Sociodemographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in Mexican schoolchildren.
ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in Mexico, along with changes in the food environment. However, little is known about the dietary patterns (DP) of Mexican children. We aimed to characterize the DP of schoolchildren and to analyse their associations with sociodemographic factors.Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary and sociodemographic information was obtained, including a single 24 h recall, socio-economic status (SES), geographic region, area of residence and ethnicity. DP were defined with cluster analysis (using k-means). Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for the survey design, were used to assess associations between DP and sociodemographic variables.2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012).Schoolchildren (n 2751) aged 5-11 years who participated in ENSANUT-2012.Four DP were identified: 'Traditional', 'Industrialized', 'Varied' and 'Modern'. Reported energy intake (mean (sd)) was lowest in the 'Traditional' and highest in the 'Industrialized' DP (7037 (3707) kJ/d (1682 (886) kcal/d) v. 8427 (3753) kJ/d (2014 (897) kcal/d), respectively, P<0·05). Significant differences in fat and fibre intakes were seen across DP. Non-indigenous v. indigenous children were 22·0 times (95 % CI 5·1, 93·6) more likely to have a 'Modern' rather than 'Traditional' DP. Relative likelihood of having an 'Industrialized' rather than 'Traditional' DP was 6·2 (95 % CI 3·9, 9·9) among schoolchildren from high SES v. low SES.Among Mexican schoolchildren, DP were associated with sociodemographic variables. Non-indigenous children were significantly more likely to consume a 'Modern' than a 'Traditional' DP. Children with higher SES were more likely to have an 'Industrialized' pattern. It is necessary to consider dietary characteristics in the different sociodemographic strata when dietary interventions are designed.
Project description:The aims of this study were to identify dietary patterns (DPs) of children and adolescents participating in three cross-sectional surveys (2013-2015) and to test their associations with sociodemographic variables, physical activity (PAS), screen-based sedentary activity (SA), and weight status. One-day data were obtained from 5,364 schoolchildren (7-12 years) from public schools of Florianopolis (South of Brazil), using the validated questionnaire Web-CAAFE (Food Intake and Physical Activity of Schoolchildren). DPs were derived from the frequency of daily consumption of 32 foods/beverages by latent profile analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association of the DPs with sociodemographic variables, physical activity, screen activity and weight status. 'Traditional', 'Monotonous', and 'Mixed' DPs were identified. The percentages of children and adolescents within these profiles were 41.3, 36.3, and 22.4%, respectively. Children and adolescents in the highest tertiles of both PAS and daily frequency of SA had a higher probability to present a 'Mixed' DP compared to peers with less PAS and SA. Children and adolescents who reported having a school meal were significantly more likely to present the 'Traditional'DP, while boys who did not report having a school meal had a higher probability to present the 'Monotonous' DP. The DPs were not associated with the year of survey, age, family income, or weight status.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with health outcomes in younger adults but there is a lack of evidence in the very old (aged 85+) on DP and their association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, health and functioning measures. Higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with healthier DP but it is not known whether these associations are sustained in the very old. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to (a) characterise DP in the very old and (b) assess the relationships between three SES indicators (education, occupational class and area-deprivation index [IMD]) and DP. METHODS:Complete dietary data at baseline (2006/07) for 793 participants in the Newcastle 85+ Study were established through 24-hr multiple pass recall. We used Two-Step clustering and 30 food groups to derive DP, and multinomial logistic regression models to assess the association with SES. RESULTS:We identified three distinct DP (characterised as 'High Red Meat', 'Low Meat', and 'High Butter') that varied with key sociodemographic, health and functioning measures. 'Low Meat' participants were more advantaged (i.e. higher education and occupational class, and lived in more affluent areas in owned homes), were least disabled, cognitively impaired, and depressed, and were more physically active than those in the other DP. After adjusting for other lifestyle factors, cognitive status and BMI, lower educational attainment remained a significant predictor of 'High Red Meat' and 'High Butter' membership compared with 'Low Meat' ('High Red Meat': OR [95% CI] for 0-9 and 10-11 years of education vs. ?12 years: 5.28 [2.85-9.79], p<0.001 and 3.27 [1.65-6.51], p = 0.001, respectively; 'High Butter': 3.32 [1.89-5.82], p<0.001 and 2.83 [1.52-5.28], p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In this cohort of very old adults, we detected a favourable DP ('Low Meat'), which was associated with better health and functioning and higher SES.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sociodemographic characteristics are associated with the dietary patterns of populations. However, the direction of the association is not consistent among countries: it is contingent on the nutritional transition phase, level of economic development, cultural contexts and both the social and health policies prevailing in each country. The objective of this study was to identify the trends in dietary patterns observed in 2006, 2012 and 2016 among Mexican adults by sociodemographic characteristic. METHODS:To determine and compare dietary patterns, we performed a secondary analysis of dietary and sociodemographic data for adults 20-59?years old. Data were drawn from the 2006 and 2012 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (ENSANUTs) together with the 2016 Half-Way National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUTMC). To estimate the dietary patterns, we used an adapted version of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and a quantile-based regression model to compare the HEI medians