Heterologous expression and characterization of an Arabidopsis ?-l-arabinopyranosidase and ?-d-galactosidases acting on ?-l-arabinopyranosyl residues.
ABSTRACT: The major plant sugar l-arabinose (l-Ara) has two different ring forms, l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf) and l-arabinopyranose (l-Arap). Although l-Ara mainly appears in the form of ?-l-Araf residues in cell wall components, such as pectic ?-1,3:1,5-arabinan, arabinoxylan, and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), lesser amounts of it can also be found as ?-l-Arap residues of AGPs. Even though AGPs are known to be rapidly metabolized, the enzymes acting on the ?-l-Arap residues remain to be identified. In the present study, four enzymes, which we call ?-l-ARAPASE (APSE) and ?-GALACTOSIDASE 1 (AGAL1), AGAL2, and AGAL3, are identified as those enzymes that are likely to be responsible for the hydrolysis of the ?-l-Arap residues in Arabidopsis thaliana. An Arabidopsis apse-1 mutant showed significant reduction in ?-l-arabinopyranosidase activity, and an apse-1 agal3-1 double-mutant exhibited even less activity. The apse-1 and the double-mutants both had more ?-l-Arap residues in the cell walls than wild-type plants. Recombinant APSE expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris specifically hydrolyzed ?-l-Arap residues and released l-Ara from gum arabic and larch arabinogalactan. The recombinant AGAL3 also showed weak ?-l-arabinopyranosidase activity beside its strong ?-galactosidase activity. It appears that the ?-l-Arap residues of AGPs are hydrolysed mainly by APSE and partially by AGALs in Arabidopsis.
Project description:In plants, L-arabinose (Ara) is a key component of cell wall polymers, glycoproteins, as well as flavonoids, and signaling peptides. Whereas the majority of Ara found in plant glycans occurs as a furanose ring (Araf), the activated precursor has a pyranose ring configuration (UDP-Arap). The biosynthesis of UDP-Arap mainly occurs via the epimerization of UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl) in the Golgi lumen. Given that the predominant Ara form found in plants is Araf, UDP-Arap must exit the Golgi to be interconverted into UDP-Araf by UDP-Ara mutases that are located outside on the cytosolic surface of the Golgi. Subsequently, UDP-Araf must be transported back into the lumen. This step is vital because glycosyltransferases, the enzymes mediating the glycosylation reactions, are located within the Golgi lumen, and UDP-Arap, synthesized within the Golgi, is not their preferred substrate. Thus, the transport of UDP-Araf into the Golgi is a prerequisite. Although this step is critical for cell wall biosynthesis and the glycosylation of proteins and signaling peptides, the identification of these transporters has remained elusive. In this study, we present data demonstrating the identification and characterization of a family of Golgi-localized UDP-Araf transporters in Arabidopsis The application of a proteoliposome-based transport assay revealed that four members of the nucleotide sugar transporter (NST) family can efficiently transport UDP-Araf in vitro. Subsequent analysis of mutant lines affected in the function of these NSTs confirmed their role as UDP-Araf transporters in vivo.
Project description:Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of plant cell surface proteoglycans and are considered to be involved in plant growth and development. Because AGPs are very complex molecules, glycoside hydrolases capable of degrading AGPs are powerful tools for analyses of the AGPs. We previously reported such enzymes from Streptomyces avermitilis. Recently, a beta-l-arabinopyranosidase was purified from the culture supernatant of the bacterium, and its corresponding gene was identified. The primary structure of the protein revealed that the catalytic module was highly similar to that of glycoside hydrolase family 27 (GH27) alpha-d-galactosidases. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed as a secreted 64-kDa protein using a Streptomyces expression system. The specific activity toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-l-arabinopyranoside was 18 micromol of arabinose/min/mg, which was 67 times higher than that toward p- nitrophenyl-alpha-d-galactopyranoside. The enzyme could remove 0.1 and 45% l-arabinose from gum arabic or larch arabinogalactan, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that the protein had a GH27 catalytic domain, an antiparallel beta-domain containing Greek key motifs, another antiparallel beta-domain forming a jellyroll structure, and a carbohydrate-binding module family 13 domain. Comparison of the structure of this protein with that of alpha-d-galactosidase showed a single amino acid substitution (aspartic acid to glutamic acid) in the catalytic pocket of beta-l-arabinopyranosidase, and a space for the hydroxymethyl group on the C-5 carbon of d-galactose bound to alpha-galactosidase was changed in beta-l-arabinopyranosidase. Mutagenesis study revealed that the residue is critical for modulating the enzyme activity. This is the first report in which beta-l-arabinopyranosidase is classified as a new member of the GH27 family.
