Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing ?-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content.
ABSTRACT: Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs), such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing ?-amylase activity via down-regulation of ?-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing ?-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing ?-amylase activity via down-regulation of ?-amylase gene expression.
Project description:Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN), an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde) level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA<sub>1</sub>, GA<sub>3</sub>, and GA<sub>4</sub> levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA<sub>1</sub>/ABA, GA<sub>3</sub>/ABA, and GA<sub>4</sub>/ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.
Project description:Alpha-amylase, the major form of amylase with secondary carbohydrate binding sites, is a crucial enzyme throughout the growth period and life cycle of angiosperm. In rice, alpha-amylase isozymes are critical for the formation of the storage starch granule during seed maturation and motivate the stored starch to nourish the developing seedling during seed germination which will directly affect the plant growth and field yield. Alpha-amylase has not yet been studied intensely to understand its classification, structure, expression trait, and expression regulation in rice and other crops. Among the 10-rice alpha-amylases, most were exclusively expressed in the developing seed embryo and induced in the seed germination process. During rice seed germination, the expression of alpha-amylase genes is known to be regulated negatively by sugar in embryos, however positively by gibberellin (GA) in endosperm through competitively binding to the specific promoter domain; besides, it is also controlled by a series of other abiotic or biotic factors, such as salinity. In this review, we overviewed the research progress of alpha-amylase with focus on seed germination and reflected on how in-depth work might elucidate its regulation and facilitate crop breeding as an efficient biomarker.
Project description:Melatonin involves in improving tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses by regulating various biological processes. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin on seed germination in the halophyte Limonium bicolor under salt stress. Specifically, we examined the effect of salt stress on seed germination, melatonin concentration, and changes in the concentrations of nutrients, amylase activity, and hormones in L. bicolor seeds with and without pre-treatment with melatonin. Seed germination was significantly suppressed under a 200 mM NaCl treatment, but pre-treatment with melatonin significantly improved seed germination under salt stress. During seed germination, seeds pre-treated with melatonin contained high levels of melatonin and gibberellic acid (GA), low levels of abscisic acid (ABA), and high levels of amylase and alpha-amylase activity. Melatonin treatment upregulated the expression of key genes involved in GA biosynthesis (GA20ox and GA3ox), downregulated key genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (LbNCED1 and LbNCED3), and upregulated ABA 8'-hydroxylase genes (LbCYP707A1 and LbCYP707A2), which mediate the changes in GA and ABA levels in seeds during germination. A high melatonin concentration in seeds promotes the utilization of nutrients and the synthesis of new proteins to enhance seed germination.
Project description:Seed germination and innate immunity both have significant effects on plant life spans because they control the plant's entry into the ecosystem and provide defenses against various external stresses, respectively. Much ecological evidence has shown that seeds with high vigor are generally more tolerant of various environmental stimuli in the field than those with low vigor. However, there is little genetic evidence linking germination and immunity in plants. Here, we show that the rice lectin receptor-like kinase OslecRK contributes to both seed germination and plant innate immunity. We demonstrate that knocking down the OslecRK gene depresses the expression of ?-amylase genes, reducing seed viability and thereby decreasing the rate of seed germination. Moreover, it also inhibits the expression of defense genes, and so reduces the resistance of rice plants to fungal and bacterial pathogens as well as herbivorous insects. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that OslecRK interacts with an actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) in vivo via its kinase domain. Moreover, the rice adf mutant exhibited a reduced seed germination rate due to the suppression of ?-amylase gene expression. This mutant also exhibited depressed immune responses and reduced resistance to biotic stresses. Our results thus provide direct genetic evidence for a common physiological pathway connecting germination and immunity in plants. They also partially explain the common observation that high-vigor seeds often perform well in the field. The dual effects of OslecRK may be indicative of progressive adaptive evolution in rice.
Project description:The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. The possible links among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC), and GA during rice seed germination were investigated. Unlike in non-seed tissues where ROS production is increased by ABA, ABA reduced ROS production in imbibed rice seeds, especially in the embryo region. Such reduced ROS also led to an inhibition of ASC production. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS and ASC level, which was indicated by the inhibited expression of GA biosynthesis genes, amylase genes, and enzyme activity. Application of exogenous ASC can partially rescue seed germination from ABA treatment. Production of ASC, which acts as a substrate in GA biosynthesis, was significantly inhibited by lycorine which thus suppressed the accumulation of GA. Consequently, expression of GA biosynthesis genes was suppressed by the low levels of ROS and ASC in ABA-treated seeds. It can be concluded that ABA regulates seed germination in multiple dimensions. ROS and ASC are involved in its inhibition of GA biosynthesis.
Project description:Seed vigor is a key factor affecting seed quality. The mechanical drying process exerts a significant influence on rice seed vigor. The initial moisture content (IMC) and drying temperature are considered the main factors affecting rice seed vigor through mechanical drying. This study aimed to determine the optimum drying temperature for rice seeds according to the IMC, and elucidate the mechanisms mediating the effects of drying temperature and IMC on seed vigor. Rice seeds with three different IMCs (20%, 25%, and 30%) were dried to the target moisture content (14%) at four different drying temperatures. The results showed that the drying temperature and IMC had significant effects on the drying performance and vigor of the rice seeds. The upper limits of drying temperature for rice seeds with 20%, 25%, and 30% IMCs were 45, 42, and 38 °C, respectively. The drying rate and seed temperature increased significantly with increasing drying temperature. The drying temperature, drying rate, and seed temperature showed extremely significant negative correlations with germination energy (GE), germination rate, germination index (GI), and vigor index (VI). A high IMC and drying temperature probably induced a massive accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anions in the seeds, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and increased the abscisic acid (ABA) content. In the early stage of seed germination, the IMC and drying temperature regulated seed germination through the metabolism of H2O2, gibberellin acid (GA), ABA, and ?-amylase. These results indicate that the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, GA, ABA, and ?-amylase might be involved in the mediation of the effects of drying temperature on seed vigor. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the mechanical drying of rice seeds.
