration (2-4 years, p > 0.05). The proposed algorithm revealed a great potential to objectively simulate the progression of knee osteoarthritis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In patients undergoing bariatric surgery or medical management for obesity, we assessed whether those experiencing substantial weight loss had changes in innervated knee structures or in cartilage. METHODS:Severely obese patients (body mass index (BMI) ?35) with knee pain on most days were seen before bariatric surgery or medical weight management and at 1-year follow-up. Examinations included 3T MRI acquired at both time points for semi-quantitative scoring of bone marrow lesions (BML), synovitis, cartilage damage, and for quantitative measurement of cartilage thickness. Association of ?20% vs <20% weight loss with change in semi-quantitative scores was evaluated using linear mixed-effects models, and that with cartilage thickness change used non-parametric and parametric methods. Sensitivity analyses tested different thresholds for weight loss, weight loss as a continuous measure, examined those with and without bariatric surgery, and with worse osteoarthritis (OA). RESULTS:75 subjects (median age 49 years, 92% women) were included. At baseline, 61 subjects (81%) had Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grade >0, and 16 (21%) had KL grade ?3; 69 (92%) had cartilage damage. For BML, synovitis, and cartilage damage, the majority of knees had change in semi-quantitative scores of 0, and there was no difference between those with and without ?20% weight loss. Similarly, in terms of cartilage thickness loss, in 14 of 16 sub-regions thickness loss was not associated with weight loss. Sensitivity analyses showed similar findings. CONCLUSION:In middle-aged persons with mostly mild radiographic OA, structural features changed little over a year and weight loss was not associated with effects on structural changes.
Project description:Our study compared the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) on the subchondral bone and the articular cartilage in the treatment of early osteoarthritis (OA) of rat knee. The rats were divided into 5 groups which included Sham group, Meniscus group (ESWT applied on medial meniscus), OA group (arthrotomy and medial menisectomy (MMx) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), T(M) group (arthrotomy and MMx and ACLT followed by ESWT on medial tibial subchondral bone) and Articular cartilage group (arthrotomy and MMx and ACLT followed by ESWT on medial articular cartilage). Evaluations included the pathological changes of the synovium, articular cartilage and subchondral bone, and compared with ESWT on the meniscus, medial tibial subchondral bone and articular cartilage. The ESWT (0.25 mJ/mm<sup>²</sup> and 800 impulses) did not cause any damages on the cartilage of the meniscus and the tissue of the joint when compared with Sham group. Among the treatment of osteoarthritic groups (OA, T(M) and Articular cartilage groups), T(M) group showed significant in pathological examination, micro-CT analysis, cartilage grading score and grading of synovium changes by compared with OA and Articular cartilage groups (<i>P</i> < 0.05) in the treatment of early OA knee. In immunohistochemical analysis, T(M) group significantly increased the expression of TGF-?1 but reduced DMP-1, MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 in the cartilage by compared with OA group and Articular cartilage group (<i>P</i> < 0.05). Our results showed that subchondral bone was an excellent target than articular cartilage for ESWT on early knee osteoarthritis.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Inhibition of hedgehog (HH) signaling prevents cartilage degeneration and promotes repair in animal models of osteoarthritis (OA). This study, undertaken in OA models and in human OA articular cartilage, was designed to explore whether kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation via the inhibition of HH signaling may have therapeutic potential for achieving disease-modifying activity in OA.<h4>Methods</h4>Primary human articular cartilage and synovial tissue samples from patients with knee OA undergoing total joint replacement and from healthy human subjects were obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange. For in vivo animal studies, a partial medial meniscectomy (PMM) model of knee OA in rats was used. A novel automated 3-dimensional indentation tester (Mach-1) was used to quantify the thickness and stiffness properties of the articular cartilage.<h4>Results</h4>Inhibition of HH signaling through KOR activation was achieved with a selective peptide agonist, JT09, which reduced HH signaling via the cAMP/CREB pathway in OA human articular chondrocytes (P = 0.002 for treated versus untreated OA chondrocytes). Moreover, JT09 markedly decreased matrix degeneration induced by an HH agonist, SAG, in pig articular chondrocytes and cartilage explants (P = 0.026 versus untreated controls). In vivo application of JT09 via intraarticular injection into the rat knee joint after PMM surgery significantly attenuated articular cartilage degeneration (60% improvement in the tibial plateau; P = 0.021 versus vehicle-treated controls). In JT09-treated rats, cartilage content, structure, and functional properties were largely maintained, and osteophyte formation was reduced by 70% (P = 0.005 versus vehicle-treated controls).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results of this study define a novel mechanism for the role of KOR in articular cartilage homeostasis and disease, providing a potential unifying mechanistic basis for the overlap in disease processes and features involving opioid and HH signaling. Moreover, this study identifies a potential novel therapeutic strategy in which KOR modulation can improve outcomes in patients with OA.
Project description:To assess the associations of meniscal tears, knee mal-alignment, cartilage damage, knee effusion, and body mass index with meniscal extrusion.The Multicenter Osteoarthritis study is an observational study of individuals who have or are at risk for knee osteoarthritis (OA). The HIPAA-compliant protocol was approved by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. All subjects with available baseline knee radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) images were included. MR imaging assessment of meniscal morphologic characteristics, meniscal position, and cartilage morphologic characteristics with use of the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score system was performed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Cross-sectional associations of severity of meniscal tears, knee malalignment, tibiofemoral cartilage damage, knee effusion, and body mass index with meniscal extrusion were assessed by using logistic regression, with multiadjustments when testing each predictor.A total of 1527 subjects (2131 knees; 2116 medial and 2106 lateral menisci) were included. Medially, meniscal tears, varus malalignment, and cartilage damage were associated with meniscal extrusion, with odds ratios (ORs) of 6.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.0, 8.0), 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.7), and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.2), respectively. Laterally, meniscal tears, valgus malalignment, and cartilage damage were associated with meniscal extrusion, with ORs of 10.3 (95% CI: 7.1, 14.9), 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2), and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.3, 2.9), respectively.Meniscal tears are not the only factors associated with meniscal extrusion; other factors include knee malalignment and cartilage damage. Meniscal extrusion is probably an effect of the complex interactions among joint tissues and mechanical stresses involved in the OA process.