Project description:The carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) have β-(1 → 3)-galactan backbones to which side chains of (1 → 6)-linked β-Gal residues are attached through O-6. Some of these side chains are further substituted with other sugars. We investigated the structure of L-Fuc-containing oligosaccharides released from the carbohydrate moieties of a radish leaf AGP by digestion with α-L-arabinofuranosidase, followed by exo-β-(1 → 3)-galactanase. We detected a series of neutral β-(1 → 6)-galactooligosaccharides branching variously at O-3 of the Gal residues, together with corresponding acidic derivatives terminating in 4-O-methyl-GlcA (4-Me-GlcA) or GlcA at the non-reducing terminals. In neutral oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (dp) mainly higher than 10, L-Fuc groups were attached through L-Ara residues as the sequence, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 →. This sequence was verified by isolation of the pentasaccharide α-L-Fuc-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal upon digestion of the higher oligosaccharides with endo-β-(1 → 6)-galactanase. By contrast, in lower polymerized (predominantly dp 4) acidic oligosaccharides, L-Fuc groups were attached directly at the non-reducing terminals through α-(1 → 2)-linkages, resulting in the release of the tetrasaccharides, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal and α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-4-Me-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal. In long acidic oligosaccharides with dp mainly higher than 13, L-Fuc groups localized on branches were attached to the uronic acids directly and/or L-Ara residues as in the neutral oligosaccharides.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are one of the most complex protein families in the plant kingdom and are present in the cell walls of all land plants. AGPs are implicated in diverse biological processes such as plant growth, development, reproduction, and stress responses. AGPs are extensively glycosylated by the addition of type II arabinogalactan (AG) polysaccharides to hydroxyproline residues in their protein cores. Glucuronic acid (GlcA) is the only negatively charged sugar added to AGPs and the functions of GlcA residues on AGPs remain to be elucidated.<h4>Results</h4>Three members of the CAZy GT14 family (GLCAT14A-At5g39990, GLCAT14B-At5g15050, and GLCAT14C-At2g37585), which are responsible for transferring glucuronic acid (GlcA) to AGPs, were functionally characterized using a CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing approach in Arabidopsis. RNA seq and qRT-PCR data showed all three GLCAT genes were broadly expressed in different plant tissues, with GLCAT14A and GLCAT14B showing particularly high expression in the micropylar endosperm. Biochemical analysis of the AGPs from knock-out mutants of various glcat single, double, and triple mutants revealed that double and triple mutants generally had small increases of Ara and Gal and concomitant reductions of GlcA, particularly in the glcat14a glcat14b and glcat14a glcat14b glcat14c mutants. Moreover, AGPs isolated from all the glcat mutants displayed significant reductions in calcium binding compared to WT. Further phenotypic analyses found that the glcat14a glcat14b and glcat14a glcat14b glcat14c mutants exhibited significant delays in seed germination, reductions in root hair length, reductions in trichome branching, and accumulation of defective pollen grains. Additionally, both glcat14b glcat14c and glcat14a glcat14b glcat14c displayed significantly shorter siliques and reduced seed set. Finally, all higher-order mutants exhibited significant reductions in adherent seed coat mucilage.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This research provides genetic evidence that GLCAT14A-C function in the transfer of GlcA to AGPs, which in turn play a role in a variety of biochemical and physiological phenotypes including calcium binding by AGPs, seed germination, root hair growth, trichome branching, pollen development, silique development, seed set, and adherent seed coat mucilage accumulation.
