Genome editing and transcriptional repression in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 via the type II CRISPR system.
ABSTRACT: The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a "generally recognized as safe"-certified strain with robust property and versatile metabolism. Thus, it is an ideal candidate for synthetic biology, biodegradation, and other biotechnology applications. The known genome editing approaches of Pseudomonas are suboptimal; thus, it is necessary to develop a high efficiency genome editing tool.In this study, we established a fast and convenient CRISPR-Cas9 method in P. putida KT2440. Gene deletion, gene insertion and gene replacement could be achieved within 5 days, and the mutation efficiency reached >?70%. Single nucleotide replacement could be realized, overcoming the limitations of protospacer adjacent motif sequences. We also applied nuclease-deficient Cas9 binding at three locations upstream of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) for transcriptional inhibition, and the expression intensity of eGFP reduced to 28.5, 29.4, and 72.1% of the control level, respectively. Furthermore, based on this CRISPR-Cas9 system, we also constructed a CRISPR-Cpf1 system, which we validated for genome editing in P. putida KT2440.In this research, we established CRISPR based genome editing and regulation control systems in P. putida KT2440. These fast and efficient approaches will greatly facilitate the application of P. putida KT2440.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) KT2440 is a paradigmatic environmental-bacterium that possesses significant potential in synthetic biology, metabolic engineering and biodegradation applications. However, most genome editing methods of P. putida KT2440 depend on heterologous repair proteins and the provision of donor DNA templates, which is laborious and inefficient. In this report, an efficient cytosine base editing system was established by using cytidine deaminase (APOBEC1), enhanced specificity Cas9 nickase (eSpCas9ppD10A) and the uracil DNA glycosylase inhibitor (UGI). This constructed base editor converts C-G into T-A in the absence of DNA strands breaks and donor DNA templates. By introducing a premature stop codon in target spacers, we successfully applied this system for gene inactivation with an efficiency of 25-100% in various Pseudomonas species, including P. putida KT2440, P. aeruginosa PAO1, P. fluorescens Pf-5 and P. entomophila L48. We engineered an eSpCas9ppD10A-NG variant with a NG protospacer adjacent motif to expand base editing candidate sites. By modifying the APOBEC1 domain, we successfully narrowed the editable window to increase gene inactivation efficiency in cytidine-rich spacers. Additionally, multiplex base editing in double and triple loci was achieved with mutation efficiencies of 90-100% and 25-35%, respectively. Taken together, the establishment of a fast, convenient and universal base editing system will accelerate the pace of future research undertaken with P. putida KT2440 and other Pseudomonas species.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida is a promising bacterial host for producing natural products, such as polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. In these types of projects, researchers need a genetic toolbox consisting of plasmids, characterized promoters, and techniques for rapidly editing the genome. Past reports described constitutive promoter libraries, a suite of broad host range plasmids that replicate in P. putida, and genome-editing methods. To augment those tools, we have characterized a set of inducible promoters and discovered that IPTG-inducible promoter systems have poor dynamic range due to overexpression of the LacI repressor. By replacing the promoter driving lacI expression with weaker promoters, we increased the fold induction of an IPTG-inducible promoter in P. putida KT2440 to 80-fold. Upon discovering that gene expression from a plasmid was unpredictable when using a high-copy mutant of the BBR1 origin, we determined the copy numbers of several broad host range origins and found that plasmid copy numbers are significantly higher in P. putida KT2440 than in the synthetic biology workhorse, Escherichia coli. Lastly, we developed a ?Red/Cas9 recombineering method in P. putida KT2440 using the genetic tools that we characterized. This method enabled the creation of scarless mutations without the need for performing classic two-step integration and marker removal protocols that depend on selection and counterselection genes. With the method, we generated four scarless deletions, three of which we were unable to create using a previously established genome-editing technique.
