Benchmarking common quantification strategies for large-scale phosphoproteomics.
ABSTRACT: Comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is now feasible, but reproducible quantification remains challenging, especially for post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. Here, we compare the most popular quantification techniques for global phosphoproteomics: label-free quantification (LFQ), stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and MS2- and MS3-measured tandem mass tags (TMT). In a mixed species comparison with fixed phosphopeptide ratios, we find LFQ and SILAC to be the most accurate techniques. MS2-based TMT yields the highest precision but lowest accuracy due to ratio compression, which MS3-based TMT can partly rescue. However, MS2-based TMT outperforms MS3-based TMT when analyzing phosphoproteome changes in the DNA damage response, since its higher precision and larger identification numbers allow detection of a greater number of significantly regulated phosphopeptides. Finally, we utilize the TMT multiplexing capabilities to develop an algorithm for determining phosphorylation site stoichiometry, showing that such applications benefit from the high accuracy of MS3-based TMT.
Project description:Quantitative analysis of proteomes across multiple time points, organelles, and perturbations is essential for understanding both fundamental biology and disease states. The development of isobaric tags (e.g., TMT) has enabled the simultaneous measurement of peptide abundances across several different conditions. These multiplexed approaches are promising in principle because of advantages in throughput and measurement quality. However, in practice, existing multiplexing approaches suffer from key limitations. In its simple implementation (TMT-MS2), measurements are distorted by chemical noise leading to poor measurement accuracy. The current state-of-the-art (TMT-MS3) addresses this but requires specialized quadrupole-iontrap-Orbitrap instrumentation. The complement reporter ion approach (TMTc) produces high accuracy measurements and is compatible with many more instruments, like quadrupole-Orbitraps. However, the required deconvolution of the TMTc cluster leads to poor measurement precision. Here, we introduce TMTc+, which adds the modeling of the MS2-isolation step into the deconvolution algorithm. The resulting measurements are comparable in precision to TMT-MS3/MS2. The improved duty cycle and lower filtering requirements make TMTc+ more sensitive than TMT-MS3 and comparable with TMT-MS2. At the same time, unlike TMT-MS2, TMTc+ is exquisitely able to distinguish signal from chemical noise even outperforming TMT-MS3. Lastly, we compare TMTc+ to quantitative label-free proteomics of total HeLa lysate and find that TMTc+ quantifies 7.8k versus 3.9k proteins in a 5-plex sample. At the same time, the median coefficient of variation improves from 13% to 4%. Thus, TMTc+ advances quantitative proteomics by enabling accurate, sensitive, and precise multiplexed experiments on more commonly used instruments.
Project description:Pulsed Stable Isotope Labeling in Cell culture (SILAC) approaches allow measurement of protein dynamics, including protein translation and degradation. However, its use for quantifying acute changes has been limited due to low labeled peptide stoichiometry. Here, we describe the use of instrument logic to select peaks of interest via targeted mass differences (TMD) for overcoming this limitation. Comparing peptides artificially mixed at low heavy-to-light stoichiometry measured using standard data dependent acquisition with or without TMD revealed 2-3-fold increases in identification without significant loss in quantification precision for both MS2 and MS3 methods. Our benchmarked method approach increased throughput by reducing the necessary machine time. We anticipate that all pulsed SILAC measurements, combined with tandem mass tagging (TMT) or not, would greatly benefit from instrument logic based approaches.
Project description:Comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is now feasible, but reproducible and multiplexed quantification remains challenging especially for analysis of post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphorylation. Here we compared the most popular quantification techniques for phosphoproteomics in context of cell-signaling studies: label-free quantification (LFQ), stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and MS2- and MS3-measured tandem mass tags (TMT). In a mixed species comparison with fixed phosphopeptide-ratios, we found LFQ and SILAC to be the most accurate techniques. MS2-based TMT suffered from substantial ratio compression, which MS3-based TMT could partly rescue. However, when analyzing phosphoproteome changes in the DNA damage response (DDR), we found that MS3-based TMT was outperformed by MS2-based TMT as it identified most significantly regulated phosphopeptides due to its higher precision and higher number of identifications. Finally, we show that the high accuracy of MS3-based TMT is crucial for determination of phosphorylation site stoichiometry using a novel multiplexing-dependent algorithm.
