The heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases (HS3ST) 2, 3B and 4 enhance proliferation and survival in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.
ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases (HS3STs) catalyze the final maturation step of heparan sulfates. Although seven HS3ST isozymes have been described in human, 3-O-sulfation is a relatively rare modification, and only a few biological processes have been described to be influenced by 3-O-sulfated motifs. A conflicting literature has recently reported that HS3ST2, 3A, 3B and 4 may exhibit either tumor-promoting or anti-oncogenic properties, depending on the model used and cancer cell phenotype. Hence, we decided to compare the consequences of the overexpression of each of these HS3STs in the same cellular model. We demonstrated that, unlike HS3ST3A, the other three isozymes enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and BT-20 cells. Moreover, the colony forming capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly increased by the expression of HS3ST2, 3B and 4. No notable difference was observed between the three isozymes, meaning that the modifications catalyzed by each HS3ST had the same functional impact on cell behavior. We then demonstrated that overexpression of HS3ST2, 3B and 4 was accompanied by increased activation of c-Src, Akt and NF-?B and up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins survivin and XIAP. In line with these findings, we showed that HS3ST-transfected cells are more resistant to cell death induction by pro-apoptotic stimuli or NK cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that HS3ST2, 3B and 4 share the same pro-tumoral activity and support the idea that these HS3STs could compensate each other for loss of their expression depending on the molecular signature of cancer cells and/or changes in the tumor environment.
Project description:Heparan sulfate (HS) is a glycosaminoglycan found mainly in its protein-conjugated form at the cell surface and the extracellular matrix. Its high sulfation degree mediates functional interactions with positively charged amino acids in proteins. 2-O sulfation of iduronic acid and 3-O sulfation of glucosamine in HS are mediated by the sulfotransferases HS2ST and HS3ST, respectively, which are dysregulated in several cancers. Both sulfotransferases regulate breast cancer cell viability and invasion, but their role in cancer stem cells (CSCs) is unknown. Breast CSCs express characteristic markers such as CD44+/CD24-/low , CD133 and ALDH1 and are involved in tumor initiation, formation, and recurrence. We studied the influence of HS2ST1 and HS3ST2 overexpression on the CSC phenotype in breast cancer cell lines representative of the triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) and hormone-receptor positive subtype (MCF-7). The CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype was significantly reduced in MDA-MB-231 cells after overexpression of both enzymes, remaining unaltered in MCF-7 cells. ALDH1 activity was increased after HS2ST1 and HS3ST2 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells and reduced after HS2ST1 overexpression in MCF-7 cells. Colony and spheroid formation were increased after HS2ST1 and HS3ST2 overexpression in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing HS2ST1 formed more colonies and could not generate spheres. The phenotypic changes were associated with complex changes in the expression of the stemness-associated notch and Wnt-signaling pathways constituents, syndecans, heparanase and Sulf1. The results improve our understanding of breast CSC function and mark a subtype-specific impact of HS modifications on the CSC phenotype of triple-negative and hormone receptor positive breast cancer model cell lines.
Project description:Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases (HS3STs) catalyze the maturation step of heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation. This modification is relatively rare. Moreover, only a few biological processes have been described to be influenced by 3-O-sulfated HS, and few ligands have been identified so far. Among them, neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) was reported to exhibit tumor-promoting properties by enhancing the action of various growth factors. We recently demonstrated that transient overexpression of HS3ST2, 3B or 4 enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and promote efficient protection against pro-apoptotic stimuli. Hence, we hypothesized that the pro-tumoral activity of these HS3STs could depend on the expression of Nrp1. To test this, MDA-MB-231 cells were stably transfected with a construct encoding HS3ST3B and the expression of Nrp1 was down-regulated by RNA interference. First, we confirmed that stable expression of HS3ST3B effectively increased cell proliferation and viability. Silencing the expression of Nrp1 markedly attenuated the promoting effects of HS3ST3B, while the same treatment had only a moderate effect on the behavior of the parental cells. Altogether, our findings support the idea that the tumor-promoting effects of HS3ST3B could be dependent on the expression of Nrp1 in cancer cells.
Project description:We used Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips to compare the transcriptome of HS3ST2-transfected and control vector-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with HS3ST2- or control-vector. Subsequently, total RNA was collected and processed for analysis using Affymetrix microarrays. Three independent replicates were prepared for each comparison group.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFRTKI) HS-10296 on the proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 cells and explore the possible molecular mechanism. METHODS:MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with HS-10296 for 24, 48, or 72 h, and CCK-8 assay was used to assess the changes in the cell viability. The inhibitory effect of HS-10296 on cell proliferation was determined by clonogenic assay. JC-1 and flow cytometry were employed for analyzing the cell apoptosis, and the ultrastructure of the cells was observed under electron microscope. After pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ), MDA-MB-231 cells were divided into control group, CQ treatment group, HS-10296 (4 and 6 ?mol/L) treatment groups and combined treatment groups, and the sensitivity of the treated cells to HS-10296 was determined using CCK-8 assay. The effects of HS-10296 on EGFR pathway and apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells were investigated using Western blotting. RESULTS:HS-10296 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values at 24, 48 and 72 h of 8.393, 2.777 and 2.016 ?mol/L, respectively. JC-1 and flow cytometry showed that HS-10296 induced obvious apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells, which showed an apoptosis rate of (21.63 ± 2.97)% following treatment with 8 ?mol/L HS-10296. Autophagy vesicles were observed in the cells treated with HS-10296 under electron microscope. In MDA-MB-231 cells pretreated with CQ, inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced HS-10296-induced cell death. Western blotting showed that the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was activated after HS-10296 treatment to cut its substrate PARP. The expression of autophagy-related protein light chain 3B (LC3B) was significantly enhanced after HS-10296 treatment (P < 0.01), which also resulted in inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR and AKT proteins in the cells. CONCLUSIONS:HS-10296 can inhibit the proliferation and induce autophagy and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells by inhibiting the EGFR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Project description:Based on the efficacy of EHop-016 as an inhibitor of migration and Rac1 activation, a new series of carbazole derivatives has been synthesized. Cytotoxic and anti-migratory effects of these compounds were evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Preliminary investigations of their anticancer activity demonstrated that several compounds have moderate antiproliferative effects on cancer cell lines with GI50 values in the range of 13-50?µM. Furthermore, compounds 3b and 11b inhibit migration activity of metastatic cell line MDA-MB-231 by 32% and 34%, respectively. Compound 11b was shown to inhibit activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1 by 55% at 250?nM in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines. Compared with the IC50 of Rac1 inhibition by lead compound EHop-016 of 1.1?µM, compound 11b demonstrates 4X improved in vitro efficacy.
Project description:The aim of this work was to understand whether the nature of breast cancer cells could modify the nature of the dialog of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer cells. By treating MSCs with the conditioned medium of metastatic Estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231, or non-metastatic ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we observed that a number of chemokines were produced at higher levels by MSCs treated with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium (CM). MDA-MB-231 cells were able to induce NF-?B signaling in MSC cells. This was shown by the use of a NF-kB chemical inhibitor or an I?B dominant negative mutant, nuclear translocation of p65 and induction of NF-?B signature. Our results suggest that MDA-MB-231 cells exert their effects on MSCs through the secretion of IL-1?, that activates MSCs and induces the same chemokines as the MDA-MB-231CM. In addition, inhibition of IL-1? secretion in the MDA-MB-231 cells reduces the induced production of a panel of chemokines by MSCs, as well the motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data suggest that aggressive breast cancer cells secrete IL-1?, which increases the production of chemokines by MSCs.
Project description:Sprouty (Spry) proteins have been implicated in cancer progression, but their role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of lethal and aggressive breast cancer, is unknown. Here, we reported that Spry1 is significantly expressed in TNBC specimen and MDA-MB-231 cells. To understand Spry1 regulation of signaling events controlling breast cancer phenotype, we used lentiviral delivery of human Spry1 shRNAs to suppress Spry1 expression in MDA-MB-231, an established TNBC cell line. Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells displayed an epithelial phenotype with increased membrane E-cadherin expression. Knockdown of Spry1 impaired MDA-MB-231 cell migration, Matrigel invasion, and anchorage-dependent and -independent growth. Tumor xenografts originating from Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells grew slower, had increased E-cadherin expression, and yielded fewer lung metastases compared to control. Furthermore, suppressing Spry1 in MDA-MB-231 cells impaired the induction of Snail and Slug expression by EGF, and this effect was associated with increased EGFR degradation and decreased EGFR/Grb2/Shp2/Gab1 signaling complex formation. The same phenotype was also observed in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-157. Together, our results show that unlike in some tumors, where Spry may mediate tumor suppression, Spry1 plays a selective role in at least a subset of TNBC to promote the malignant phenotype via enhancing EGF-mediated mesenchymal phenotype.
Project description:Background:Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a widely distributed natural flavonoid found in many plant extracts, honey and propolis. Several studies revealed that chrysin possesses multiple biological activities including anti-cancer effects. It has been established that activation of apoptosis is the key molecular mechanism responsible for the cytotoxic potential of chrysin. The objective of this study was to design and synthesize potent chrysin analogues as potential cytotoxic agents. Methods:A series of chrysin derivatives (3a-m) bearing N'-alkylidene/arylideneacetohydrazide moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 by applying the MTT colorimetric assay. Selected compounds were tested for their ability to induce apoptosis through caspase 3/7 activation in MDA-MB-231 cells only since MCF-7 cells lack procaspase 3. Results:Compounds (3a-m) were obtained as geometrical isomers (E/Z isomers) in good yields upon treatment of hydrazide 5 with different aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Most of the synthesized compounds demonstrated moderate-to-good activity against both cell lines. The cytotoxicity results revealed the importance of lipophilic moieties at C-4 position of ring D in imparting the cytotoxic activities to the compounds. Compound 3e with 4-benzyloxy substituent was found to be the most active among the synthesized compounds with IC50 3.3 µM against MDA-MB-231 and 4.2 µM against MCF-7 cell lines. The cytotoxic potential of compound 3e is comparable to that of the well-known anti-cancer agent doxorubicin. In addition, compounds substituted with fluoro (3b), nitro (3h), and dimethylamino (3j) exhibited good cytotoxicity with IC50 <6.5 µM against MDA-MB-231 and <12 µM against MCF-7. Selected compounds were able to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells as indicated by caspase-3 and/or -7 activation. Conclusion:Our results show that the newly designed chrysin derivatives exert anticancer activity in human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Therefore, they can be considered as leads for further development of more potent and selective cytotoxic agents.
Project description:Berberine is reported to have multiple biological effects, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities, and 13-alkyl-substituted berberines show higher activity than berberine against certain bacterial species and human cancer cell lines. In particular, 13-ethylberberine (13-EBR) was reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in endotoxin-activated macrophage and septic mouse models. Thus, in this study, we aimed to examine the anticancer effects of 13-EBR and its mechanisms in radiotherapy-resistant (RT-R) MDA-MB-231 cells derived from the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. When we compared the gene expression between MDA-MB-231 and RT-R MDA-MB-231 cells with an RNA microarray, RT-R MDA-MB-231 showed higher levels of anti-apoptotic genes and lower levels of pro-apoptotic genes compared to MDA-MB-231 cells. Accordingly, we examined the effect of 13-EBR on the induction of apoptosis in RT-R MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results showed that 13-EBR reduced the proliferation and colony-forming ability of both MDA-MB-231 and RT-R MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 13-EBR induced apoptosis by promoting both intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by regulating the apoptosis-related proteins involved in the intrinsic pathway, not in the extrinsic pathway. These results suggest that 13-EBR has pro-apoptotic effects in RT-R MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing mitochondrial ROS production and activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, providing useful insights into new potential therapeutic strategies for RT-R breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are pivotal kinases in cell cycle transition and gene transcription. A series of N2,N4-diphenylpyrimidine-2,4-diamines were previously identified as potent CDK2/CDK9 inhibitors. To explore the SAR of this structural prototype, twenty-four novel N2,N4-disubstituted pyrimidine-2,4-diamines were designed and synthesized. Among them, twenty-one compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities against both CDK2/cyclin A and CDK9/cyclin T1 systems, and the most potent CDK2 and CDK9 inhibitors, 3g and 3c, showed IC50 values of 83 nM and 65 nM respectively. Most of these compounds displayed significant inhibition against the tested tumor cell lines in the SRB assay, and in particular, remained active against the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231. Flow cytometer analysis of compounds 2a, 2d and 3b in MDA-MB-231 cells indicated that these compounds induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Docking studies on compound 3g were performed, which provided conducive clues for further molecular optimization.