Systematic Evaluation of Non-Uniform Sampling Parameters in the Targeted Analysis of Urine Metabolites by 1H,1H 2D NMR Spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT: Non-uniform sampling (NUS) allows the accelerated acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra. The aim of this contribution was the systematic evaluation of the impact of various quantitative NUS parameters on the accuracy and precision of 2D NMR measurements of urinary metabolites. Urine aliquots spiked with varying concentrations (15.6-500.0?µM) of tryptophan, tyrosine, glutamine, glutamic acid, lactic acid, and threonine, which can only be resolved fully by 2D NMR, were used to assess the influence of the sampling scheme, reconstruction algorithm, amount of omitted data points, and seed value on the quantitative performance of NUS in 1H,1H-TOCSY and 1H,1H-COSY45 NMR spectroscopy. Sinusoidal Poisson-gap sampling and a compressed sensing approach employing the iterative re-weighted least squares method for spectral reconstruction allowed a 50% reduction in measurement time while maintaining sufficient quantitative accuracy and precision for both types of homonuclear 2D NMR spectroscopy. Together with other advances in instrument design, such as state-of-the-art cryogenic probes, use of 2D NMR spectroscopy in large biomedical cohort studies seems feasible.
Project description:Non-uniform sampling (NUS) in NMR spectroscopy is a recognized and powerful tool to minimize acquisition time. Recent advances in reconstruction methodologies are paving the way for the use of NUS in quantitative applications, where accurate measurement of peak intensities is crucial. The presence or absence of NUS artifacts in reconstructed spectra ultimately determines the success of NUS in quantitative NMR. The quality of reconstructed spectra from NUS acquired data is dependent upon the quality of the sampling scheme. Here we demonstrate that the best performing sampling schemes make up a very small percentage of the total randomly generated schemes. A scoring method is found to accurately predict the quantitative similarity between reconstructed NUS spectra and those of fully sampled spectra. We present an easy-to-use protocol to batch generate and rank optimal Poisson-gap NUS schedules for use with 2D NMR with minimized noise and accurate signal reproduction, without the need for the creation of synthetic spectra.
Project description:Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolism, the biochemical processes that sustain life. By comparing metabolites between healthy and disease states, new insights into disease mechanisms can be uncovered. NMR is a powerful analytical method to detect and quantify metabolites. Standard one-dimensional (1D) 1H-NMR metabolite profiling is informative but challenged by significant chemical shift overlap. Multi-dimensional NMR can increase resolution, but the required long acquisition times lead to limited throughput. Non-uniform sampling (NUS) is a well-accepted mode of acquiring multi-dimensional NMR data, enabling either reduced acquisition times or increased sensitivity in equivalent time. Despite these advantages, the technique is not widely applied to metabolomics. In this study, we evaluated the utility of NUS 1H-13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) for semi-quantitative metabolomics. We demonstrated that NUS improved sensitivity compared to uniform sampling (US). We verified that the NUS measurement maintains linearity, making it possible to detect metabolite changes across samples and studies. Furthermore, we calculated the lower limit of detection and quantification (LOD/LOQ) of common metabolites. Finally, we demonstrate that the measurements are repeatable on the same system and across different systems. In conclusion, our results detail the analytical capability of NUS and, in doing so, empower the future use of NUS 1H-13C HSQC in metabolomic studies.
Project description:The advantages of non-uniform sampling (NUS) in offering time savings and resolution enhancement in NMR experiments have been increasingly recognized. The possibility of sensitivity gain by NUS has also been demonstrated. Application of NUS to multidimensional NMR experiments requires the selection of a sampling scheme and a reconstruction scheme to generate uniformly sampled time domain data. In this report, an efficient reconstruction scheme is presented and used to evaluate a range of regularization algorithms that collectively yield a generalized solution to processing NUS data in multidimensional NMR experiments. We compare l1-norm (L1), iterative re-weighted l1-norm (IRL1), and Gaussian smoothed l0-norm (Gaussian-SL0) regularization for processing multidimensional NUS NMR data. Based on the reconstruction of different multidimensional NUS NMR data sets, L1 is demonstrated to be a fast and accurate reconstruction method for both quantitative, high dynamic range applications (e.g. NOESY) and for all J-coupled correlation experiments. Compared to L1, both IRL1 and Gaussian-SL0 are shown to produce slightly higher quality reconstructions with improved linearity in peak intensities, albeit with a computational cost. Finally, a generalized processing system, NESTA-NMR, is described that utilizes a fast and accurate first-order gradient descent algorithm (NESTA) recently developed in the compressed sensing field. NESTA-NMR incorporates L1, IRL1, and Gaussian-SL0 regularization. NESTA-NMR is demonstrated to provide an efficient, streamlined approach to handling all types of multidimensional NMR data using proteins ranging in size from 8 to 32 kDa.
