Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in the Plant-Beneficial Bacterium Arthrobacter pascens ZZ21.
ABSTRACT: Arthrobacter pascens ZZ21 is a plant-beneficial, fluoranthene-degrading bacterial strain found in the rhizosphere. The production of the phytohormone indole-3-aectic acid (IAA) by ZZ21 is thought to contribute to its ability to promote plant growth and remediate fluoranthene-contaminated soil. Using genome-wide analysis combined with metabolomic and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analyses, we characterized the potential IAA biosynthesis pathways in A. pascens ZZ21. IAA production increased 4.5-fold in the presence of 200 mg·L-1 tryptophan in the culture medium. The transcript levels of prr and aldH, genes which were predicted to encode aldehyde dehydrogenases, were significantly upregulated in response to exogenous tryptophan. Additionally, metabolomic analysis identified the intermediates indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and the enzymatic reduction product of the latter, indole-3-lactic acid (ILA), among the metabolites of ZZ21, and subsequently also IAM, ILA, and indole-3-ethanol (TOL), which is the enzymatic reduction product of indole-3-acetaldehyde, by HPLC-MS. These results suggest that the tryptophan-dependent IAM and IPyA pathways function in ZZ21.
Project description:Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium. In our study, the screening of two independent Tn5 mutant libraries of PAL5T strain using the Salkowski colorimetric assay revealed two mutants (Gdiaa34 and Gdiaa01), which exhibited 95% less indolic compounds than the parental strain when grown in LGIP medium supplemented with L-tryptophan. HPLC chromatograms of the wild-type strain revealed the presence of IAA and of the biosynthetic intermediates indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA). In contrast, the HPLC profiles of both mutants showed no IAA but only a large peak of non-metabolized tryptophan and low levels of IPyA and ILA were detected. Molecular characterization revealed that Gdiaa01 and Gdiaa34 mutants had unique Tn5 insertions at different sites within the GDI2456 open read frame, which is predicted to encode a L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). GDI2456 (lao gene) forms a cluster with GDI2455 and GDI2454 ORFs, which are predicted to encode a cytochrome C and an RidA protein, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that transcript levels of lao. cccA, and ridA genes were reduced in the Gdiaa01 as compared to PAL5T. In addition, rice plants inoculated with Gdiaa01 showed significantly smaller root development (length, surface area, number of forks and tips) than those plants inoculated with PAL5T. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that G. diazotrophicus PAL5T produces IAA via the IPyA pathway in cultures supplemented with tryptophan and provides evidence for the involvement of an L-amino acid oxidase gene cluster in the biosynthesis of IAA. Furthermore, we showed that the mutant strains with reduction in IAA biosynthesis ability, in consequence of the lower transcription levels of genes of the lao cluster, had remarkable effects on development of rice roots.
Project description:Burkholderia pyrrocinia JK-SH007 is a plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), that can promote the growth of poplar and other trees, and, production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is one of the reasons for this effect. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the external environment on the synthesis of IAA by B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007 and to perform a functional analysis of its IAA synthesis pathway. In this study, IAA and its synthetic intermediates indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), tryptamine (TAM), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) were detected in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007 fermentation broth by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and these indolic compounds were also found in the cell-free extraction of B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007, but the genomic analysis of B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007 indicated that IAA biosynthesis was mainly through the IAM and TAM pathways. The effects of L-tryptophan (L-Trp), temperature and pH on the synthesis of IAA were investigated, and the results showed that L-Trp exerted a significant effect on IAA synthesis and that 37°C and pH 7 were the optimal conditions IAA production by B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007. In addition, the protein expression of tryptophan 2-monooxygenase and indoleacetamide hydrolase, which are the key enzymes of the indole acetamide-mediated IAA synthesis pathway, was analyzed, and their activity was verified by substrate feeding experiments. The results revealed the existence of an IAA synthesis pathway mediated by IAM and indicated that this pathway plays a role in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007. This study lays the foundation for further exploration of the specific pathway and mechanism of IAA synthesis in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007.
Project description:The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, protects the host plant from pathogen invasion and promotes plant growth through efficient root colonization. The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been suggested to contribute to the plant-growth-promoting effect of Bacillus strains. The possible IAA synthetic pathways in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 were investigated in this study, using a combination of chemical and genetic analysis.Gene candidates involved in tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis were identified through tryptophan response transcriptional analysis, and inactivation of genes ysnE, dhaS, yclC, and yhcX in SQR9 led to 86, 77, 55, and 24 % reductions of the IAA production, respectively. The genes patB (encoding a conserved hypothetical protein predicted to be an aminotransferase), yclC (encoding a UbiD family decarboxylase), and dhaS (encoding indole 3-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase), which were proposed to constitute the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway for IAA biosynthesis, were separately expressed in SQR9 or co-expressed as an entire IAA synthesis pathway cluster in SQR9 and B. subtilis 168, all these recombinants showed increased IAA production. These results suggested that gene products of dhaS, patB, yclB, yclC, yhcX and ysnE were involved in IAA biosynthesis. Genes patB, yclC and dhaS constitute a potential complete IPyA pathway of IAA biosynthesis in SQR9.In conclusion, biosynthesis of IAA in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 occurs through multiple pathways.
