Pay It Forward: High School Video-based Instruction Can Disseminate CPR Knowledge in Priority Neighborhoods.
ABSTRACT: The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates.We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a "pay-it-forward" component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates. Ninth and tenth graders followed a video self-instruction kit in a classroom setting to learn CPR. As homework, students were required to use the training kit to "pay it forward" and teach CPR to their friends and family. We administered pre- and post-intervention knowledge surveys to measure knowledge acquisition among classroom and "pay-it-forward" participants.Seventy-one classroom participants trained 347 of their friends and family, for an average of 4.9 additional persons trained per kit. Classroom CPR knowledge survey scores increased from 58% to 93% (p < 0.0001). The pay-it-forward cohort saw an increase from 58% to 82% (p < 0.0001).A high school-centered, CPR educational intervention with a "pay-it-forward" component can disseminate CPR knowledge beyond the classroom. Because schools are centrally-organized settings to which all children and their families have access, school-based interventions allow for a broad reach that encompasses all segments of the population and have potential to decrease disparities in bystander CPR provision.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed school bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training programs. But related researches in China are limited. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess bystander CPR training in school children in China and the impact of neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) on.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 1,093 students from seven schools in Zhejiang province participated in this study. Theoretical and practical bystander CPR training were conducted in instructor-led classes. Students completed a 10-statement questionnaire before and after training, and then underwent a skills assessment during a simulated basic life support (BLS) scenario. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to neighborhood SES.<h4>Results</h4>Before training, most students (72.83%) had a strong desire to learn bystander CPR and share with others. After training, bystander CPR theory was significantly improved (P?<?.01), and 92.64% students reached an 85-100% performance rate in a simulated BLS scenario. Students from low-SES neighborhoods had less pre-training knowledge of bystander CPR (P?<?.01). However, their performance was similar with students from higher-SES neighborhoods on the post-training questionnaire and the skills assessment, and better among students aged 13-14 years.<h4>Conclusion</h4>School children in China have a poor pre-training knowledge of bystander CPR. However, with training, there was a significant improvement in the basic theory and skills of CPR. Bystander CPR training efforts should be targeted to Chinese primary and secondary school children, especially in low-SES neighborhoods.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hands-only bystander CPR increases survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Video-based CPR instruction in schools has been proposed as a means to mass-educate laypersons in Hands-only CPR™ (HOCPR), in developed as well as developing countries. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study is to determine whether a brief video- and mannequin-based instructional program, developed by the American Heart Association (AHA), is an effective strategy for teaching Costa Rican middle- and high-school age children to learn the steps of HOCPR. METHODS:This study took place in four educational centers that spanned the entire socioeconomic spectrum within the Grand Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. Three hundred and eight students from the sixth to eleventh grades participated. The intervention included exposure to the AHA "CPR Anytime" video and practice with CPR mannequins. Before and after the intervention, students took a four-question, multiple-choice quiz that measured their knowledge of the correct steps and proper techniques of HOCPR; a separate question assessed their level of comfort "doing CPR on someone with a cardiac arrest." Pre- and post-intervention "percent correct" scores were compared and tested for statistical significance using paired t-tests or the McNemar test as appropriate. Improvement in knowledge and comfort levels were also compared across the different educational centers and compared with similar programs implemented in the United States. RESULTS:The students' overall scores (mean percent correct) on the multiple choice questions more than doubled after training (40.9% ± 1.4% before training vs. 92.5% ± 0.9% after training, p < 0.00001). Improvements were observed in each school, regardless of geographic location or socioeconomic status. Knowledge of the appropriate steps of HOCPR doubled after training (42.2% before training vs. 92.5% after training, p < 0.000001). Post-intervention, a majority (73%) of children reported comfort with performing CPR on an individual who had suffered a cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the AHA "CPR Anytime" program in teaching HOCPR to school-age children within the Grand Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. Additional studies are needed to measure longer-term knowledge retention and students' ability to perform CPR in simulated cardiac arrest settings.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 2-hour compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator (CO-CPRAED) course in secondary school students. DESIGN:Prospective pre-post feasibility study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:128 students (12-15 years old) without prior basic life support (BLS) training at four secondary schools in Hong Kong. All students were followed up at 3 months after training. INTERVENTIONS:Emergency medicine-trained nurse and physicians taught the 2-hour CO-CPRAED course using the American Heart Association 'CPR in School Training Kit' programme. Students were trained in groups up to 40 students/session, with an instructor to student ratio not exceeding 1:10. To practise hands-on compressions, the manikin to student ratio was 1:1. For a simulated cardiac arrest, the manikin and AED to student ratio was 1:10. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:CPR and AED knowledge, attitude statements towards bystander CPR and AED, quality of BLS performance skills during training and at 3 months. RESULTS:Some students (46%) knew how deep to push on an adult chest when doing CO-CPR before training. The course was associated with an increase in knowledge score (pretraining 55%, post-training 93%; adjusted mean difference (MD) 38%, 95% CI 33% to 43%; p<0.001). Most students (68%) thought that CPR education in senior secondary school was essential before training. The students had a very positive attitude towards CPR; no change in the mean (SD) attitude score out of 30 over time (pretraining 27.2 (2.5), post-training 27.6 (2.7); adjusted MD 0.5, 95% CI -0.1 to 1.0; p=0.132). Most students were competent in performing BLS immediately after training (77%) and at 3 months (83%) (adjusted MD 6%, 95% CI -4% to 15%; p=0.268). CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrate the feasibility of scaling up the number of secondary schools trained in a brief CO-CPRAED course within the local school curriculum.