Project description:Isobaric labeling strategies, such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) or tandem mass tags (TMT), have promised to dramatically increase the power of quantitative proteomics. However, when applied to complex mixtures, both the accuracy and precision are undermined by interfering peptide ions that coisolate and cofragment with the target peptide. Additional gas-phase isolation steps, such as proton-transfer ion-ion reactions (PTR) or higher-order MS3 scans, can almost completely eliminate this problem. Unfortunately, these methods come at the expense of decreased acquisition speed and sensitivity. Here we present a method that allows accurate quantification of TMT-labeled peptides at the MS2 level without additional ion purification. Quantification is based on the fragment ion cluster that carries most of the TMT mass balance. In contrast to the use of low m/z reporter ions, the localization of these complement TMT (TMT(C)) ions in the spectrum is precursor-specific; coeluting peptides do not generally affect the measurement of the TMT(C) ion cluster of interest. Unlike the PTR or MS3 strategies, this method can be implemented on a wide range of high-resolution mass spectrometers like the quadrupole Orbitrap instruments (QExactive). A current limitation of the method is that the efficiency of TMT(C) ion formation is affected by both peptide sequence and peptide ion charge state; we discuss potential routes to overcome this problem. Finally, we show that the complement reporter ion approach allows parallelization of multiplexed quantification and therefore holds the potential to multiply the number of distinct peptides that can be quantified in a given time frame.
Project description:Multiplexed, isobaric tagging methods are powerful techniques to increase throughput, precision, and accuracy in quantitative proteomics. The dynamic range and accuracy of quantitation, however, can be limited by coisolation of tag-containing peptides that release reporter ions and conflate quantitative measurements across precursors. Methods to alleviate these effects often lead to the loss of protein and peptide identifications through online or offline filtering of interference containing spectra. To alleviate this effect, high-Field Asymmetric-waveform Ion Mobility Spectroscopy (FAIMS) has been proposed as a method to reduce precursor coisolation and improve the accuracy and dynamic range of multiplex quantitation. Here we tested the use of FAIMS to improve quantitative accuracy using previously established TMT-based interference standards (triple-knockout [TKO] and Human-Yeast Proteomics Resource [HYPER]). We observed that FAIMS robustly improved the quantitative accuracy of both high-resolution MS2 (HRMS2) and synchronous precursor selection MS3 (SPS-MS3)-based methods without sacrificing protein identifications. We further optimized and characterized the main factors that enable robust use of FAIMS for multiplexed quantitation. We highlight these factors and provide method recommendations to take advantage of FAIMS technology to improve isobaric-tag-quantification moving forward.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation is critically important for many cellular processes, including progression through the cell cycle, cellular metabolism, and differentiation. Isobaric labeling, for example, tandem mass tags (TMT), in phosphoproteomics workflows enables both relative and absolute quantitation of these phosphorylation events. Traditional TMT workflows identify peptides using fragment ions at the MS2 level and quantify reporter ions at the MS3 level. However, in addition to the TMT reporter ions, MS3 spectra also include fragment ions that can be used to identify peptides. Here we describe using MS3 spectra for both phosphopeptide identification and quantification, a process that we term MS3-IDQ. To maximize quantified phosphopeptides, we optimize several instrument parameters, including the modality of mass analyzer (i.e., ion trap or Orbitrap), MS2 automatic gain control (AGC), and MS3 normalized collision energy (NCE), to achieve the best balance of identified and quantified peptides. Our optimized MS3-IDQ method included the following parameters for the MS3 scan: NCE = 37.5 and AGC target = 1.5 × 105, and scan range = 100-2000. Data from the MS3 scan were complementary to those of the MS2 scan, and the combination of these scans can increase phosphoproteome coverage by >50%, thereby yielding a greater number of quantified and accurately localized phosphopeptides.