Project description:It is well established that non-uniform sampling (NUS) allows acquisition of multi-dimensional NMR spectra at a resolution that cannot be obtained with traditional uniform acquisition through the indirect dimensions. However, the impact of NUS on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity are less well documented. SNR and sensitivity are essential aspects of NMR experiments as they define the quality and extent of data that can be obtained. This is particularly important for spectroscopy with low concentration samples of biological macromolecules. There are different ways of defining the SNR depending on how to measure the noise, and the distinction between SNR and sensitivity is often not clear. While there are defined procedures for measuring sensitivity with high concentration NMR standards, such as sucrose, there is no clear or generally accepted definition of sensitivity when comparing different acquisition and processing methods for spectra of biological macromolecules with many weak signals close to the level of noise. Here we propose tools for estimating the SNR and sensitivity of NUS spectra with respect to sampling schedule and reconstruction method. We compare uniformly acquired spectra with NUS spectra obtained in the same total measuring time. The time saving obtained when only 1/k of the Nyquist grid points are sampled is used to measure k-fold more scans per increment. We show that judiciously chosen NUS schedules together with suitable reconstruction methods can yield a significant increase of the SNR within the same total measurement time. Furthermore, we propose to define the sensitivity as the probability to detect weak peaks and show that time-equivalent NUS can considerably increase this detection sensitivity. The sensitivity gain increases with the number of NUS indirect dimensions. Thus, well-chosen NUS schedules and reconstruction methods can significantly increase the information content of multidimensional NMR spectra of challenging biological macromolecules.
Project description:We report dramatic sensitivity enhancements in multidimensional MAS NMR spectra by the use of nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduce maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity between the time and frequency domains of the NUS acquired data sets. A systematic analysis of sensitivity and resolution in 2D and 3D NUS spectra reveals that with NUS, at least 1.5- to 2-fold sensitivity enhancement can be attained in each indirect dimension without compromising the spectral resolution. These enhancements are similar to or higher than those attained by the newest-generation commercial cryogenic probes. We explore the benefits of this NUS/MaxEnt approach in proteins and protein assemblies using 1-73-(U-(13)C,(15)N)/74-108-(U-(15)N) Escherichia coli thioredoxin reassembly. We demonstrate that in thioredoxin reassembly, NUS permits acquisition of high-quality 3D-NCACX spectra, which are inaccessible with conventional sampling due to prohibitively long experiment times. Of critical importance, issues that hinder NUS-based SNR enhancement in 3D-NMR of liquids are mitigated in the study of solid samples in which theoretical enhancements on the order of 3-4 fold are accessible by compounding the NUS-based SNR enhancement of each indirect dimension. NUS/MINT is anticipated to be widely applicable and advantageous for multidimensional heteronuclear MAS NMR spectroscopy of proteins, protein assemblies, and other biological systems.
Project description:Various algorithms comparing 2D NMR spectra have been explored for their ability to dereplicate natural products as well as determine molecular structures. However, spectroscopic artefacts, solvent effects, and the interactive effect of functional group(s) on chemical shifts combine to hinder their effectiveness. Here, we leveraged Non-Uniform Sampling (NUS) 2D NMR techniques and deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to create a tool, SMART, that can assist in natural products discovery efforts. First, an NUS heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR pulse sequence was adapted to a state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) instrument, and data reconstruction methods were optimized, and second, a deep CNN with contrastive loss was trained on a database containing over 2,054 HSQC spectra as the training set. To demonstrate the utility of SMART, several newly isolated compounds were automatically located with their known analogues in the embedded clustering space, thereby streamlining the discovery pipeline for new natural products.
