Anatomical Arthroscopic Graft Reconstruction of the Anterior Tibiofibular Ligament for Chronic Disruption of the Distal Syndesmosis.
ABSTRACT: Injuries of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis are commonly overlooked or mismanaged, and chronic instability is a debilitating condition leading to premature joint degeneration. Several methods of treatment have been described, mainly screw fixation, arthrodesis, or ligament reconstruction. Most clinical evidence is limited to case series, mainly screw fixation, and there is a general paucity of evidence regarding ligament reconstruction, which is considered to be more anatomic and to restore joint biomechanics. Most papers describe open techniques. We describe an original technique for all-inside anatomic arthroscopic graft reconstruction of the anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament, which is simpler than other previously described reconstruction procedures. In addition to being performed through standard ankle arthroscopy portals, we believe this technique avoids potential complications.
Project description:Injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis can occur in conjunction with ankle fractures. Sagittal instability of the syndesmosis is more critical than coronal instability and must be taken into account when considering reduction and fixation of the syndesmosis. The purpose of this Technical Note is to report the technique of arthroscopically assisted reduction of sagittal-plane disruption of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. This ensures a comprehensive assessment of the pattern of syndesmotic disruption, which can aid anatomic reduction of the syndesmosis.
Project description:To evaluate the diagnostic performance and reader agreement of a novel MRI image fusion method enabling the reconstruction of oblique images for the assessment of the tibiofibular syndesmosis. We evaluated 40 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of patients with ankle sprains (16 with ruptures and 24 without) for the presence of anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament rupture. For all patients, we performed a fusion of standard two-dimensional transversal and coronal 3 mm PDw TSE images into an oblique-fusion reconstruction (OFR) and compared these against conventionally scanned oblique sequence for the evaluation of the tibiofibular syndesmosis. To evaluate diagnostic performance, two expert readers independently read the OFR images twice. We analyzed sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, accuracy, and agreement. Reader 1 misinterpreted one OFR as a false negative, demonstrating a sensitivity of 0.94 and specificity of 1.00, reader 2 demonstrated perfect accuracy. Intrareader agreement was almost perfect for reader 1 (? = 0.95) and was perfect for reader 2 (? = 1.00). Additionally, interreader agreement between all fusion sequence reads was almost perfect (? = 0.97). The proposed OFR enables reliable detection of anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament rupture with excellent inter- and intrareader agreement, making conventional scanning of oblique images redundant and supplies a method to retroactively create oblique images, e.g., from external examinations.
Project description:Chronic distal tibiofibular syndesmosis disruption can be managed by endoscopic arthrodesis of the syndesmosis. This is performed through the proximal anterolateral and posterolateral portals. The scar tissue and bone block are resected to facilitate the subsequent reduction of the syndesmosis. The reduction of the syndesmosis can be guided either arthroscopically or endoscopically. The tibial and fibular surfaces of the tibiofibular overlap can be microfractured to facilitate subsequent fusion.
Project description:Proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) instability can be easily missed or confused for other, more common lateral knee pathologies such as meniscal tears, fibular collateral ligament injury, biceps femoris pathology, or iliotibial band syndrome. Because of this confusion, some authors believe that PTFJ instability is more common than initially appreciated. Patients with PTFJ subluxation may have no history of inciting trauma or injury, and it is not uncommon for these patients to have bilateral symptoms and generalized ligamentous laxity. Currently, the optimal surgical treatment for patients with chronic PTFJ instability is unknown. Historically, a variety of surgical treatments have been reported. Initially, joint arthrodesis and fibular head resection were recommended. More recently, temporary screw fixation, nonanatomic reconstruction with strips of the biceps femoris tendon or iliotibial band, and reconstruction with free hamstring autograft have been described. The purpose of this report is to present our surgical technique for treatment of chronic PTFJ instability using an anatomic reconstruction of the posterior ligamentous structures of the PTFJ with a semitendinosus autograft.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This cadaveric study sought to evaluate the accuracy of syndesmotic reduction using direct visualization via an anterolateral approach compared with palpation of the syndesmosis through a laterally based incision. METHODS:Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained and underwent baseline computed tomography (CT) scans. Subsequently, a complete syndesmotic injury was simulated by transecting the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament, posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament, transverse ligament, interosseous membrane, and deltoid ligament. Three orthopaedic trauma surgeons were then asked to reduce each syndesmosis using direct visualization via an anterolateral approach. Specimens were then stabilized and underwent postreduction CT scans. Fixation was then removed, the anterolateral exposure was closed, and the surgeons were then asked to reduce the syndesmosis using palpation only via a direct lateral approach. Specimens were again instrumented and underwent postreduction CT scans. Two-tailed paired t tests were used to compare reductions with baseline scans with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS:There was no statistically significant difference between reduction via direct visualization or palpation via lateral approach when compared with baseline scans. Although measurements did not reach significance, there was a tendency toward external rotation, and anteromedial translation with direct visualization, and a trend toward fibular external rotation and posterolateral translation with palpation. CONCLUSIONS:There is no difference in reduction quality using direct visualization or palpation to assess the syndesmosis. Surgeons may therefore choose either technique when reducing syndesmotic injures based on personal preference and other injury factors.