Project description:The bulk of plant biomass is comprised of plant cell walls, which are complex polymeric networks, composed of diverse polysaccharides, proteins, polyphenolics, and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). Glycosyltransferases (GTs) work together to synthesize the saccharide components of the plant cell wall. The <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> fucosyltransferases (FUTs), <i>At</i>FUT4, and <i>At</i>FUT6, are members of the plant-specific GT family 37 (GT37). <i>At</i>FUT4 and <i>At</i>FUT6 transfer fucose (Fuc) onto arabinose (Ara) residues of arabinogalactan (AG) proteins (AGPs) and have been postulated to be non-redundant AGP-specific FUTs. <i>At</i>FUT4 and <i>At</i>FUT6 were recombinantly expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells and purified for biochemical analysis. We report an updated understanding on the specificities of <i>At</i>FUT4 and <i>At</i>FUT6 that are involved in the synthesis of wall localized AGPs. Our findings suggest that they are selective enzymes that can utilize various arabinogalactan (AG)-like and non-AG-like oligosaccharide acceptors, and only require a free, terminal arabinofuranose. We also report with GUS promoter-reporter gene studies that <i>AtFUT4</i> and <i>AtFUT6</i> gene expression is sub-localized in different parts of developing <i>A. thaliana</i> roots.
Project description:A membrane fraction from etiolated 6-day-old primary radish roots (Raphanus sativus L. var hortensis) contained β-glucuronosyltransferases (GlcATs) involved in the synthesis of the carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). The GlcATs transferred [(14)C]GlcA from UDP-[(14)C]GlcA on to β-(1 → 3)-galactan as an exogenous acceptor substrate, giving a specific activity of 50-150 pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). The enzyme specimen also catalyzed the transfer of [(14)C]GlcA on to an enzymatically modified AGP from mature radish root. Analysis of the transfer products revealed that the transfer of [(14)C]GlcA occurred preferentially on to consecutive (1 → 3)-linked β-Gal chains as well as single branched β-(1 → 6)-Gal residues through β-(1 → 6) linkages, producing branched acidic side chains. The enzymes also transferred [(14)C]GlcA residues on to several oligosaccharides, such as β-(1 → 6)- and β-(1 → 3)-galactotrioses. A trisaccharide, α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal, was a good acceptor, yielding a branched tetrasaccharide, α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)[β-GlcA-(1 → 6)]-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal. We report the first in vitro assay system for β-GlcATs involved in the AG synthesis as a step toward full characterization and cloning.
Project description:Classical arabinogalactan proteins partially defined by type II O-Hyp-linked arabinogalactans (Hyp-AGs) are structural components of the plant extracellular matrix. Recently we described the structure of a small Hyp-AG putatively based on repetitive trigalactosyl subunits and suggested that AGs are less complex and varied than generally supposed. Here we describe three additional AGs with similar subunits. The Hyp-AGs were isolated from two different arabinogalactan protein fusion glycoproteins expressed in tobacco cells; that is, a 22-residue Hyp-AG and a 20-residue Hyp-AG, both isolated from interferon alpha2b-(Ser-Hyp)(20), and a 14-residue Hyp-AG isolated from (Ala-Hyp)(51)-green fluorescent protein. We used NMR spectroscopy to establish the molecular structure of these Hyp-AGs, which share common features: (i) a galactan main chain composed of two 1-->3 beta-linked trigalactosyl blocks linked by a beta-1-->6 bond; (ii) bifurcated side chains with Ara, Rha, GlcUA, and a Gal 6-linked to Gal-1 and Gal-2 of the main-chain trigalactosyl repeats; (iii) a common side chain structure composed of up to six residues, the largest consisting of an alpha-L-Araf-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->3- unit and an alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->4)-beta-D-GlcUAp-(1-->6)-unit, both linked to Gal. The conformational ensemble obtained by using nuclear Overhauser effect data in structure calculations revealed a galactan main chain with a reverse turn involving the beta-1-->6 link between the trigalactosyl blocks, yielding a moderately compact structure stabilized by H-bonds.
