Molecular epidemiology and virulence characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in medical laboratory staff: comparison between microbiological and non-microbiological laboratories.
ABSTRACT: Medical laboratory staff are a high-risk population for colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) due to direct and dense contact with the pathogens; however, there is limited information about this colonization. This study sought to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of nasal colonization by S. aureus in medical laboratory staff in Guangzhou, southern China, and to compare the differences between microbiological laboratory (MLS) and non-microbiological laboratory (NMLS) staff.S. aureus colonization was assessed by nasal swab cultures from 434 subjects, including 130 MLSs and 304 NMLSs from 33 hospitals in Guangzhou. All S. aureus isolates underwent the antimicrobial susceptibility test, virulence gene detection and molecular typing.The overall prevalence of S. aureus carriage was 20.1% (87/434), which was higher in MLSs than in NMLSs (26.2% vs. 17.4%, P?
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%). 82%, (23/28) of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs), as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779) and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community.
Project description:Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently investigated the influence of host genetics on S. aureus carriage in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins, which indicated no significant heritability that could account for the observed S. aureus carriage. In the present study, we performed a questionnaire-based study of S. aureus colonization on the same cohort of 2,196 Danish middle-aged and elderly twins to identify specific risk factors for S. aureus nasal colonization, including analyzing the paired twins (n?=?478) that were discordant for S. aureus colonization. We found associations between risk factors and S. aureus nasal colonization among middle-aged and elderly twins, including age, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect.
Project description:The natural history of contemporary Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization was evaluated in community children during a 1-year period. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus nasal carriage was more persistent than methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal carriage, which was usually self-limited. Children with persistent staphylococcal colonization often carried identical strains. Identification of persistent methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriers might inform strategies for decolonization and reduction of staphylococcal transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Use of hormonal contraceptives has been associated with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in adult women. However, the role of hormonal contraceptives in S. aureus colonization among adolescents and associations with progestin only contraceptives are unknown. METHODS:We obtained nasal and throat swab samples from 439 girls aged 17-21 years in the population-based Tromsø study Fit Futures, 2012-2013, Norway, with information on lifestyle, health and biomarkers. We used multivariable logistic regression to study the association between use of hormonal contraceptives and Staphylococcus aureus carriage while adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS:Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage prevalence were 34%, 42%, and 61% among progestin-only users, non-users, and progestin-estrogen combination contraceptive users, respectively (P<0.001). Use of combination contraceptives doubled the odds of nasal carriage (non-users reference; OR = 2.31, 95%CI = 1.43-3.74). The OR of nasal carriage was 0.29 among progestin-only users compared to combination contraceptives users (95% CI = 0.12-0.67). DISCUSSION:In this study, use of combination hormonal contraceptives was associated with higher risk of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in adolescent girls. Experimental design studies are needed to establish the role of exogenous sex steroids in Staphylococcus aureus colonization in women.
Project description:Background: The anterior nares are the main ecological niche for Staphylococcus aureus, an important commensal and opportunistic pathogen. Medical students are frequently colonized by a variety of pathogens. Microbial interactions in the human nose can prevent or favor colonization by pathogens, and individuals colonized by pathogens have increased risk of infection and are the source of transmission to other community members or susceptible individuals. According to recent studies, the microbiome from several anatomic areas of healthy individuals varies across different ethnicities. Although previous studies analyzed the nasal microbiome in association with S. aureus carriage, those studies did not provide information regarding ethnicity of participants. Our aim was to assess S. aureus nasal carriage patterns and prevalence among medical students from Colombia, a country of Hispanic origin, and to investigate possible associations of colonization and nasal microbiome composition (bacterial and fungal) in a subgroup of students with known S. aureus carriage patterns. Methods: Nasal swabs from second-year medical students were used to determine prevalence and patterns of S. aureus nasal carriage. Based on microbiological results, we assigned participants into one of three patterns of S. aureus colonization: persistent, intermittent, and non-carrier. Then, we evaluated the composition of nasal microbial communities (bacterial and fungal) in 5 individuals from each carriage category using 16S rRNA and Internal-Transcribed-Spacer sequencing. Results: Prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage among medical students was 28%. Carriage of methicillin-resistant strains was 8.4% and of methicillin-sensitive strains was 19.6%. We identified 19.6% persistent carriers, 17.5% intermittent carriers, and 62.9% non-carriers. Conclusions: Analysis of nasal microbiome found that bacterial and fungal diversity was higher in individuals colonized by S. aureus than in non-carriers; however, the difference among the three groups was non-significant. We confirmed that fungi were present within the healthy anterior nares at substantial biomass and