by sociodemographic characteristic. RESULTS:From 2006 to 2016, the quality of the diet of Mexican adults scored under 50 points on a scale of 0 to 100, markedly below the maximum scores for the majority of HEI-2015 components. Diet quality varied according to age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), area (urban/rural) and region of residence, with the highest quality observed among older individuals (within the 40-59 age group), women, people of lower SES and residents of rural areas, particularly in southern Mexico. Although this trend remained constant overall throughout 2006, 2012 and 2016, specific HEI-2015 components showed an opposite trend by sociodemographic strata. CONCLUSION:The diet quality of Mexican adults was suboptimal from 2006 to 2016, with notorious disparities persisting over time among sociodemographic strata. Our results can serve as a basis for formulating recommendations on ways to improve the population diet, where those components diverging the most from adequate scores could be highlighted in public-health messages.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Away-from-home foods have been shown to have lower nutritional quality and larger portion sizes than many foods prepared at home. We aimed to describe energy and nutrient intakes among 2-13-year-old Mexican children by eating location (at home and away from home), overall, by socio-economic status (SES) and by urbanicity. DESIGN:Dietary intake was collected via one 24 h recall in the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT). Location was reported for each food consumed. Results were adjusted for sex, day of recall, region, weight status, SES and urbanicity. SETTING:Mexico (nationally representative). SUBJECTS:Children aged 2-5 years (n 1905) and 6-13 years (n 2868). RESULTS:Children consumed the majority of daily energy at home (89% of 2-5-year-olds; 82 % of 6-13-year-olds). The most common away-from-home eating location was school (22 % of 2-5-year-olds; 43 % of 6-13-year-olds), followed by the street (14 % of 2-5-year-olds; 13 % of 6-13-year-olds). The most common foods consumed away from home were wheat/rice and corn mixed dishes, sugar-sweetened beverages, pastries/candy/desserts, milk (2-5-year-olds only) and salty snacks (6-13-year-olds). Multivariate models showed that high-SES 2-5-year-olds consumed 14 % of daily energy away from home v. 8 % among low-SES 2-5-year-olds, and high-SES 6-13-year-olds consumed 21 % of daily energy away from home v. 14 % among low-SES 6-13 year-olds. There were no differences by urban residence. CONCLUSIONS:Among Mexican children, most foods and beverages were consumed at home. However, the percentage of foods consumed or purchased away from home increased with age and with SES.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Associations between dietary patterns (DPs) and socioeconomic correlates among adolescents from emerging economy countries are not fully understood. The study analysed variations in DPs adherence depending on country regions and family socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish females. METHODS:Data from a representative sample (n?=?1107) of Polish females 13-21-year-old was used. Four DPs were previously identified by principal component analysis. Regions were ranked by Gross Domestic Product. A SES index as an overall measure of family SES was developed. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age and body mass index were created. RESULTS:Higher adherence to 'Fast-food and sweets' DP was found in the less affluent (North) region when compared to four other regions (Odds ratio (OR): 1.94 to 1.63). Higher adherence to 'Fruit and vegetables' DP was found in more affluent regions when compared to poorer regions: East and North-East (OR 1.71 to 1.81 and 1.69 to 2.23, respectively). Higher adherence to 'Traditional Polish' DP was found in 4 out of 5 regions (OR 2.02 to 2.53) when compared to the East. Higher family SES was associated with higher adherence to 'Fruit and vegetables' DP (OR 2.06) and lower adherence to 'Traditional Polish' DP (OR 0.27). CONCLUSIONS:The study revealed that region's affluence is strongly reflected in dietary behaviours of young females from a transitioning country. Recognising geographical distribution of dietary patterns within the country and shifting the resources to economically disadvantaged regions might be more effective than current national public health interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The eating habits have changed in the last few decades, but few studies prioritize the food consumption of farmers and the rural population. Therefore, the objective of this study was explore the sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle factors to the high adherence these dietary patterns. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 740 farmers (51.5%, n?=?381 males; 48.5%, n?=?359 females) from a municipality in Southeastern Brazil. Food intake data were obtained by applying multipass 24-h recall and dietary intake was presented in dietary patterns determined by Principal Component Analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation. RESULTS:Three dietary patterns were identified. The first pattern, "local traditional", was associated with sociodemographic and labor variables, being considered typical of the region's farmer as white race/color (p?=?0.003), not extra-physical activity (p?=?0.014) and cultivating 5 or more crops (p?=?0.005). The permanence of a "traditional Brazilian" pattern and the occurrence of an "industrialized" pattern were also observed. Farmers working in non-conventional agriculture were 54% less adhere to "traditional Brazilian" pattern (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.86, p?=?0.014). Individuals aged 50 and over years were 82% less likely (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) to adhere to "industrialized" pattern. Still, individuals of lower socioeconomic class were 52% less likely to adhere to this pattern (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.96). Farmers who spent R$ 200 or more per capita to buy food were more than twice as likely to adhere to this food pattern (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.32-3.73), and who had the habit of frequently eating out were 1.62 as likely adhere to "industrialized" pattern (95% CI 1.11-2.36). CONCLUSIONS:The findings indicate changes in dietary patterns in rural areas of the country, maintaining a traditional Brazilian pattern, as well as a local and an industrialized pattern. This last pattern demonstrates that the contemporary rural population also opts for a diet with ultra-processed products, being associated with the characteristic habits of a more urbanized rural region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Children <?5?years of age are at risk of developing an iron deficiency due to a low intake of bioavailable iron (FeBio). Few studies have estimated dietary FeBio in children at a national level in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. This study aimed to estimate FeBio intake and its association with sociodemographic factors among Mexican children aged 12-59?months. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was carried out. Information on serum ferritin and diet was obtained from a national survey and representative sample of 1012 Mexican children aged 12-59?months. We used a 24-h recall to estimate total iron, heme and non-heme iron, vitamin C, phytates, calcium, and meat intake. We calculated FeBio intake using an algorithm. Differences in FeBio intake were analyzed by area of residence (rural/urban), country region (north, center, south), and socioeconomic status (SES), using linear regression models by age subgroups (12-23 and 24-59?months) and total population, while adjusting for study design. RESULTS:Total iron intake was 9.2?±?6.7?mg/d. The estimated average of total FeBio fluctuated between 0.74-0.81?mg/d, with a bioavailability of 9.15-12.03% of total iron. Children aged 12-23?months residing in rural areas consumed less FeBio than those in urban areas (??=?-?0.276) (p <?0.05). Children aged 24-59?months with high SES consumed more FeBio (??=?0.158?mg/d) than those of a low SES (p <?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:FeBio is low in Mexican preschoolers. Being from a rural area and having low SES were negatively associated with FeBio intake. These results can benefit interventions seeking to improve iron status.
Project description:Dietary energy density (DED) has been widely considered a risk factor for weight gain. In adolescents, however, the evidence is inconclusive, and in Mexico, the ways in which DED is associated with overweight and obesity are unknown. Our study analysed the association of DED with overweight or obesity (OW-O) in Mexican adolescents included in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (ENSANUT 2012). We analysed the data from a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire administered to 2,203 Mexican adolescents aged 12-19 years. DED was calculated excluding all beverages. Plausible and implausible reporters were identified based on the relationship between the reported energy intake and the estimated energy requirement. The association of DED with body mass index (BMI)-for-age and OW-O was analysed using multivariate statistical models restricted to plausible reporters. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35.4% in the complete sample and 27.8% in the sample of plausible reporters. Mean DED was 177 kcal/100 g, with higher DED in the north of the country. The proportion of plausible reporters was 38.5%. We found a positive association between high DED and the BMI-for-age z-score (? = 0.347; 95% CI [0.101, 0.594]; P = 0.006), controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables, but no significant association with OW-O. It is necessary to consider the DED in the design and implementation of strategies to reduce energy density in the diets of young Mexicans.
Project description:Mexico is facing the double burden of malnutrition, and adolescents are not an exception. Diet plays an important role, both in causing overweight and undernutrition. This study aimed to describe the dietary patterns (DPs) of Mexican adolescents and to examine its association with nutritional status using data from adolescents aged 12-19 years (n = 7380) from the National Survey of Health and Nutrition (ENSANUT-2006). Principal component analysis was used to derivate the DPs. Associations between DP and nutritional status were determined by prevalence ratio (PR). Four DPs were identified: nontraditional and breakfast-type, Western, plant-based, and protein-rich. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in adolescents who scored high on the Western pattern (PR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.08-1.21) or on the plant-based pattern (PR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17). The Western pattern was positively associated with anemia in girls (PR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-1.35), while the nontraditional and breakfast-type pattern was inversely associated with anemia in adolescents aged 12-15 years (PR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99) and in girls (PR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.97). The Western and plant-based patterns were simultaneously associated with overweight-obesity and at least one indicator of undernutrition. In the context of the double burden of malnutrition, dietary advice must consider malnutrition in all its forms.
Project description:Associations between dietary patterns (DP) and socioeconomic factors have been little explored in adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify DP in European and Brazilian adolescents and to investigate their associations with a range of socioeconomic indicators. Adolescents from the HELENA-study and the Household Budget Survey were analyzed. Factor analysis was used to obtain DP. Linear regression was used to examine the association between DP and SES. In Europeans, the Western DP was associated with low education of the mother, high socioeconomic status (boys), older age (boys), and living in cities of the Northern Europe; in Brazilians, the Western DP was associated with high secondary education of the mother, high socioeconomic status and living in Southern areas of the country. The Traditional European DP, in both genders, was associated with high secondary education of the mother and inversely associated with a high socioeconomic status; the Traditional Brazilian DP, was associated with university level education of the mother and older age (boys). The association between DP and socioeconomic factors is relevant for the understanding of food-related practices and highlight the importance of performing a complete assessment of the socioeconomic influence in adolescent's DP from developed and developing countries.