Project description:NMR spectroscopy is an extraordinarily rich source of quantitative dynamics of proteins in solution using spin relaxation or chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments. However, 15N-CEST measurements require prolonged multidimensional, so-called pseudo-3D HSQC experiments where the pseudo dimension is a radio frequency offset ?? of a weak 15N saturation field. Nonuniform sampling (NUS) approaches have the potential to significantly speed up these measurements, but they also carry the risk of introducing serious artifacts and the systematic optimization of nonuniform sampling schedules has remained elusive. It is demonstrated here how this challenge can be addressed by using fitted cross-peaks of a reference 2D HSQC experiment as footprints, which are subsequently used to reconstruct cross-peak amplitudes of a pseudo-3D data set as a function of ?? by a linear least-squares fit. It is shown for protein Im7 how the approach can yield highly accurate CEST profiles based on an absolutely minimally sampled (AMS) data set allowing a speed-up of a factor 20-30. Spectrum-specific optimized nonuniform sampling (SONUS) schemes based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound metric were critical to achieve such a performance, revealing also more general properties of optimal sampling schedules. This is the first systematic exploration and optimization of NUS schedules for the dramatic speed-up of quantitative multidimensional NMR measurements that minimize unwanted errors.
Project description:Although the order of the time steps in which the non-uniform sampling (NUS) schedule is implemented when acquiring multi-dimensional NMR spectra is of limited importance when sample conditions remain unchanged over the course of the experiment, it is shown to have major impact when samples are unstable. In the latter case, time-ordering of the NUS data points by the normalized radial length yields a reduction of sampling artifacts, regardless of the spectral reconstruction algorithm. The disadvantage of time-ordered NUS sampling is that halting the experiment prior to its completion will result in lower spectral resolution, rather than a sparser data matrix. Alternatively, digitally correcting for sample decay prior to reconstruction of randomly ordered NUS data points can mitigate reconstruction artifacts, at the cost of somewhat lower sensitivity. Application of these sampling schemes to the Alzheimer's amyloid beta (A?1-42) peptide at an elevated concentration, low temperature, and 3 kbar of pressure, where approximately 75% of the peptide reverts to an NMR-invisible state during the collection of a 3D 15N-separated NOESY spectrum, highlights the improvement in artifact suppression and reveals weak medium-range NOE contacts in several regions, including the C-terminal region of the peptide.
Project description:Nonuniform sampling (NUS) in multidimensional NMR permits the exploration of higher dimensional experiments and longer evolution times than the Nyquist Theorem practically allows for uniformly sampled experiments. However, the spectra of NUS data include sampling-induced artifacts and may be subject to distortions imposed by sparse data reconstruction techniques, issues not encountered with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) applied to uniformly sampled data. The characterization of these NUS-induced artifacts allows for more informed sample schedule design and improved spectral quality. The DFT-Convolution Theorem, via the point-spread function (PSF) for a given sampling scheme, provides a useful framework for exploring the nature of NUS sampling artifacts. In this work, we analyze the PSFs for a set of specially constructed NUS schemes to quantify the interplay between randomization and dimensionality for reducing artifacts relative to uniformly undersampled controls. In particular, we find a synergistic relationship between the indirect time dimensions and the "quadrature phase dimension" (i.e. the hypercomplex components collected for quadrature detection). The quadrature phase dimension provides additional degrees of freedom that enable partial-component NUS (collecting a subset of quadrature components) to further reduce sampling-induced aliases relative to traditional full-component NUS (collecting all quadrature components). The efficacy of artifact reduction is exponentially related to the dimensionality of the sample space. Our results quantify the utility of partial-component NUS as an additional means for introducing decoherence into sampling schemes and reducing sampling artifacts in high dimensional experiments.
Project description:Modern applications of 2D NMR spectroscopy to diagnostic screening, metabolomics, quality control, and other high-throughput applications are often limited by the time-consuming sampling requirements along the indirect time domain t1 . 2D total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) provides unique spin connectivity information for the analysis of a large number of compounds in complex mixtures, but standard methods typically require >100 t1 increments for an accurate spectral reconstruction, rendering these experiments ineffective for high-throughput applications. For a complex metabolite mixture it is demonstrated that absolute minimal sampling (AMS), based on direct fitting of resonance frequencies and amplitudes in the time domain, yields an accurate spectral reconstruction of TOCSY spectra using as few as 16 t1 points. This permits the rapid collection of homonuclear 2D NMR experiments at high resolution with measurement times that previously were only the realm of 1D experiments.