Project description:Pseudomonas species are a large class of gram-negative bacteria that exhibit significant biomedical, ecological, and industrial importance. Despite the extensive research and wide applications, genetic manipulation in Pseudomonas species, in particular in the major human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, remains a laborious endeavor. Here we report the development of a genome editing method pCasPA/pACRISPR by harnessing the CRISPR/Cas9 and the phage λ-Red recombination systems. The method allows for efficient and scarless genetic manipulation in P. aeruginosa. By engineering the fusion of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC1 and the Cas9 nickase, we further develop a base editing system pnCasPA-BEC, which enables highly efficient gene inactivation and point mutations in a variety of Pseudomonas species, such as P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas syringae. Application of the two genome editing methods will dramatically accelerate a wide variety of investigations, such as bacterial physiology study, drug target exploration, and metabolic engineering.
Project description:Targeted gene regulation is indispensable for reprogramming a cellular network to modulate a microbial phenotype. Here, we adopted the type II CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system for simple and efficient regulation of target genes in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. A single CRISPRi plasmid was generated to express a nuclease-deficient Cas9 gene and a designed single guide RNA, under control of l-rhamnose-inducible Prha BAD and the constitutive Biobrick J23119 promoter respectively. Two target genes were selected to probe the CRISPRi-mediated gene regulation: exogenous green fluorescent protein on the multicopy plasmid and endogenous glpR on the P. putida KT2440 chromosome, encoding GlpR, a transcriptional regulator that represses expression of the glpFKRD gene cluster for glycerol utilization. The CRISPRi system successfully repressed the two target genes, as evidenced by a reduction in the fluorescence intensity and the lag phase of P. putida KT2440 cell growth on glycerol. Furthermore, CRISPRi-mediated repression of glpR improved both the cell growth and glycerol utilization, resulting in the enhanced production of mevalonate in an engineered P. putida KT2440 harbouring heterologous genes for the mevalonate pathway. CRISPRi is expected to become a robust tool to reprogram P. putida KT2440 for the development of microbial cell factories producing industrially valuable products.
Project description:Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous phenolic compound in lignocellulose, which is recognized for its role in the microbial carbon catabolism and industrial value. However, its recalcitrance and toxicity poses a challenge for ferulic acid-to-bioproducts bioconversion. Here, we develop a genome editing strategy for Pseudomonas putida KT2440 using an integrated CRISPR/Cas9n-?-Red system with pyrF as a selection marker, which maintains cell viability and genetic stability, increases mutation efficiency, and simplifies genetic manipulation. Via this method, four functional modules, comprised of nine genes involved in ferulic acid catabolism and polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis, were integrated into the genome, generating the KTc9n20 strain. After metabolic engineering and optimization of C/N ratio, polyhydroxyalkanoate production was increased to ~270?mg/L, coupled with ~20?mM ferulic acid consumption. This study not only establishes a simple and efficient genome editing strategy, but also offers an encouraging example of how to apply this method to improve microbial aromatic compound bioconversion.
Project description:CRISPR-Cas9-based genome engineering tools have revolutionized fundamental research and biotechnological exploitation of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, the mesophilic nature of the established Cas9 systems does not allow for applications that require enhanced stability, including engineering at elevated temperatures. Here we identify and characterize ThermoCas9 from the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12. We show that in vitro ThermoCas9 is active between 20 and 70?°C, has stringent PAM-preference at lower temperatures, tolerates fewer spacer-protospacer mismatches than SpCas9 and its activity at elevated temperatures depends on the sgRNA-structure. We develop ThermoCas9-based engineering tools for gene deletion and transcriptional silencing at 55?°C in Bacillus smithii and for gene deletion at 37?°C in Pseudomonas putida. Altogether, our findings provide fundamental insights into a thermophilic CRISPR-Cas family member and establish a Cas9-based bacterial genome editing and silencing tool with a broad temperature range.
