Nrf2 activation attenuates genetic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by a mutation in the phosphomannomutase 2 gene in zebrafish.
ABSTRACT: Nrf2 plays critical roles in animals' defense against electrophiles and oxidative stress by orchestrating the induction of cytoprotective genes. We previously isolated the zebrafish mutant it768, which displays up-regulated expression of Nrf2 target genes in an uninduced state. In this paper, we determine that the gene responsible for it768 was the zebrafish homolog of phosphomannomutase 2 (Pmm2), which is a key enzyme in the initial steps of N-glycosylation, and its mutation in humans leads to PMM2-CDG (congenital disorders of glycosylation), the most frequent type of CDG. The pmm2it768 larvae exhibited mild defects in N-glycosylation, indicating that the pmm2it768 mutation is a hypomorph, as in human PMM2-CDG patients. A gene expression analysis showed that pmm2it768 larvae display up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, suggesting that the activation of Nrf2 was induced by the ER stress. Indeed, the treatment with the ER stress-inducing compounds up-regulated the gstp1 expression in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Furthermore, the up-regulation of gstp1 by the pmm2 inactivation was diminished by knocking down or out double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), one of the main ER stress sensors, suggesting that Nrf2 was activated in response to the ER stress via the PERK pathway. ER stress-induced activation of Nrf2 was reported previously, but the results have been controversial. Our present study clearly demonstrated that ER stress can indeed activate Nrf2 and this regulation is evolutionarily conserved among vertebrates. Moreover, ER stress induced in pmm2it768 mutants was ameliorated by the treatment of the Nrf2-activator sulforaphane, indicating that Nrf2 plays significant roles in the reduction of ER stress.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are inherited diseases caused by glycosylation defects. Incorrectly glycosylated proteins induce protein misfolding and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The most common form of CDG, PMM2-CDG, is caused by deficiency in the cytosolic enzyme phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2). Patients with PMM2-CDG exhibit a significantly reduced number of cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells. The molecular mechanism underlying the specific cerebellar neurodegeneration in PMM2-CDG, however, remains elusive.<h4>Results</h4>Herein, we report that cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) are more sensitive to tunicamycin (TM)-induced inhibition of total N-glycan synthesis than cortical neurons (CNs). When glycan synthesis was inhibited to a comparable degree, CGCs exhibited more cell death than CNs. Furthermore, downregulation of PMM2 caused more CGCs to die than CNs. Importantly, we found that upon PMM2 downregulation or TM treatment, ER-stress response proteins were elevated less significantly in CGCs than in CNs, with the GRP78/BiP level showing the most significant difference. We further demonstrate that overexpression of GRP78/BiP rescues the death of CGCs resulting from either TM-treatment or PMM2 downregulation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results indicate that the selective susceptibility of cerebellar neurons to N-glycosylation defects is due to these neurons' inefficient response to ER stress, providing important insight into the mechanisms of selective neurodegeneration observed in CDG patients.
Project description:PMM2-CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation-Ia (CDG-Ia), is caused by mutations in the gene encoding phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2). This disease is the most frequent form of inherited CDG-diseases affecting protein N-glycosylation in human. PMM2-CDG is a multisystemic disease with severe psychomotor and mental retardation. In order to study the pathophysiology of PMM2-CDG in a human cell culture model, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of a PMM2-CDG-patient (PMM2-iPSCs). Expression of pluripotency factors andin vitrodifferentiation into cell types of the three germ layers was unaffected in the analyzed clone PMM2-iPSC-C3 compared with nondiseased human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), revealing no broader influence of the PMM2 mutation on pluripotency in cell culture. Analysis of gene expression by deep-sequencing did not show obvious differences in the transcriptome between PMM2-iPSC-C3 and nondiseased hPSCs. By multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection (xCGE-LIF) we could show that PMM2-iPSC-C3 exhibit the common hPSC N-glycosylation pattern with high-mannose-type N-glycans as the predominant species. However, phosphomannomutase activity of PMM2-iPSC-C3 was 27% compared with control hPSCs and lectin staining revealed an overall reduced protein glycosylation. In addition, quantitative assessment of N-glycosylation by xCGE-LIF showed an up to 40% reduction of high-mannose-type N-glycans in PMM2-iPSC-C3, which was in concordance to the observed reduction of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 lipid-linked oligosaccharide compared with control hPSCs. Thus we could model the PMM2-CDG disease phenotype of hypoglycosylation with patient derived iPSCsin vitro Knock-down ofPMM2by shRNA in PMM2-iPSC-C3 led to a residual activity of 5% and to a further reduction of the level of N-glycosylation. Taken together we have developed human stem cell-based cell culture models with stepwise reduced levels of N-glycosylation now enabling to study the role of N-glycosylation during early human development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PMM2-CDG (CDG-Ia) is the most frequent N-glycosylation disorder. While supplying mannose to PMM2-deficient fibroblasts corrects the altered N-glycosylation in vitro, short term therapeutic approaches with mannose supplementation in PMM2-CDG patients have been unsuccessful. Mannose found no further mention in the design of a potential therapy for PMM2-CDG in the past years, as it applies to be ineffective. This retrospective study analyzes the first long term mannose supplementation in 20 PMM2-CDG patients. Mannose was given at a total of 1-2?g mannose/kg b.w./d divided into 5 single doses over a mean time of 57,75?±?25,85?months. Protein glycosylation, blood mannose concentration and clinical presentation were monitored in everyday clinical practice. RESULTS:After a mean time period of more than 1?year the majority of patients showed significant improvements in protein glycosylation. CONCLUSION:Dietary mannose supplementation shows biological effects in PMM2-CDG patients improving glycosylation in the majority of patients. A double-blind randomized study is needed to examine the role of mannose in the design of a therapy for children with PMM2-CDG in more detail.