Project description:Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins present in plant cell walls. AGPs are characterized by arabinose-/galactose-rich side chains, which define their interactive molecular surface. Fucose residues are found in some dicotyledon AGPs, and AGP fucosylation is developmentally regulated. We previously identified Arabidopsis thaliana FUT4 and FUT6 genes as AGP-specific fucosyltransferases (FUTs) based on their enzymatic activities when heterologously expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY2 suspension-cultured cells. Here, the functions of FUT4 and FUT6 and the physiological roles of fucosylated AGPs were further investigated using Arabidopsis fut4, fut6, and fut4/fut6 mutant plants. All mutant plants showed no phenotypic differences compared to wild-type plants under physiological conditions, but showed reduced root growth in the presence of elevated NaCl. However, roots of wild-type and fut4 mutant plants contained terminal fucose epitopes, which were absent in fut6 and fut4/fut6 mutant plants as indicated by eel lectin staining. Monosaccharide analysis showed fucose was present in wild-type leaf and root AGPs, but absent in fut4 leaf AGPs and in fut4/fut6 double mutant leaf and root AGPs, indicating that FUT4 was required for fucosylation of leaf AGPs while both FUT4 and FUT6 contributed to fucosylation of root AGPs. Glycome profiling of cell wall fractions from mutant roots and leaves showed distinct glycome profiles compared to wild-type plants, indicating that fucosyl residues on AGPs may regulate intermolecular interactions between AGPs and other wall components. The current work exemplifies the possibilities of refinement of cell wall structures by manipulation of a single or a few cell wall biosynthetic genes.
Project description:Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of plant extracellular proteoglycans involved in many physiological events. AGPs are often anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane and are highly glycosylated with arabinogalactan (AG) polysaccharides, but the molecular function of this glycosylation remains largely unknown. The β-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA) residues in AG polysaccharides have been shown in vitro to bind to calcium in a pH-dependent manner. Here, we used Arabidopsis (<i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>) mutants in four AG β-glucuronyltransferases (GlcAT14A, -B, -D, and -E) to understand the role of glucuronidation of AG. AG isolated from <i>glcat14</i> triple mutants had a strong reduction in glucuronidation. AG from a <i>glcat14a/b/d</i> triple mutant had lower calcium binding capacity in vitro than AG from wild-type plants. Some mutants had multiple developmental defects such as reduced trichome branching. <i>glcat14a/b/e</i> triple mutant plants had severely limited seedling growth and were sterile, and the propagation of calcium waves was perturbed in roots. Several of the developmental phenotypes were suppressed by increasing the calcium concentration in the growth medium. Our results show that AG glucuronidation is crucial for multiple developmental processes in plants and suggest that a function of AGPs might be to bind and release cell-surface apoplastic calcium.
Project description:Plant type II arabinogalactan (AG) polysaccharides are attached to arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) at hydroxyproline residues, and they are very diverse and heterogeneous structures. The AG consists of a ?-(1 ? 3)-linked galactan backbone with ?-(1 ? 6)-galactan side chains that are modified mainly with arabinose, but they may also contain glucuronic acid, rhamnose or other sugars. Here, we studied the positions of fucose substitutions in AGPs, and we investigated the functions of this fucosylation. Monosaccharide analysis of Arabidopsis leaf AGP extracts revealed a significant reduction in L-Fucose content in the fut4 mutant, but not in the fut6 mutant. In addition, Fucose was reduced in the fut4 mutant in root AGP extracts and was absent in the fut4/fut6 mutant. Curiously, in all cases reduction of fucose was accompanied with a reduction in xylose levels. The fucosylated AGP structures in leaves and roots in wild type and fut mutant plants were characterised by sequential digestion with AG specific enzymes, analysis by Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis, and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI)-Time of Flight Mass spectrometry (MS). We found that FUT4 is solely responsible for the fucosylation of AGPs in leaves. The Arabidopsis thaliana FUT4 and FUT6 genes have been previously proposed to be non-redundant AG-specific fucosyltransferases. Unexpectedly, FUT4 and FUT6 enzymes both fucosylate the same AGP structures in roots, suggesting partial redundancy to each other. Detailed structural characterisation of root AGPs with high energy MALDI-Collision Induced Dissociation MS and NMR revealed an abundant unique AG oligosaccharide structure consisting of terminal xylose attached to fucose. The loss of this structure in fut4/fut6 mutants explains the reduction of both fucose and xylose in AGP extracts. Under salt-stress growth conditions the fut4/fut6 mutant lacking AGP fucosylation exhibited a shorter root phenotype than wild type plants, implicating fucosylation of AGPs in maintaining proper cell expansion under these conditions.