Project description:IAA biosynthetic pathways in a basidiomycetous yeast, Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis DMKU-CP293, were investigated. The yeast strain showed tryptophan (Trp)-dependent IAA biosynthesis when grown in tryptophan supplemented mineral salt medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to further identify the pathway intermediates of Trp-dependent IAA biosynthesis. The results indicated that the main intermediates produced by R. fluvialis DMKU-CP293 were tryptamine (TAM), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tryptophol (TOL), whereas indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) was not found. However, supplementation of IPA to the culture medium resulted in IAA peak detection by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the culture supernatant. Key enzymes of three IAA biosynthetic routes, i.e., IPA, IAM and TAM were investigated to clarify the IAA biosynthetic pathways of R. fluvialis DMKU-CP293. Results indicated that the activities of tryptophan aminotransferase, tryptophan 2-monooxygenase, and tryptophan decarboxylase were observed in cell crude extract. Overall results suggested that IAA biosynthetic in this yeast strain mainly occurred via the IPA route. Nevertheless, IAM and TAM pathway might be involved in R. fluvialis DMKU-CP293.
Project description:Endophytic fungi are known to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which can stimulate plant growth. Twenty-seven isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from Coffea arabica in northern Thailand. Only one isolate (CMU-A109) produced IAA in vitro. This isolate was identified as Colletotrichum fructicola based on morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analysis of a combined five loci (internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA, actin, ?-tubulin 2, chitin synthase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes). Identification of a fungal IAA production obtained from indole 3-acetamide (IAM) and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activity is suggestive of IAM routed IAA biosynthesis. The highest IAA yield (1205.58±151.89 ?g/mL) was obtained after 26 days of cultivation in liquid medium supplemented with 8 mg/mL L-tryptophan at 30°C. Moreover, the crude fungal IAA could stimulate coleoptile elongation of maize, rice and rye. This is the first report of IAA production by C. fructicola and its ability to produce IAA was highest when compared with previous reports on IAA produced by fungi.
Project description:The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects plants and introduces the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) region of the Ti-plasmid into nuclear DNA of host plants to induce the formation of tumors (crown galls). The T-DNA region carries iaaM and iaaH genes for synthesis of the plant hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). It has been demonstrated that the iaaM gene encodes a tryptophan 2-monooxygenase which catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetamide (IAM), and the iaaH gene encodes an amidase for subsequent conversion of IAM to IAA. In this article, we demonstrate that A. tumefaciens enhances the production of both IAA and phenylacetic acid (PAA), another auxin which does not show polar transport characteristics, in the formation of crown galls. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, we found that the endogenous levels of phenylacetamide (PAM) and PAA metabolites, as well as IAM and IAA metabolites, are remarkably increased in crown galls formed on the stem of tomato plants, implying that two distinct auxins are simultaneously synthesized via the IaaM-IaaH pathway. Moreover, we found that the induction of the iaaM gene dramatically elevated the levels of PAM, PAA and its metabolites, along with IAM, IAA and its metabolites, in Arabidopsis and barley. From these results, we conclude that A. tumefaciens enhances biosynthesis of two distinct auxins in the formation of crown galls.
Project description:Plants, bacteria and some fungi are known to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by employing various pathways. Among these pathways, the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) pathway is the best studied in green plants and plant-associated beneficial microbes. While IAA production circuitry in plants has been studied for decades, little is known regarding the IAA biosynthesis pathway in fungal species. Here, we present the first data for IAA-producing genes and the associated biosynthesis pathway in a non-pathogenic fungus, Neurospora crassa. For this purpose, we used a computational approach to determine the genes and outlined the IAA production circuitry in N. crassa. We then validated these data with experimental evidence. Here, we describe the homologous genes that are present in the IPA pathway of IAA production in N. crassa. High-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography unambiguously identified IAA, indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) and tryptophol (TOL) from cultures supplemented with tryptophan. Deletion of the gene (cfp) that encodes the enzyme indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase, which converts IPA to indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAAld), results in an accumulation of higher levels of ILA in the N. crassa culture medium. A double knock-out strain (?cbs-3;?ahd-2) for the enzyme IAAld dehydrogenase, which converts IAAld to IAA, shows a many fold decrease in IAA production compared with the wild type strain. The ?cbs-3;?ahd-2 strain also displays slower conidiation and produces many fewer conidiospores than the wild type strain.
Project description:The beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 produces indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator. However, the pathway involved in IAA production in this bacterium has not been reported. In this paper we describe the involvement of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway in IAA production in P. chlororaphis O6 and the effects of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Sublethal levels of CuO and ZnO NPs differentially affected the levels of IAA secreted in medium containing tryptophan as the precursor. After 15 h of growth, CuO NP-exposed cells had metabolized more tryptophan than the control and ZnO NP-challenged cells. The CuO NP-treated cells produced higher IAA levels than control cultures lacking NPs. In contrast, ZnO NPs inhibited IAA production. Mixing of CuO and ZnO NPs resulted in an intermediate level of IAA production relative to the levels in the separate CuO and ZnO NP treatments. The effect of CuO NPs on IAA levels could be duplicated by ions at the concentrations released from the NPs. However, ion release did not account for the inhibition caused by the ZnO NPs. The mechanism underlying changes in IAA levels cannot be accounted for by effects on transcript accumulation from genes encoding a tryptophan permease or the IAM hydrolase in 15-h cultures. These findings raise the issue of whether sublethal doses of NPs would modify the beneficial effects of association between plants and bacteria.
Project description:Variovorax is a metabolically diverse genus of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that engages in mutually beneficial interactions between plants and microbes. Unlike most PGPR, Variovorax cannot synthesize the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via tryptophan. However, we found that Variovorax boronicumulans strain CGMCC 4969 can produce IAA using indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as the precursor. Thus, in the present study, the IAA synthesis mechanism of V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 was investigated. V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 metabolized IAN to IAA through both a nitrilase-dependent pathway and a nitrile hydratase (NHase) and amidase-dependent pathway. Cobalt enhanced the metabolic flux via the NHase/amidase, by which IAN was rapidly converted to indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and in turn to IAA. IAN stimulated metabolic flux via the nitrilase, by which IAN was rapidly converted to IAA. Subsequently, the IAA was degraded. V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 can use IAN as the sole carbon and nitrogen source for growth. Genome sequencing confirmed the IAA synthesis pathways. Gene cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli indicated that NitA has nitrilase activity and IamA has amidase activity to respectively transform IAN and IAM to IAA. Interestingly, NitA showed a close genetic relationship with the nitrilase of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the NHase/amidase system is constitutively expressed, whereas the nitrilase is inducible. The present study helps our understanding of the versatile functions of Variovorax nitrile-converting enzymes that mediate IAA synthesis and the interactions between plants and these bacteria.IMPORTANCE We demonstrated that Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 has two enzymatic systems-nitrilase and nitrile hydratase/amidase-that convert indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) to the important plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The two IAA synthesis systems have very different regulatory mechanisms, affecting the IAA synthesis rate and duration. The nitrilase was induced by IAN, which was rapidly converted to IAA; subsequently, IAA was rapidly consumed for cell growth. The nitrile hydratase (NHase) and amidase system was constitutively expressed and slowly but continuously synthesized IAA. In addition to synthesizing IAA from IAN, CGMCC 4969 has a rapid IAA degradation system, which would be helpful for a host plant to eliminate redundant IAA. This study indicates that the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 has the potential to be used by host plants to regulate the IAA level.
Project description:Bacterial indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an effector molecule in microbial physiology, plays an important role in plant growth-promotion. Here, we comprehensively analyzed about 7282 prokaryotic genomes representing diverse bacterial phyla, combined with root-associated metagenomic data to unravel the distribution of tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis pathways and to quantify the IAA synthesis-related genes in the plant root environments. We found that 82.2% of the analyzed bacterial genomes were potentially capable of synthesizing IAA from tryptophan (Trp) or intermediates. Interestingly, several phylogenetically diverse bacteria showed a preferential tendency to utilize different pathways and tryptamine and indole-3-pyruvate pathways are most prevalent in bacteria. About 45.3% of the studied genomes displayed multiple coexisting pathways, constituting complex IAA synthesis systems. Furthermore, root-associated metagenomic analyses revealed that rhizobacteria mainly synthesize IAA via indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and tryptamine (TMP) pathways and might possess stronger IAA synthesis abilities than bacteria colonizing other environments. The obtained results refurbished our understanding of bacterial IAA synthesis pathways and provided a faster and less labor-intensive alternative to physiological screening based on genome collections. The better understanding of IAA synthesis among bacterial communities could maximize the utilization of bacterial IAA to augment the crop growth and physiological function.