Project description:Conduct of emergency research under waiver of consent produces special challenges. Moreover, the act of performing research may have unintended effects, potentially beneficial or detrimental. The Dispatcher-Assisted Randomized Trial (DART) was designed to compare 2 types of dispatcher cardiopulmonary (CPR) instruction, but not intended to affect the proportion of arrest victims that received bystander CPR. We sought to determine whether odds of receiving bystander CPR were higher during DART than during the periods before and after.We conducted an observational cohort study of 8626 adults who suffered non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest prior to emergency medical services (EMS) arrival in greater King County, Washington, between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2011. Bystander CPR status was assessed through review of dispatch recordings and EMS reports to classify any bystander CPR (any B-CPR), and further categorized as bystander CPR with or without dispatcher assistance (DA-CPR and B-CPR, no DA). We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate odds of B-CPR before, during, and after DART.The proportions receiving any B-CPR were 52% before DART (1817/3468), 59% during DART (2093/3527), and 54% after DART (885/1631). Compared to the period before DART, odds of receiving any B-CPR were higher during DART (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.23-1.49), but no different after (OR=1.10, 0.98-1.24). Compared to the before period, odds of DA-CPR were higher during DART (OR=1.79, 1.59-2.02) but no different after (OR=0.94, 0.80-1.10).Odds of bystander CPR were higher during the trial, an increase related to higher likelihood of DA-CPR. The finding suggests a possible indirect community-wide benefit due to the interventional trial.
Project description:This study evaluated the effectiveness of a seven-session, bystander-focused, classroom-delivered curriculum (i.e., Bringing in the Bystander-High School Curriculum [BITB-HSC]) in reducing rates of interpersonal violence among high school students. High schools (N?=?26) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In classrooms in treatment schools, students (n?=?1081) completed a baseline survey, participated in the BITB-HSC, and completed an immediate post-test, a short-term post-test (approx. 2 months after intervention), and a long-term post-test (approx. 1 year after intervention). Youth in control schools (n?=?1322) completed surveys at similar time points but did not participate in the BITB-HSC. Participants were 15.8 years old on average and largely White (85.1%) and heterosexual (84.5%). Students exposed to the BITB-HSC demonstrated significant short-term changes in victim empathy and bystander barriers/facilitators, and long-term changes in rape myths, media literacy, bystander readiness, and knowledge relative to youth in the control condition. Although the BITB-HSC had little long-term impact on actual bystander behavior, there were reductions in some forms of violence among students in the BITB-HSC condition relative to the control condition. Future research is needed to determine if, for whom, why, and in what contexts (e.g., classroom-based versus school-wide initiatives) bystander-focused violence prevention initiatives reduce violence.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) significantly improves survival after a sudden cardiopulmonary collapse. This study assessed the basic life support (BLS) knowledge and performance of high school students before and after CPR training. METHODS: This study included 132 teenagers (mean age 14.6 ± 1.4 years). Students completed a two-hour training course that provided theoretical background on sudden cardiac death (SCD) and a hands-on CPR tutorial. They were asked to perform BLS on a manikin to simulate an SCD scenario before the training. Afterwards, participants encountered the same scenario and completed a questionnaire for self-assessment of their pre- and post-training confidence. Four months later, we assessed the knowledge retention rate of the participants with a BLS performance score. RESULTS: Before the training, 29.5% of students performed chest compressions as compared to 99.2% post-training (P < 0.05). At the four-month follow-up, 99% of students still performed correct chest compressions. The overall improvement, assessed by the BLS performance score, was also statistically significant (median of 4 and 10 pre- and post-training, respectively, P < 0.05). After the training, 99.2% stated that they felt confident about performing CPR, as compared to 26.9% (P < 0.05) before the training. CONCLUSIONS: BLS training in high school seems highly effective considering the minimal amount of previous knowledge the students possess. We observed significant improvement and a good retention rate four months after training. Increasing the number of trained students may minimize the reluctance to conduct bystander CPR and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiopulmonary collapse.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nationwide and regional interventions can help improve bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) awareness, knowledge, and the willingness. Periodic community investigation will help monitor the effect. This study aimed to compare the experience of CPR education, CPR knowledge, and CPR willingness, during a 5-year interval.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a pre and post study. Two surveys were done in February 2012 and December 2016. National and regional intervention including legislation promoting public involvement, standardizing CPR education programs, training CPR instructors, and installing supporting organizations were done at the period. In both surveys, respondents were selected via quota sampling in Daegu Metropolitan City and answered the survey through face-to-face interview. Respondents' general demographic characteristics, CPR educational experience, CPR knowledge and CPR willingness were questioned.<h4>Results</h4>Total of 2141 respondents (1000 in 2012, 1141 in 2016) were selected. The percentage of respondents who received CPR education itself and recent education were higher after intervention compared to before intervention (36.2% vs. 55.1%, 16.9% vs. 30.1%, respectively). Correct knowledge of performing CPR seems to be improved overall (1.6% vs. 11.7%, odd ratio 14.28, 95% confidence interval 5.68-35.94). However, less respondents were willing to perform CPR on strangers (54.5% vs 35.0%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Nationwide and regional interventions to promote bystander CPR and CPR education were associated with increased CPR education experience and improved correct CPR knowledge in performing bystander CPR. Willingness to perform bystander CPR on family did not increase significantly and CPR willingness to strangers was decreased. Additional legal and technological measures should be implemented to promote bystander CPR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Performing high-quality bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the clinical outcomes of victims with sudden cardiac arrest. Thus far, no systematic review has been performed to identify interventions associated with improved bystander CPR quality. METHODS:We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, Ovid PsycInfo, Thomson Reuters SCI-EXPANDED, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to retrieve studies published from 1 January 1966 to 5 October 2018 associated with interventions that could improve the quality of bystander CPR. Data regarding participant characteristics, interventions, and design and outcomes of included studies were extracted. RESULTS:Of the initially identified 2,703 studies, 42 were included. Of these, 32 were randomized controlled trials. Participants included adults, high school students, and university students with non-medical professional majors. Interventions improving bystander CPR quality included telephone dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) with simplified or more concrete instructions, compression-only CPR, and other on-scene interventions, such as four-hand CPR for elderly rescuers, kneel on opposite sides for two-person CPR, and CPR with heels for a tired rescuer. Devices providing real-time feedback and mobile devices containing CPR applications or software were also found to be beneficial in improving the quality of bystander CPR. However, using mobile devices for improving CPR quality or for assisting DA-CPR might cause rescuers to delay starting CPR. CONCLUSIONS:To further improve the clinical outcomes of victims with cardiac arrest, these effective interventions may be included in the guidelines for bystander CPR.
Project description:Resuscitation (CPR) provided by a bystander prior to the arrival of the emergency services is a beneficial factor for surviving a cardiac arrest (CA). Our registry-based data show, that older patients receive bystander-CPR less frequently. Little is known on possible reasons for this finding. We sought to investigate the hypothesis that awareness of CPR measures is lower in older laypersons being a possible reason for less CPR-attempts in senior citizens.1206 datasets on bystander resuscitations actually carried out were analyzed for age-dependent differences. Subsequently, we investigated whether the knowledge required carrying out bystander-CPR and the self-confidence to do so differ between younger and older citizens using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. 2004 interviews were performed and statistically analyzed.A lower level of knowledge to carry out bystander-CPR was seen in older individuals. For example, 82.4% of interviewees under 65 years of age, knew the correct emergency number. In this group, 66.6% named CPR as the relevant procedure in CA. Among older individuals these responses were only given by 75.1% and 49.5% (V = 0.082; P < 0.001 and V = 0.0157; P < 0.001). Additionally, a difference concerning participants' confidence in their own abilities was detectable. 58.0% of the persons younger than 65 years were confident that they would detect a CA in comparison to 44.6% of the participants older than 65 years (V = 0.120; P < 0.001). Similarly, 62.7% of the interviewees younger than 65 were certain to know what to do during CPR compared to 51.3% of the other group (V = 0.103; P < 0.001).Lower levels of older bystanders' knowledge and self-confidence might provide an explanation for why older patients receive bystander-CPR less frequently. Further investigation is necessary to identify causal connections and optimum ways to empower bystander resuscitation.
Project description:Undergraduate college "science partners" provided content knowledge and a supportive atmosphere for K-5 teachers in a university-school professional development partnership program in science instruction. The Elementary Science Education Partners program, a Local Systemic Change initiative supported by the National Science Foundation, was composed of four major elements: 1) a cadre of mentor teachers trained to provide district-wide teacher professional development; 2) a recruitment and training effort to place college students in classrooms as science partners in semester-long partnerships with teachers; 3) a teacher empowerment effort termed "participatory reform"; and 4) an inquiry-based curriculum with a kit distribution and refurbishment center. The main goals of the program were to provide college science students with an intensive teaching experience and to enhance teachers' skills in inquiry-based science instruction. Here, we describe some of the program's successes and challenges, focusing primarily on the impact on the classroom teachers and their science partners. Qualitative analyses of data collected from participants indicate that 1) teachers expressed greater self-confidence about teaching science than before the program and they spent more class time on the subject; and 2) the college students modified deficit-model negative assumptions about the children's science learning abilities to express more mature, positive views.