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Dynamics of Scabin toxin. A proposal for the binding mode of the DNA substrate.


ABSTRACT: Scabin is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme and is a putative virulence factor produced by the plant pathogen, Streptomyces scabies. Previously, crystal structures of Scabin were solved in the presence and absence of substrate analogues and inhibitors. Herein, experimental (hydrogen-deuterium exchange), simulated (molecular dynamics), and theoretical (Gaussian Network Modeling) approaches were systematically applied to study the dynamics of apo-Scabin in the context of a Scabin·NAD+·DNA model. MD simulations revealed that the apo-Scabin solution conformation correlates well with the X-ray crystal structure, beyond the conformation of the exposed, mobile regions. In turn, the MD fluctuations correspond with the crystallographic B-factors, with the fluctuations derived from a Gaussian network model, and with the experimental H/D exchange rates. An Essential Dynamics Analysis identified the dynamic aspects of the toxin as a crab-claw-like mechanism of two topological domains, along with coupled deformations of exposed motifs. The "crab-claw" movement resembles the motion of C3-like toxins and emerges as a property of the central ? scaffold of catalytic single domain toxins. The exposure and high mobility of the cis side motifs in the Scabin ?-core suggest involvement in DNA substrate binding. A ternary Scabin·NAD+·DNA model was produced via an independent docking methodology, where the intermolecular interactions correspond to the region of high mobility identified by dynamics analyses and agree with binding and kinetic data reported for wild-type and Scabin variants. Based on data for the Pierisin-like toxin group, the sequence motif R?1-RLa-NLc-STT?2-WPN-WARTT-(QxE)ARTT emerges as a catalytic signature involved in the enzymatic activity of these DNA-acting toxins. However, these results also show that Scabin possesses a unique DNA-binding motif within the Pierisin-like toxin group.

SUBMITTER: Lugo MR 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5854381 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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