Project description:CRISPR-Cas9 is a versatile RNA-guided genome editing tool. Here we demonstrate that partial replacement of RNA nucleotides with DNA nucleotides in CRISPR RNA (crRNA) enables efficient gene editing in human cells. This strategy of partial DNA replacement retains on-target activity when used with both crRNA and sgRNA, as well as with multiple guide sequences. Partial DNA replacement also works for crRNA of Cpf1, another CRISPR system. We find that partial DNA replacement in the guide sequence significantly reduces off-target genome editing through focused analysis of off-target cleavage, measurement of mismatch tolerance and genome-wide profiling of off-target sites. Using the structure of the Cas9-sgRNA complex as a guide, the majority of the 3' end of crRNA can be replaced with DNA nucleotide, and the 5 - and 3'-DNA-replaced crRNA enables efficient genome editing. Cas9 guided by a DNA-RNA chimera may provide a generalized strategy to reduce both the cost and the off-target genome editing in human cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Expression of either Cas9 or Cas12a and guide RNAs by a single Polymerase II (Pol II) promoter represents a compact CRISPR expression system and has many advantages for different applications. In order to make this system routine in plant biology, engineering efforts are needed for developing and optimizing such single transcript unit (STU) systems for plant genome editing. RESULTS:To develop novel intron-based STU (iSTU) CRISPR system (STU CRISPR 3.0), we first evaluated three introns from three plant species for carrying guide RNAs by using an enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) system in rice. After validation of proper intron slicing, we inserted these gRNA-containing introns into the open reading frames (ORFs) of Cas9 and Cas12a for testing their genome editing capability. Different guide RNA processing strategies have been tested for Cas9 and Cas12a. We demonstrated singular genome editing and multiplexed genome editing with these iSTU-Cas9 and iSTU-Cas12a systems. CONCLUSION:We developed multiple iSTU-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cas12a systems for plant genome editing. Our results shed light on potential directions for further improvement of the iSTU systems.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is the only fully sequenced P. putida strain. Thus, for transcriptomics and proteomics studies with other P. putida strains, the P. putida KT2440 genomic database serves as standard reference. The utility of KT2440 whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide microarrays for transcriptomics studies of other Pseudomonas strains was investigated. To this end, microarray hybridizations were performed with genomic DNAs of subcultures of P. putida KT2440 (DSM6125), the type strain (DSM291(T)), plasmid pWW0-containing KT2440-derivative strain mt-2 (DSM3931), the solvent-tolerant P. putida S12, and several other Pseudomonas strains. Depending on the strain tested, 22 to 99% of all genetic elements were identified in the genomic DNAs. The efficacy of these microarrays to study cellular function was determined for all strains included in the study. The vast majority of DSM6125 genes encoding proteins of primary metabolism and genes involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds were identified in the genomic DNA of strain S12: a prerequisite for reliable transcriptomics analyses. The genomotypic comparisons between Pseudomonas strains were used to construct highly discriminative phylogenetic relationships. DSM6125 and DSM3931 were indistinguishable and clustered together with strain S12 in a separate group, distinct from DSM291(T). Pseudomonas monteilii (DSM14164) clustered well with P. putida strains.
Project description:Genetically modified HSV-1 viruses serve as promising vectors for tumour therapy and vaccine development. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is one of the most powerful tools for precise gene editing of the genomes of organisms. However, whether the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely and efficiently make gene replacements in the genome of HSV-1 remains essentially unknown. Here, we reported CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the HSV-1 genome in human cells, including the knockout and replacement of large genes. In established cells stably expressing CRISPR/Cas9, gRNA in coordination with Cas9 could direct a precise cleavage within a pre-defined target region, and foreign genes were successfully used to replace the target gene seamlessly by HDR-mediated gene replacement. Introducing the NHEJ inhibitor SCR7 to the CRISPR/Cas9 system greatly facilitated HDR-mediated gene replacement in the HSV-1 genome. We provided the first genetic evidence that two copies of the ICP0 gene in different locations on the same HSV-1 genome could be simultaneously modified with high efficiency and with no off-target modifications. We also developed a revolutionized isolation platform for desired recombinant viruses using single-cell sorting. Together, our work provides a significantly improved method for targeted editing of DNA viruses, which will facilitate the development of anti-cancer oncolytic viruses and vaccines.