Project description:Isobaric labeling quantification by mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful technology for multiplexed large-scale protein profiling, but measurement accuracy in complex mixtures is confounded by the interference from coisolated ions, resulting in ratio compression. Here we report that the ratio compression can be essentially resolved by the combination of pre-MS peptide fractionation, MS2-based interference detection, and post-MS computational interference correction. To recapitulate the complexity of biological samples, we pooled tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled Escherichia coli peptides at 1:3:10 ratios and added in ?20-fold more rat peptides as background, followed by the analysis of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. Systematic investigation shows that quantitative interference was impacted by LC fractionation depth, MS isolation window, and peptide loading amount. Exhaustive fractionation (320 × 4 h) can nearly eliminate the interference and achieve results comparable to the MS3-based method. Importantly, the interference in MS2 scans can be estimated by the intensity of contaminated y1 product ions, and we thus developed an algorithm to correct reporter ion ratios of tryptic peptides. Our data indicate that intermediate fractionation (40 × 2 h) and y1 ion-based correction allow accurate and deep TMT profiling of more than 10?000 proteins, which represents a straightforward and affordable strategy in isobaric labeling proteomics.
Project description:The recently developed and commercially available carbonyl-reactive tandem mass tags (aminoxyTMT) enable multiplexed quantification of glycans through comparison of reporter ion intensities. However, challenges still exist for collision activated dissociation (CAD) MS/MS based quantification of aminoxyTMT due to the relatively low reporter ion yield especially for glycans with labile structures. To circumvent this limitation, we utilized the unique structural features of N-glycan molecules, the common core sugar sequence (HexNAc)2(Man)3, and common m/z of Yn ions generated from different types of precursors by MS/MS and designed a Y1 ion triggered, targeted MultiNotch MS3 relative quantification approach based on aminoxyTMT labeling. This approach was implemented on a nanoHILIC-Tribrid quadrupole-ion trap-Orbitrap platform, which enables prescreening of aminoxyTMT labeled N-glycan precursor ions by Y1 ion fragment ion mass in a higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) MS/MS scan and coisolation and cofragmentation of multiple Yn fragment ions that carry the isobaric tags from the inclusion list in the MS/MS/MS scan. Through systematical optimization and evaluation using N-glycans released from several glycoprotein standards and human serum proteins, we demonstrated that the Y1 ion triggered, targeted MultiNotch MS3 approach offers improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity for relative quantification compared to traditional data-dependent MS2 and Y1 ion MS3 quantification methods.
Project description:We previously developed a mass spectrometry-based method, dynamic organellar maps, for the determination of protein subcellular localization and identification of translocation events in comparative experiments. The use of metabolic labeling for quantification (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture [SILAC]) renders the method best suited to cells grown in culture. Here, we have adapted the workflow to both label-free quantification (LFQ) and chemical labeling/multiplexing strategies (tandem mass tagging [TMT]). Both methods are highly effective for the generation of organellar maps and capture of protein translocations. Furthermore, application of label-free organellar mapping to acutely isolated mouse primary neurons provided subcellular localization and copy-number information for over 8,000 proteins, allowing a detailed analysis of organellar organization. Our study extends the scope of dynamic organellar maps to any cell type or tissue and also to high-throughput screening.
Project description:Protein abundance profiling using isobaric labeling is a well-established quantitative mass spectrometry technique. However, ratio distortion resulting from coisolated and cofragmented ions, commonly referred to as interference, remains a drawback of this strategy. Tribrid mass spectrometers, such as the Orbitrap Fusion and the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos with a triple mass analyzer configuration, facilitate methods (namely, SPS-MS3) that can help alleviate interference. However, few standards are available to measure interference and thereby aid in method development. Here we introduce the TKO6 standard that assesses ion interference and is designed specifically for data acquired at low (unit) mass resolution. We use TKO6 to compare interference in MS2- versus MS3-based quantitation methods, data acquisition methods of different lengths, and ion-trap-based tandem mass tag reporter ion analysis (IT-MS3) with conventional Orbitrap-based analysis (OT-MS3). We show that the TKO6 standard is a valuable tool for assessing quantification accuracy in isobaric-tag-based analyses.