Project description:<i>Ideal Plant Architecture 1 (IPA1)</i> encodes SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 14 (SPL14) with a pleiotropic effect on regulating rice development and biotic stress responses. To investigate the role of <i>IPA1</i> in early seedling development, we developed a pair of <i>IPA1</i>/<i>ipal</i>-NILs and found that seed germination and early seedling growth were retarded in the <i>ipa1</i>-NIL. Analysis of the soluble sugar content, activity of amylase, and expression of the <i>α</i>-amylase genes revealed that the starch metabolism was weakened in the <i>ipa1</i>-NIL germinating seeds. Additionally, the content of bioactive gibberellin (GA) was significantly lower than that in the <i>IPA1</i>-NIL seeds at 48 h of imbibition. Meanwhile, the expression of GA synthesis-related gene <i>OsGA20ox1</i> was downregulated, whereas the expression of GA inactivation-related genes was upregulated in <i>ipa1</i>-NIL seeds. In addition, the expression of <i>OsWRKY51</i> and <i>OsWRKY71</i> was significantly upregulated in <i>ipa1</i>-NIL seeds. Using transient dual-luciferase and yeast one-hybrid assays, IPA1 was found to directly activate the expression of <i>OsWRKY51</i> and <i>OsWRKY71</i>, which would interfere with the binding affinity of GA-induced transcription factor OsGAMYB to inhibit the expression of <i>α</i>-amylase genes. In summary, our results suggest that <i>IPA1</i> negatively regulates seed germination and early seedling growth by interfering with starch metabolism via the GA and <i>WRKY</i> pathways.
Project description:Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a constrain problem in hybrid rice production. The present study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of eugenol on seed germination and PHS of hybrid rice variety (Qian You 1). The results showed that seed germination speed and the activities of ?-amylase were inhibited by eugenol pre-soaking and these effects enhanced with the increasing of eugenol concentrations; while seedling growth was not negatively affected. In field trials, eugenol application caused a significant decline in PHS as compared with control, whereas no sustained inhibition in post-harvested seed germination was observed. The HPLC analysis indicated that eugenol raised the internal ABA content by 1-4 times more than control, and seeds treated with eugenol had relatively lower OsABA8OH2 and higher transcript levels of OsNCED2 expression during early stages of seed imbibitions. In addition, seed germinated faster after GA<sub>3</sub> application than eugenol alone, and seed endogenous ABA content decreased obviously. It suggested that eugenol strongly delayed seed germination and the PHS in the field, which might be mainly due to the increased ABA contents caused by eugenol. However, the phenomenon of delayed germination and high ABA content caused by eugenol could be effectively recovered by exogenous GA<sub>3</sub>.
Project description:Seed germination, a pivotal process in higher plants, is precisely regulated by various external and internal stimuli, including brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) phytohormones. The molecular mechanisms of crosstalk between BRs and GAs in regulating plant growth are well established. However, whether BRs interact with GAs to coordinate seed germination remains unknown, as do their common downstream targets. In the present study, 45 differentially expressed proteins responding to both BR and GA deficiency were identified using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis during seed germination. The results indicate that crosstalk between BRs and GAs participates in seed germination, at least in part, by modulating the same set of responsive proteins. Moreover, most targets exhibited concordant changes in response to BR and GA deficiency, and gene ontology (GO) indicated that most possess catalytic activity and are involved in various metabolic processes. Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) analysis was used to construct a regulatory network of downstream proteins mediating BR- and GA-regulated seed germination. The mutation of GRP, one representative target, notably suppressed seed germination. Our findings not only provide critical clues for validating BR?GA crosstalk during rice seed germination, but also help to optimise molecular regulatory networks.
Project description:This study was designed to examine the effects of NaCl pretreatment on the seed germination of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Ladino) under water stress induced by 19% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Lower concentrations of NaCl (0.5, 1, and 2.5 mM) pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced decreases in germination percentage, germination vigor, germination index, and radicle length of seedlings after seven days of germination under water stress. The soaking with 1 mM of NaCl exhibited most the pronounced effects on improving seed germination and alleviating stress damage. NaCl-induced seeds germination and growth could be associated with the increases in endogenous gibberellic acid (GA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels through activating amylases leading to improved amylolysis under water stress. Seedlings pretreated with NaCl had a significantly lower osmotic potential than untreated seedlings during seed germination, which could be related to significantly higher soluble sugars and free proline content in NaCl-treated seedlings under water stress. For antioxidant metabolism, NaCl pretreatment mainly improved superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities, transcript levels of FeSOD, APX, and DHAR, and the content of ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione during seed germination under water stress. The results indicated that seeds soaking with NaCl could remarkably enhance antioxidant metabolism, thereby decreasing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation during germination under water stress. In addition, NaCl-upregulated dehydrin-encoded genes SK2 expression could be another important mechanism of drought tolerance during seeds germination of white clover in response to water stress.