Cartilage Repair in the Knee Using Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Embedded Onto Collagen Scaffolding and Implanted Under Dry Arthroscopy.
ABSTRACT: Cell-based cartilage repair procedures are becoming more widely available and have shown promising potential to treat a wide range of cartilage lesion types and sizes, particularly in the knee joint. More recently, techniques have evolved from 2-step techniques that use autologous chondrocyte expansion to 1-step techniques that make use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) embedded onto biocompatible scaffolding. Our 1-step technique has been further developed to provide cell-based cartilage repair using MSCs that have the potential to be used in an off-the-shelf manner, without the need for autologous tissue harvest. Precursor MSCs can be isolated in abundance from the Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord tissue. These cells have been shown to have the desired capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and release of trophic factors that make them an excellent candidate for use in the clinical setting to provide cell-based restoration of hyaline-like cartilage. Although allogeneic in nature, these cells stimulate little or no host immune response and can be stored for long periods while maintaining viability. We present a technique of cartilage repair in the knee using Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs embedded onto scaffolding and implanted in a minimally invasive fashion using dry arthroscopy.
Project description:Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine due to cartilage low self-ability repair in case of damage. Hence, a significant goal of musculoskeletal tissue engineering is the development of suitable structures in virtue of their matrix composition and biomechanical properties. The objective of our study was to design in vitro a supporting structure for autologous chondrocyte growth. We realized a biohybrid composite scaffold combining a novel and nonspecific extracellular matrix (ECM), which is decellularized Wharton's jelly ECM, with the biomechanical properties of the synthetic hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Wharton's jelly ECM was tested for its ability in promoting scaffold colonization by chondrocytes and compared with polyvinyl alcohol itself and the more specific decellularized cartilage matrix. Our preliminary evidences highlighted the chance of using Wharton's jelly ECM in combination with PVA hydrogels as an innovative and easily available scaffold for cartilage restoration.
Project description:The role of rabbit synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rbSF-MSCs) in cartilage defect repair remains undefined. This work evaluates the in vivo effects of rbSF-MSCs to repair knee articular cartilage defects in a rabbit model.Cartilage defects were made in the patellar grooves of New Zealand white rabbits. The rbSF-MSCs were generated from the knee cavity by arthrocentesis. Passage 5 rbSF-MSCs were assayed by flow cytometry. The multipotency of rbSF-MSCs was confirmed after 3 weeks induction in vitro and the autologous rbSF-MSCs and predifferentiated rbSF-MSCs were injected into the synovial cavity. The intra-articular injection was performed once a week for 4 weeks. The animals were euthanized and the articular surfaces were subjected to macroscopic and histological evaluations at 8 and 12 weeks after the first intra-articular injection.Hyaline-like cartilage was detected in the defects treated with rbSF-MSCs, while fibrocartilage tissue formed in the defects treated with chondrocytes induced from rbSF-MSCs.Our results suggest that autologous undifferentiated rbSF-MSCs are favorable to articular cartilage regeneration in treating cartilage defects.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent alternative candidates to chondrocytes for cartilage engineering. However, it remains difficult to identify the ideal source of MSCs for cartilage repair since conditions supporting chondrogenic induction are diverse among published works. In this study, we characterized and evaluated the chondrogenic potential of MSCs from bone marrow (BM), Wharton's jelly (WJ), dental pulp (DP), and adipose tissue (AT) isolated and cultivated under serum-free conditions. BM-, WJ-, DP-, and AT-MSCs did not differ in terms of viability, clonogenicity, and proliferation. By an extensive polychromatic flow cytometry analysis, we found notable differences in markers of the osteochondrogenic lineage between the 4 MSC sources. We then evaluated their chondrogenic potential in a micromass culture model, and only BM-MSCs showed chondrogenic conversion. This chondrogenic differentiation was specifically ascertained by the production of procollagen IIB, the only type II collagen isoform synthesized by well-differentiated chondrocytes. As a pilot study toward cartilage engineering, we encapsulated BM-MSCs in hydrogel and developed an original method to evaluate their chondrogenic conversion by flow cytometry analysis, after release of the cells from the hydrogel. This allowed the simultaneous quantification of procollagen IIB and ?10, a subunit of a type II collagen receptor crucial for proper cartilage development. This work represents the first comparison of detailed immunophenotypic analysis and chondrogenic differentiation potential of human BM-, WJ-, DP-, and AT-MSCs performed under the same serum-free conditions, from their isolation to their induction. Our study, achieved in conditions compliant with clinical applications, highlights that BM-MSCs are good candidates for cartilage engineering.
