How to Detect Insight Moments in Problem Solving Experiments.
ABSTRACT: Arguably, it is not possible to study insight moments during problem solving without being able to accurately detect when they occur (Bowden and Jung-Beeman, 2007). Despite over a century of research on the insight moment, there is surprisingly little consensus on the best way to measure them in real-time experiments. There have also been no attempts to evaluate whether the different ways of measuring insight converge. Indeed, if it turns out that the popular measures of insight diverge, then this may indicate that researchers who have used one method may have been measuring a different phenomenon to those who have used another method. We compare the strengths and weaknesses of the two most commonly cited ways of measuring insight: The feelings-of-warmth measure adapted from Metcalfe and Wiebe (1987), and the self-report measure adapted from Bowden and Jung-Beeman (2007). We find little empirical agreement between the two measures, and conclude that the self-report measure of Aha! is superior both methodologically and theoretically, and provides a better representation of what is commonly regarded as insight. We go on to describe and recommend a novel visceral measure of insight using a dynamometer as described in Creswell et al. (2016).
Project description:The study examines how the remote associates test (RAT) has been used to examine theories of creativity through a review of recent studies on creativity. Creativity-related studies published between 2000 and 2019 were retrieved from the SCOPUS database. A total of 172 papers were chosen for further analysis. Content analysis shows that research on creativity using RAT mainly concerns remote association, insight problem-solving, general creative process, test development, individual difference, effect of treatment, clinical case, social interaction effect, and predictor or criterion. The study constructs a theoretical framework based on the 4P (Product-Person-Process-Place) model and demonstrates how empirical studies using the RAT explore the individual differences, internal processes, and external influences of creative thinking. In addition, the most commonly used version of the RAT is the Compound Remote Associates Problems (Bowden and Jung-Beeman, 2003a). Current research shows a trend whereby the creative thinking process has been receiving greater attention. In particular, a growing number of studies in this field have been carried out using cognitive neuroscience technologies. These findings suggest that the RAT provides researchers with a way to deepen their understanding of different levels of creativity.
Project description:The feeling of insight in problem solving is typically associated with the sudden realization of a solution that appears obviously correct (Kounios et al., 2006). Salvi et al. (2016) found that a solution accompanied with sudden insight is more likely to be correct than a problem solved through conscious and incremental steps. However, Metcalfe (1986) indicated that participants would often present an inelegant but plausible (wrong) answer as correct with a high feeling of warmth (a subjective measure of closeness to solution). This discrepancy may be due to the use of different tasks or due to different methods in the measurement of insight (i.e., using a binary vs. continuous scale). In three experiments, we investigated both findings, using many different problem tasks (e.g., Compound Remote Associates, so-called classic insight problems, and non-insight problems). Participants rated insight-related affect (feelings of Aha-experience, confidence, surprise, impasse, and pleasure) on continuous scales. As expected we found that, for problems designed to elicit insight, correct solutions elicited higher proportions of reported insight in the solution compared to non-insight solutions; further, correct solutions elicited stronger feelings of insight compared to incorrect solutions.
Project description:The interaction of cell and organelle membranes (lipid bilayers) with nanoelectronics can enable new technologies to sense and measure electrophysiology in qualitatively new ways. To date, a variety of sensing devices have been demonstrated to measure membrane currents through macroscopic numbers of ion channels. However, nanoelectronic based sensing of single ion channel currents has been a challenge. Here, we report graphene-based field-effect transistors combined with supported lipid bilayers as a platform for measuring, for the first time, individual ion channel activity. We show that the supported lipid bilayers uniformly coat the single layer graphene surface, acting as a biomimetic barrier that insulates (both electrically and chemically) the graphene from the electrolyte environment. Upon introduction of pore-forming membrane proteins such as alamethicin and gramicidin A, current pulses are observed through the lipid bilayers from the graphene to the electrolyte, which charge the quantum capacitance of the graphene. This approach combines nanotechnology with electrophysiology to demonstrate qualitatively new ways of measuring ion channel currents.
Project description:The method of Storer & Cornish-Bowden [(1974) Biochem. J. 141, 205-209] for determining the lag time in coupled enzyme assays was adapted to enable the kinetic parameters of the second (coupling) enzyme for the intermediate to be calculated. The validity and accuracy of this method of progress-curve analysis was established by comparing the Km value of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase for glucose 6-phosphate generated in situ by the action of glucose phosphate isomerase on fructose 6-phosphate with that determined from initial-rate measurements. The method was applied to the determination of the Km value of ox liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase for N tau-methylimidazol-3-ylacetaldehyde that was generated in situ by the action of plasma amine oxidase on N tau-methylhistamine.
Project description:We have adapted the CyQuant(R) assay to provide a simple, rapid, sensitive and highly reproducible method for measuring cell adhesion. The modified CyQuant(R) assay eliminates the requirement for labour intensive fluorescent labelling protocols prior to experimentation and has the sensitivity to measure small numbers (>1000) of adherent cells.
Project description:We present the complete genome sequences of Mycobacterium smegmatis phages Jung and Ronan, isolated from soil in Las Vegas, Nevada. The phages were isolated and annotated by students enrolled in a course for undergraduate research experience (CURE). Jung is a cluster P1 mycobacteriophage, while Ronan is in cluster C1.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:There is emerging evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be effective for treating anxiety and depression in people living with dementia (PLWD). Discriminating between thoughts and feelings is a critical element of CBT and also of relevance to emotional understanding more generally. The aim of the present study was the structured adaptation and preliminary validation of an existing measure of thought-feeling discrimination for use in PLWD. METHODS/DESIGN:The Behavior Thought Feeling Questionnaire (BTFQ) was adapted via expert and service-user consultation for use in PLWD. One hundred two PLWD and 77 people aged over 65 years who did not have measurable cognitive impairments completed the adapted measure along with two measures of emotional recognition and reasoning. The factor structure of this measure was examined and the measure reduced. RESULTS:Factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution with thought and feeling items loading on separate factors. The behavior items were not included in scoring due to high cross-loading and ceiling effects, leaving a 14-item measure with two subscales. Thus, an adapted measure was created (named the BTFQ-D), which showed moderate convergent validity in the PLWD but not the older adult sample. Both thought and feeling subscales showed good internal consistency. CONCLUSIONS:The BTFQ-D showed preliminary validity as a measure of thought-feeling discrimination in PLWD. It may have utility in measuring readiness for CBT as part of clinical assessment. Further validation is required.