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Recently, a new suture-button fixation device has emerged for the treatment of acute distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injuries and its use is rapidly increasing. The current systematic review was undertaken to compare the biomechanical properties, functional outcome, need for implant removal, and the complication rate of syndesmotic disruptions treated with a suture-button device with the current 'gold standard', i.e. the syndesmotic screw.<h4>Method</h4>A literature search in the electronic databases of the Cochrane Library, EMbase, Pubmed Medline, and Google Scholar, between January 1st 2000 to December 1st 2011, was conducted to identify studies in which unstable ankle fractures with concomitant distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injury were treated with either a syndesmotic screw or a suture-button device.<h4>Results</h4>A total of six biomechanical studies, seven clinical full-text studies and four abstracts on the TightRope system, and 27 studies on syndesmotic screw or bolt fixation were identified. The AOFAS of 133 patients treated with TightRope was 89.1 points, with an average study follow-up of 19 months. The AOFAS score in studies with 253 patients treated with syndesmotic screws (metallic and absorbable) or bolts was 86.3 points, with an average study follow-up of 42 months. Two studies reported an earlier return to work in the TightRope group. Implant removal was reported in 22 (10%) of 220 patients treated with a TightRope (range, 0-25%), in the screw or bolt group the average was 51.9% of 866 patients (range, 5.8-100%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The TightRope system has a similar outcome compared with the syndesmotic screw or bolt fixation, but might lead to a quicker return to work. The rate of implant removal is lower than in the syndesmotic screw group. There is currently insufficient evidence on the long-term effects of the TightRope and more uniform outcome reporting is desirable. In addition, there is a need for studies on cost-effectiveness of the treatment of acute distal tibiofibular syndesmotic disruption treated with a suture-button device.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The optimal MRI scan planes of collateral ligaments of the ankle have been described extensively, with the exception of the syndesmotic ligaments. We assessed the optimal scan plane for depicting the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to determine the optimal oblique caudal-cranial and lateral-medial MRI scan plane, two fresh frozen cadaveric ankles were used. The angle of the scan plane that demonstrated the anterior and posterior distal tibiofibular ligament uninterrupted in their full length was determined. In a prospective study this oblique scan plane was then used in addition to the axial and coronal planes, for MRI scans of both ankles in 21 healthy volunteers. Two observers independently evaluated the anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATIFL) and posterior tibiofibular ligament (PTIFL) regarding the continuity of the individual fascicles, thickness and wavy contour of the ligaments in both the axial and the oblique plane. Kappa was calculated to determine the interobserver agreement. McNemar's test was used to statistically quantify the significance of the two scan planes. RESULTS: In the axial plane the ATIFL was in 31% (13/42) partly and in 69% (29/42) completely discontinuous; in the oblique plane the ATIFL was continuous in 88% (37/42) and partly discontinuous in 12% (5/42). Compared with the axial plane, the oblique plane demonstrated significantly less discontinuity (p<0.001), but not significantly less thickening (p=1.00) or less wavy contour (p=0.06) of the ATIFL. In the axial scan plane the PTIFL was continuous in 76% (32/42), partially discontinuous in 19% (8/42) and completely discontinuous in 5% (2/42); in the oblique plane the PTIFL was continuous in 100% (42/42). Compared with the axial plane, the oblique plane demonstrated significantly less discontinuity (p=0.002), but not significantly less thickening (p=1.00) or less wavy contour (p=0.50) of the PTIFL. The interobserver agreement score and kappa (?) regarding the continuity for the ATIFL in the axial and oblique planes was 91% (?=0.79) and 91% (?=0.55) respectively; for the PTIFL it was 86% (?=0.65) and 100% (? = not defined). CONCLUSION: The ATIFL and PTIFL are routinuely scanned in the orthogonal planes. The advantage of MRI scanning in an oblique image plane of about 45 degrees permits a better evaluation of the ligaments compared with the axial plane, particularly a better interpretation of ligament continuity, thickening and wavy contour. This may lead to a reduction in false-positive results, especially regarding partial or complete ligament ruptures. This can be of considerable aid in therapeutic management.
Project description:Instabilities of the subtalar joint are commonly overlooked or mismanaged, and chronic instability is a debilitating condition leading to premature joint degeneration. Several methods of treatment have been described, mainly screw fixation, arthrodesis, or ligament reconstruction. Most studies describe open methods for ligament reconstruction. We describe an original technique for "all-inside" arthroscopic graft reconstruction of the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament for subtalar instability.
Project description:Injury to the proximal tibiofibular joint can lead to lateral knee pain and instability owing to chronic rupture of the posterior tibiofibular ligament. The condition is often missed, and the true incidence is unknown. A variety of surgical treatments have been proposed over the last decades. Methods such as arthrodesis and fibular head resection have largely been replaced with various reconstruction techniques using autografts. The purpose of this report is to describe our method for treatment of proximal tibiofibular joint instability by dynamic internal fixation with a suture button.
Project description:Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) is a rare injury pattern than can affect high-demand athletes involved in twisting or pivoting movements on a flexed knee. Instability may produce painful subluxations during provocative activity and occasional neuritic symptoms from tethering of the common peroneal nerve at the fibular neck. There are several reports of reconstruction for symptomatic PTFJ instability; however, no optimal treatment has been elucidated in the literature. Use of a cortical button suspensory device for fixation of the PTFJ offers the advantage of stabilizing the joint without need for free graft harvest or rigid screw fixation. The present technical report illustrates the operative technique and the advantages, disadvantages, pearls, and pitfalls associated with this operation.