Project description:Articular cartilage defects at the knee joint are identified and treated with increasing frequency. Autologous chondrocytes may have the strongest potential to generate high-quality repair tissue within the defective region. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is not available in every country. We present a surgical technique where the surgeon can apply autologous chondrocytes in a one-step procedure to treat articular cartilage defects at the knee joint.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells are being the focus of connective tissue technology and regenerative medicine, presenting a good choice cell source for improving old and well recognized techniques of cartilage defect repair. For instance, the autologous chondrocyte transplantation using new concepts of regenerative medicine. The present study investigated the risk of xenogenicity of human synovial membrane-derived MSCs, injected into the monkeys using intravenous and intra-articular administration. The animal models used were adult monkeys Rhesus which had been injured into the left knee to create an Osteoarthritis (OA) animal model. CD105+-MSCs were injected twice into the OA monkeys with an interval of one week between them. The animals were euthanized one month after treatment. Immunohistochemistry analysis of different organs: spleen, heart, fat, liver, gut, pancreas, lung, skeletal muscle and kidney from the animals revealed that CD105+-MSCs migrated towards the injured knee joint. MSCs naive were found statistically significant increased in the injured knee in front of healthy one. CD105+-MSCs were negatives for CD68 and the area where CD105+-MSCs were found presented SDF-1 increased levels in front of healthy knee. We concluded that a characterized MSCs subset could be a safe alternative for cell therapy in clearly localized pathologies.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising tools for the treatment of diseases such as infarcted myocardia and strokes because of their ability to promote endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis via a variety of secreted factors. MSCs found in the Wharton's jelly of the human umbilical cord are easily obtained and are capable of transplantation without rejection. We isolated MSCs from Wharton's jelly and bone marrow (WJ-MSCs and BM-MSCs, respectively) and compared their secretomes. It was found that WJ-MSCs expressed more genes, especially secreted factors, involved in angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Functional validation showed that WJ-MSCs induced better neural differentiation and neural cell migration via a paracrine mechanism. Moreover, WJ-MSCs afforded better neuroprotection efficacy because they preferentially enhanced neuronal growth and reduced cell apoptotic death of primary cortical cells in an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) culture model that mimics the acute ischemic stroke situation in humans. In terms of angiogenesis, WJ-MSCs induced better microvasculature formation and cell migration on co-cultured endothelial cells. Our results suggest that WJ-MSC, because of a unique secretome, is a better MSC source to promote in vivo neurorestoration and endothelium repair. This study provides a basis for the development of cell-based therapy and carrying out of follow-up mechanistic studies related to MSC biology.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Knee joint distraction (KJD) is a novel, but poorly understood, treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) associated with remarkable 'spontaneous' cartilage repair in which resident synovial fluid (SF) multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may play a role. We hypothesised that SF hyaluronic acid (HA) inhibited the initial interaction between MSCs and cartilage, a key first step to integration, and postulate that KJD environment favoured MSC/cartilage interactions. METHODS:Attachment of dual-labelled SF-MSCs were assessed in a novel in vitro human cartilage model using OA and rheumatoid arthritic (RA) SF. SF was digested with hyaluronidase (hyase) and its effect on adhesion was observed using confocal microscopy. MRI and microscopy were used to image autologous dual-labelled MSCs in an in vivo canine model of KJD. SF-HA was investigated using gel electrophoresis and densitometry. RESULTS:Osteoarthritic-synovial fluid (OA-SF) and purified high molecular weight (MW) HA inhibited SF-MSC adhesion to plastic, while hyase treatment of OA-SF but not RA-SF significantly increased MSC adhesion to cartilage (3.7-fold, p<0.05) These differences were linked to the SF mediated HA-coat which was larger in OA-SF than in RA-SF. OA-SF contained >9?MDa HA and this correlated with increases in adhesion (r=0.880). In the canine KJD model, MSC adhesion to cartilage was evident and also dependent on HA MW. CONCLUSIONS:These findings highlight an unappreciated role of SF-HA on MSC interactions and provide proof of concept that endogenous SF-MSCs are capable of adhering to cartilage in a favourable biochemical and biomechanical environment in OA distracted joints, offering novel one-stage strategies towards joint repair.
Project description:Cartilage injury of the knee that is associated with significant subchondral bone loss can result in great morbidity, and treatment options that provide durable repair are limited. Osteochondral autograft and allograft reconstruction of these lesions has been used extensively; however, these techniques often require a more invasive surgical exposure, and restoring the natural articular surface radius of curvature can be challenging, particularly in larger lesions. Cell-based repair of these lesions, using autologous chondrocytes in conjunction with bone grafting, has been used with success, although this procedure requires the patient to undergo 2 operations, and access is often restricted due to the high associated costs. Comparable medium-term clinical outcomes have been shown with scaffold-associated mesenchymal stem cell grafting, and this cell-based procedure may also be performed arthroscopically to minimize patient morbidity. In cases of cartilage injury associated with bone loss, this procedure has great potential to repair osteochondral injury when used in conjunction with bone grafting. We present the one-step arthroscopic technique of biologic inlay osteochondral reconstruction in the knee, using an autologous bone graft and a hyaluronic acid-based scaffold embedded with bone marrow aspirate concentrate, to treat full-thickness cartilage lesions associated with significant subchondral bone loss.
Project description:Several commercially available cartilage repair techniques use a natural or synthetic matrix to aid cartilage regeneration (e.g., autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis or matrix-induced cartilage implantation). However, the use of matrix-aided techniques during conventional knee joint arthroscopy under continuous irrigation is challenging. Insertion and fixation of the matrix can be complicated by the presence of fluid and the confined patellofemoral joint space with limited access to the lesion. To overcome these issues, we developed a novel arthroscopic approach for matrix-aided cartilage repair of patellar lesions. This technical note describes the use of dry arthroscopy assisted by a minimally invasive retraction system. An autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis procedure is used to illustrate this novel approach.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great therapeutic potential. However, MSCs undergo replication senescence during the in vitro expansion process. Wharton's jelly from the human umbilical cord harbors a large number of MSCs. In this study, we hypothesized that Wharton's jelly would be beneficial for in vitro expansion of MSCs. Wharton's jelly extract (WJEs), which is mainly composed of extracellular matrix and cytokines, was prepared as coating substrate. Human MSCs were isolated and cultured on WJE-coated plates. Although the proliferation capacity of cells was not augmented by WJE in early phase culture, adynamic growth in late-phase culture was clearly reduced, suggesting that the replicative senescence of MSCs was efficiently slowed by WJE. This was confirmed by ?-galactosidase staining and telomere length measurements of MSCs in late-phase culture. In addition, the decreased differentiation ability of MSCs after long-term culture was largely ameliorated by WJE. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), p53, and p16INK4a/pRb expression increased with passaging. Analysis at the molecular level revealed that WJE-based culture efficiently suppressed the enhancement of intracellular ROS, p53, and p16INK4a/pRb in MSCs. These data demonstrated that WJE provided an ideal microenvironment for MSCs culture expansion in vitro preserved MSC properties by delaying MSCs senescence, and allowed large numbers of MSCs to be obtained for basic research and clinical therapies.