richness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rheumatoid arthritis patients are at increased risk for periprosthetic joint infection after arthroplasty. The reason is multifactorial. Nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is a modifiable risk factor; carriage rates in RA patients are unknown. The goal of this study is to determine the S aureus nasal carriage rates of RA patients on biologics, RA patients on traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and osteoarthritis. METHODS:Consecutive patients with RA on biologics (±DMARDs), RA on non-biologic DMARDs, or OA were prospectively enrolled from April 2017 to May 2018. One hundred twenty-three patients were determined necessary per group to show a difference in carriage rates. Patients underwent a nasal swab and answered questions to identify additional risk factors. S aureus positive swabs were further categorized using spa typing. Logistic regression evaluated the association with S aureus colonization between the groups after controlling for known risk factors. RESULTS:RA patients on biologics, 70% of whom were on DMARDs, had statistically significant increase in S aureus colonization (37%) compared to RA on DMARDs alone (24%), or OA (20%) (P = .01 overall). After controlling for glucocorticoids, antibiotic use, recent hospitalization, and diabetes, RA on biologics had a significant increased risk of S aureus nasal colonization (Odds ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.00-3.22, P = .047). CONCLUSION:S aureus colonization risk was increased for RA on biologics compared to RA not on biologics and OA. Nasal S aureus carriage increases the risk of surgical site infection; this modifiable risk factor should be addressed prior to total joint arthroplasty for this higher risk patient group.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a common condition affecting both healthy and immunocompromised populations and provides a reservoir for dissemination of potentially infectious strains by casual contact. The factors regulating the onset and duration of nasal S. aureus colonization are mostly unknown, and a human-relevant animal model is needed. Here, we screened 17 pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) for S. aureus carriage, and 14 of 17 animals tested positive in the nose at one or both screening sessions (8 weeks apart), while the other 3 animals were negative in the nose but positive in the pharynx at least once. As in humans, S. aureus colonization was densest in the nose, and treatment of the nostrils with mupirocin ointment effectively cleared the nostrils and 6 extranasal body sites. Experimental nasal S. aureus colonization was established with 104 CFU/nostril, and both autologous and nonautologous strains survived over 40 days without any apparent adverse effects. A human nasal S. aureus isolate (strain D579, sequence type 398) was carried in 4 of 6 animals for over 3 weeks. Nostrils that did eradicate experimentally applied S. aureus exhibited neutrophilic innate immunity marked by elevated nasal interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 levels and a 10-fold decreased IL-1 receptor antagonist/IL-1? ratio within 7 days postinoculation, analogous to the human condition. Taken together, pig-tailed macaques represent a physiological model of human S. aureus nasal carriage that may be utilized for testing natural colonization and decolonization mechanisms as well as novel classes of anti-S. aureus therapeutics.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig colonization by MRSA ST398 is poorly understood. Previously, we developed a nasal colonization model of porcine nasal mucosa explants to identify molecular traits involved in nasal MRSA colonization of pigs. Here, we report the analysis of the transcriptome of MRSA ST398 strain S0462 during colonization on the explant epithelium. Major regulated genes were encoding metabolic processes and regulation of these genes represents metabolic adaptation to nasal mucosa explants. Colonization was not accompanied by significant changes in transcripts of main virulence associated genes or known human colonization factors. Here, we document regulation of two genes which have potential influence on S. aureus colonization; cysteine extracellular proteinase (scpA) and von Willebrand factor-binding protein (vwbp, located on SaPIbov5). Colonization with isogenic-deletion strains (Δvwbp and ΔscpA) did not alter the nasal S. aureus colonization compared to wild type. Our results suggest that nasal colonization with MRSA ST398 is a complex event that is accompanied with changes in bacterial gene expression regulation and metabolic adaptation. Number of the samples: 5 (timepoint 0 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 180 min) in 4 replicates. 4 control samples
Project description:Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor in clinical and community settings due to the range of etiologies caused by the organism. We have identified unique immunological and ultrastructural properties associated with nasal carriage isolates denoting a role for bacterial factors in nasal carriage. However, despite extensive molecular level characterizations by several groups suggesting factors necessary for colonization on nasal epithelium, genetic determinants of nasal carriage are unknown. Herein, we have set a genomic foundation for unraveling the bacterial determinants of nasal carriage in S. aureus.MLST analysis revealed no lineage specific differences between carrier and non-carrier strains suggesting a role for mobile genetic elements. We completely sequenced a model carrier isolate (D30) and a model non-carrier strain (930918-3) to identify differential gene content. Comparison revealed the presence of 84 genes unique to the carrier strain and strongly suggests a role for Type VII secretion systems in nasal carriage. These genes, along with a putative pathogenicity island (SaPIBov) present uniquely in the carrier strains are likely important in affecting carriage. Further, PCR-based genotyping of other clinical isolates for a specific subset of these 84 genes raise the possibility of nasal carriage being caused by multiple gene sets.Our data suggest that carriage is likely a heterogeneic phenotypic trait and implies a role for nucleotide level polymorphism in carriage. Complete genome level analyses of multiple carriage strains of S. aureus will be important in clarifying molecular determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage.