Predictors of mortality in ST-elevation MI patients: A prospective study.
ABSTRACT: We aimed to define factors predicting mortality in patients having ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who had Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in our setting.This is a prospective study on patients presenting to the emergency department with STEMI who underwent PCI during a 12-month period. Physiological parameters were calculated using the vital signs and age of patients. Time-based factors in the institutional protocol were collected. Univariate analysis was performed to define significant factors that affected mortality. Significant factors were then entered into a logistic regression model. Factors significantly affecting mortality were defined. Receiving operating characteristic curve was applied to define the best predictors of mortality.A total of 167 consecutive patients were studied; 128 (76.6%) were males. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 61.9 (12.8) years. The logistic regression model showed that significant factors were age (P?=?.002), Modified Shock Index, MSI (P?=?.028), systolic blood pressure (P?=?.028), and time between consultation and activation of catheter laboratory (P?=?.047). The cut-off points with best prediction of mortality were age of 71.5 years, systolic blood pressure of less than 95 mmHg, MSI of 0.85, and a time more than 3.5 minutes between consultation and activation of catheter laboratory.Our study shows that significant predictors of 30-days mortality of STEMI were age, systolic blood pressure on presentation, MSI, and the time between consultation and catheter laboratory activation. Improving prehospital resuscitation and activation of the catheter laboratory by emergency physicians may reduce mortality in our setting.
Project description:Recent studies have proposed intravenous (IV) morphine is associated with delayed action of antiplatelet agents in acute myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether morphine results in increased myocardial damage in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We investigated myocardial salvage index (MSI) to determine whether IV morphine affects myocardial injury adversely in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. 299 STEMI patients underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging a median of 3 days after PCI. Infarct size was measured on delayed-enhancement imaging, and area at risk was quantified on T2-weighted imaging. MSI was calculated as '[area at risk-infarct size] X 100 / area at risk'. IV morphine was administrated in 32.1% of patients. Patients treated with morphine had shorter symptom to balloon time and higher prevalence of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0 or 1. The morphine group showed a trend toward larger MSI and infarct size and significantly greater area at risk than the non-morphine group. After propensity score matching (90 pairs), MSI was similar between the morphine and non-morphine group (46.1% versus 43.5%, P = .11), and infarct size and area at risk showed no difference. In propensity score-matched analysis, IV morphine prior to primary PCI in STEMI patients did not cause adverse impacts on myocardial salvage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little is known about the causality and pathological mechanism underlying the association of seasonal variation with myocardial injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the association of seasonal effect with myocardial injury using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:In 279 patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, CMR was performed for a median of 3.3 days after the index procedure. Of these, STEMI occurred in 56 patients in the winter (Winter group), 80 patients in the spring (Spring group), 76 patients in the summer (Summer group), and 67 patients in the autumn (Autumn group), respectively. We compared myocardial infarct size, extent of area at risk (AAR), myocardial salvage index (MSI) and microvascular obstruction (MVO) area as assessed by CMR according to the season in which STEMI occurred. RESULTS:In the CMR analysis, the myocardial infarct size was not significantly different among the Winter group (21.0 ± 10.5%), the Spring group (19.6 ± 11.5%), the Summer group (18.6 ± 10.6%), and the Autumn group (21.1 ± 11.3%) (P = 0.475). The extent of AAR, MSI, and MVO areas were similar among the four groups. In the subgroup analysis, myocardial infarct size, extent of AAR, MSI, and MVO were not significantly different between the Harsh climate (winter + summer) and the Mild climate (spring + autumn) groups. CONCLUSIONS:Seasonal influences may not affect advanced myocardial injury in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI.
Project description:Importance:Many studies have compared outcomes for incomplete revascularization (IR) among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), but little is known about whether outcomes are related to the nature of the IR. Objective:To determine whether some coronary vessel characteristics are associated with worse outcomes in patients with PCI with IR. Design, Setting, and Participants:New York's PCI registry was used to examine mortality (median follow-up, 3.4 years) as a function of the number of vessels that were incompletely revascularized, the stenosis in those vessels, and whether the proximal left anterior descending artery was incompletely revascularized after controlling for other factors associated with mortality for patients with and without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This was a multicenter study (all nonfederal PCI hospitals in New York State) that included 41?639 New York residents with multivessel coronary artery disease undergoing PCI in New York State between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Exposures:Percutaneous coronary interventions, with complete and incomplete revascularization. Main Outcomes and Measures:Medium-term mortality. Results:For patients with STEMI, the mean age was 62.8 years; 26.2% were women, 11.9% were Hispanic, and 81.5% were white. For other patients, the mean age was 66.6 years, 29.1% were women, 11.3% were Hispanic, and 79.1% were white. Incomplete revascularization was very common (78% among patients with STEMI and 71% among other patients). Patients with IR in a vessel with at least 90% stenosis were at higher risk than other patients with IR. This was not significant among patients with STEMI (17.18% vs 12.86%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.16; 95% CI, 0.99-1.37) and significant among patients without STEMI (17.71% vs 12.96%; AHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.24). Similarly, patients with IR in 2 or more vessels had higher mortality than patients with completely revascularization and higher mortality than other patients with IR among patients with STEMI (20.37% vs 14.39%; AHR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.15-1.59) and among patients without STEMI (20.10% vs 12.86%; AHR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.59). Patients with proximal left anterior descending artery vessel IR had higher mortality than other patients with IR (20.09% vs 14.67%; AHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.64 for patients with STEMI and 20.78% vs 15.62%; AHR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23 for patients without STEMI). More than 20% of all PCI patients had IR of 2 or more vessels and more than 30% had IR with more than 90% stenosis. Conclusions and Relevance:Patients with IR are at higher risk of mortality if they have IR with at least 90% stenosis, IR in 2 or more vessels, or proximal left anterior descending IR.
Project description:Elevated D-dimer levels on admission predict prognosis in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but the association of D-dimer levels with structural markers of myocardial injury in these patients is unknown.We performed cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in 208 patients treated with primary PCI for STEMI. CMR was performed a median of 3 days after the index procedure. Of the 208 patients studied, 75 patients had D-dimer levels above the normal range on admission (>0.5 ?g/mL; high D-dimer group) while 133 had normal levels (?0.5 ?g/mL; low D-dimer group). The primary outcome was myocardial infarct size assessed by CMR. Secondary outcomes included area at risk (AAR), microvascular obstruction (MVO) area, and myocardial salvage index (MSI).In CMR analysis, myocardial infarct size was larger in the high D-dimer group than in the low D-dimer group (22.3% [16.2-30.5] versus 18.8% [10.7-26.7]; p = 0.02). Compared to the low D-dimer group, the high D-dimer group also had a larger AAR (38.1% [31.7-46.9] versus 35.8% [24.2-45.3]; p = 0.04) and a smaller MSI (37.7 [28.2-46.9] versus 47.1 [33.2-57.0]; p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, high D-dimer levels were significantly associated with larger myocardial infarct (OR 2.59; 95% CI 1.37-4.87; p<0.01) and lower MSI (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.44-4.78; p<0.01).In STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, high D-dimer levels on admission were associated with a larger myocardial infarct size, a greater extent of AAR, and lower MSI, as assessed by CMR data. Elevated initial D-dimer level may be a marker of advanced myocardial injury in patients treated with primary PCI for STEMI.
Project description:The incidence of in-hospital cardiovascular adverse events (AEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is relatively high. Identification of metabolic markers could improve our understanding of the underlying pathological changes in these patients. We aimed to identify associations between concentrations of plasma metabolites on admission and development of in-hospital AEs in post-PCI patients with STEMI. We used targeted mass spectrometry to measure plasma concentrations of 26 amino acid metabolites on admission in 96 patients with STEMI who subsequently developed post-PCI AEs and in 96 age- and sex-matched patients without post-PCI cardiovascular AEs. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PCA-derived factors, including branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), were associated with increased risks of all three pre-specified outcomes: cardiovascular mortality/acute heart failure (AHF), cardiovascular mortality, and AHF. Addition of BCAA to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score increased the concordance C statistic from 0.702 to 0.814 (p?<?0.001), and had a net reclassification index of 0.729 (95% confidence interval, 0.466-0.992, p?<?0.001). These findings demonstrate that high circulating BCAA concentrations on admission are associated with subsequent in-hospital AEs after revascularization in patients with STEMI.
Project description:Challenges to improving ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care are formidable in low- to middle-income countries because of several system-level factors.To examine access to reperfusion and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during STEMI using a hub-and-spoke model.This multicenter, prospective, observational study of a quality improvement program studied 2420 patients 20?years or older with symptoms or signs consistent with STEMI at primary care clinics, small hospitals, and PCI hospitals in the southern state of Tamil Nadu in India. Data were collected from the 4 clusters before implementation of the program (preimplementation data). We required a minimum of 12 weeks for the preimplementation data with the period extending from August 7, 2012, through January 5, 2013. The program was then implemented in a sequential manner across the 4 clusters, and data were collected in the same manner (postimplementation data) from June 12, 2013, through June 24, 2014, for a mean 32-week period.Creation of an integrated, regional quality improvement program that linked the 35 spoke health care centers to the 4 large PCI hub hospitals and leveraged recent developments in public health insurance schemes, emergency medical services, and health information technology.Primary outcomes focused on the proportion of patients undergoing reperfusion, timely reperfusion, and postfibrinolysis angiography and PCI. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality.A total of 2420 patients with STEMI (2034 men [84.0%] and 386 women [16.0%]; mean [SD] age, 54.7 [12.2] years) (898 in the preimplementation phase and 1522 in the postimplementation phase) were enrolled, with 1053 patients (43.5%) from the spoke health care centers. Missing data were common for systolic blood pressure (213 [8.8%]), heart rate (223 [9.2%]), and anterior MI location (279 [11.5%]). Overall reperfusion use and times to reperfusion were similar (795 [88.5%] vs 1372 [90.1%]; P?=?.21). Coronary angiography (314 [35.0%] vs 925 [60.8%]; P?<?.001) and PCI (265 [29.5%] vs 707 [46.5%]; P?<?.001) were more commonly performed during the postimplementation phase. In-hospital mortality was not different (52 [5.8%] vs 85 [5.6%]; P?=?.83), but 1-year mortality was lower in the postimplementation phase (134 [17.6%] vs 179 [14.2%]; P?=?.04), and this difference remained consistent after multivariable adjustment (adjusted odds ratio,?0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.98; P?=?.04).A hub-and-spoke model in South India improved STEMI care through greater use of PCI and may improve 1-year mortality. This model may serve as an example for developing STEMI systems of care in other low- to middle-income countries.
Project description:During percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), dislodgement of atherothrombotic material from coronary lesions can result in distal embolization, and may lead to increased major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality. We sought to systematically review the comparative effectiveness of adjunctive devices to remove thrombi or protect against distal embolization in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI of native vessels.We conducted a systematic literature search of Medline, the Cochrane Database, and Web of Science (January 1996-March 2011), http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, abstracts from major cardiology meetings, TCTMD, and CardioSource Plus. Two investigators independently screened citations and extracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the use of adjunctive devices plus PCI to PCI alone, evaluated patients with STEMI, enrolled a population with 95% of target lesion(s) in native vessels, and reported data on at least one pre-specified outcome. Quality was graded as good, fair or poor and the strength of evidence was rated as high, moderate, low or insufficient. Disagreement was resolved through consensus.37 trials met inclusion criteria. At the maximal duration of follow-up, catheter aspiration devices plus PCI significantly decreased the risk of MACE by 27% compared to PCI alone. Catheter aspiration devices also significantly increased the achievement of ST-segment resolution by 49%, myocardial blush grade of 3 (MBG-3) by 39%, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 3 flow by 8%, while reducing the risk of distal embolization by 44%, no reflow by 48% and coronary dissection by 70% versus standard PCI alone. In a majority of trials, the use of catheter aspiration devices increased procedural time upon qualitative assessment.Distal filter embolic protection devices significantly increased the risk of target revascularization by 39% although the use of mechanical thrombectomy or embolic protection devices did not significantly impact other final health outcomes. Distal balloon or any embolic protection device increased the achievement of MBG-3 by 61% and 20% and TIMI3 flow by 11% and 6% but did not significantly impact other intermediate outcomes versus control. Upon qualitative analysis, all device categories, with exception of catheter aspiration devices, appear to significantly prolong procedure time compared to PCI alone while none appear to significantly impact ejection fraction. Many of the final health outcome and adverse event evaluations were underpowered and the safety of devices overall is unclear due to insufficient amounts of data.In patients with STEMI, for most devices, few RCTs evaluated final health outcomes over a long period of follow-up. Due to insufficient data, the safety of these devices is unclear.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although considered the evidence-based best therapy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), many patients do not receive primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of health care resource distribution and constraints. This study describes the clinical management and outcomes of all patients identified with STEMI within a region, including those who did not receive primary PCI. METHODS: This study used a prospective cohort design. Patients presenting with STEMI to PCI- and non-PCI-capable hospitals in one integrated health region in Ontario were included in the study. The primary objective was to examine use of reperfusion strategies and timeliness of care. Secondary objectives included determining (through regression models) which variables were associated with mortality within 90 days, and describing patient uptake of risk-reducing therapies and activities post-STEMI. RESULTS: Between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2013, data were collected on 2247 consecutive patients presenting with STEMI. Patients presenting to the PCI-capable hospital were more likely to receive primary PCI (82.5% v. 65.2%, p < 0.001) and be treated within optimal treatment times. However, there was no appreciable difference in mortality at 90 days post-STEMI between patients presenting to PCI- and non-PCI-capable hospitals (7.8% v. 7.5%, p = 0.82), even after adjustment for acuity on presentation. Despite recognized risk factors, many patients were not taking evidence-based medications for risk factor modification before STEMI. INTERPRETATION: A systematic approach to regional STEMI care focusing on timely access to the best available therapies, rather than the type of reperfusion provided alone, can yield favourable outcomes.
Project description:Data concerning the benefits and risks of primary PCI in the elderly patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are limited. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess age-dependent differences in the treatment and outcomes of STEMI patients transferred for primary PCI. Data were gathered on 1,650 consecutive STEMI patients from hospital networks in seven countries of Europe from November 2005 to January 2007 (the EUROTRANSFER Registry population). Patients <65, 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and ? 85 years of age comprised 49.3, 27.5, 20.2, and 3 % of the registry population, respectively. Elderly patients were higher risk individuals and have experienced longer delays to reperfusion than their younger counterparts and were more likely to be treated conservatively after coronary angiography. Despite similar frequency of TIMI 3 flow before PCI, elderly patients were less likely to achieve TIMI 3 flow and ST-segment resolution >50 % after PCI, and were more likely to have PCI complications. The rates of death at 30 days, as well as at 1 year were increased with age. In the Cox regression analysis model age was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality. A trend toward higher risk of major bleeding requiring transfusion was observed. Age was an important determinant of treatment strategies selection and clinical outcomes in the group of consecutive STEMI patients transferred for primary PCI. Further efforts should be made to reduce delays and to optimize treatment of STEMI, regardless of patients' age.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) carries an extremely high mortality. The clinical pattern of this life threatening complication has never been described in Malaysian setting. This study is to investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcome of STEMI patients with CS in our population. DESIGN:A retrospective analysis of STEMI patients from 18 hospitals across Malaysia contributing to the Malaysian National Cardiovascular Database-acute coronary syndrome) registry (NCVD-ACS) year 2006-2013. PARTICIPANTS:16?517 patients diagnosed of STEMI from 18 hospitals in Malaysia from the year 2006 to 2013. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:In-hospital and 30?day post-discharge mortality. RESULTS:CS complicates 10.6% of all STEMIs in this study. They had unfavourable premorbid conditions and poor outcomes. The in-hospital mortality rate was 34.1% which translates into a 7.14 times mortality risk increment compared with STEMI without CS. Intravenous thrombolysis remained as the main urgent reperfusion modality. Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in CS conferred a 40% risk reduction over non-invasive therapy but were only done in 33.6% of cases. Age over 65, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic lung and kidney disease conferred higher risk of mortality. CONCLUSION:Mortality rates of CS complicating STEMI in Malaysia are high. In-hospital PCI confers a 40% mortality risk reduction but the rate of PCI among our patients with CS complicating STEMI is still low. Efforts are being made to increase access to invasive therapy for these patients.