Project description:Type I disorders of glycosylation (CDG), the most frequent of which is phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2-CDG), are a group of diseases causing the incomplete N-glycosylation of proteins. PMM2-CDG is an autosomal recessive disease with a large phenotypic spectrum, and is associated with mutations in the PMM2 gene. The biochemical analysis of mutants does not allow a precise genotype?phenotype correlation for PMM2-CDG. PMM2 is very tolerant to missense and loss of function mutations, suggesting that a partial deficiency of activity might be beneficial under certain circumstances. The patient phenotype might be influenced by variants in other genes associated with the type I disorders of glycosylation in the general population.
Project description:The most common congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG), phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2)-CDG, is caused by mutations in PMM2 that limit availability of mannose precursors required for protein N-glycosylation. The disorder has no therapy and there are no models to test new treatments. We generated compound heterozygous mice with the R137H and F115L mutations in Pmm2 that correspond to the most prevalent alleles found in patients with PMM2-CDG. Many Pmm2R137H/F115L mice died prenatally, while survivors had significantly stunted growth. These animals and cells derived from them showed protein glycosylation deficiencies similar to those found in patients with PMM2-CDG. Growth-related glycoproteins insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1, IGF binding protein-3 and acid-labile subunit, along with antithrombin III, were all deficient in Pmm2R137H/F115L mice, but their levels in heterozygous mice were comparable to wild-type (WT) littermates. These imbalances, resulting from defective glycosylation, are likely the cause of the stunted growth seen both in our model and in PMM2-CDG patients. Both Pmm2R137H/F115L mouse and PMM2-CDG patient-derived fibroblasts displayed reductions in PMM activity, guanosine diphosphate mannose, lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor and total cellular protein glycosylation, along with hypoglycosylation of a new endogenous biomarker, glycoprotein 130 (gp130). Over-expression of WT-PMM2 in patient-derived fibroblasts rescued all these defects, showing that restoration of mutant PMM2 activity is a viable therapeutic strategy. This functional mouse model of PMM2-CDG, in vitro assays and identification of the novel gp130 biomarker all shed light on the human disease, and moreover, provide the essential tools to test potential therapeutics for this untreatable disease.
Project description:Background:Phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency (PMM2-CDG) is the most common congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Hypoglycemia has been reported in various CDG including PMM2-CDG. The frequency and etiology of hypoglycemia in PMM2-CDG are not well studied. Methods:We conducted a systematic review of the literature on genetically and/or biochemically confirmed PMM2-CDG patients who developed hypoglycemia. Prospective follow-up information on the patients who received diazoxide therapy was collected and evaluated. Results:A total of 165 peer-reviewed articles reporting on 933 PMM2-CDG patients were assessed. Hypoglycemia was specifically mentioned only in 23 of these patients (2.5%). Hyperinsulinism was identified in 10 patients (43% of all hypoglycemic patients). Among these 10 patients, seven were successfully treated with diazoxide. However, most patients remained on therapy longer than a year to stay free of hypoglycemia. Conclusion:Hypoglycemia is a rarely reported finding in patients with PMM2-CDG. Diazoxide-responsive hyperinsulinism was found to have a good prognosis on medication in our PMM2-CDG patients with hypoglycemia. No genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with respect to hyperinsulinism. A prospective study should be undertaken to explore the hypothesis that hypoglycemia is underdiagnosed in PMM2-CDG and to evaluate whether hyperinsulinism is always associated with hypoglycemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are rare diseases with impaired glycosylation and multiorgan disfunction, including hemostatic and inflammatory disorders. Factor XII (FXII), the first element of the contact phase, has an emerging role in hemostasia and inflammation. FXII deficiency protects against thrombosis and the p.Thr309Lys variant is involved in hereditary angioedema through the hyperreactivity caused by the associated defective O-glycosylation. We studied FXII in CDG aiming to supply further information of the glycosylation of this molecule, and its functional and clinical effects. Plasma FXII from 46 PMM2-CDG patients was evaluated by coagulometric and by Western Blot in basal conditions, treated with N-glycosydase F or activated by silica or dextran sulfate. A recombinant FXII expression model was used to validate the secretion and glycosylation of wild-type and variants targeting the two described FXII N-glycosylation sites (p.Asn230Lys; p.Asn414Lys) as well as the p.Thr309Lys variant. RESULTS:PMM2-CDG patients had normal FXII levels (117%) but high proportions of a form lacking N-glycosylation at Asn414. Recombinant FXII p.Asn230Lys, and p.Asn230Lys&p.Asn414Lys had impaired secretion and increased intracellular retention compared to wild-type, p.Thr309Lys and p.Asn414Lys variants. The hypoglycosylated form of PMM2-CDG activated similarly than FXII fully glycosylated. Accordingly, no PMM2-CDG had angioedema. FXII levels did not associate to vascular events, but hypoglycosylated FXII, like hypoglycosylated transferrin, antithrombin and FXI levels did it. CONCLUSIONS:N-glycosylation at Asn230 is essential for FXII secretion. PMM2-CDG have high levels of FXII lacking N-glycosylation at Asn414, but this glycoform displays similar activation than fully glycosylated, explaining the absence of angioedema in CDG.
Project description:Congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG) results from mutations in pmm2, which encodes the phosphomannomutase (Pmm) that converts mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) to mannose-1-phosphate (M1P). Patients have wide-spectrum clinical abnormalities associated with impaired protein N-glycosylation. Although it has been widely proposed that Pmm2 deficiency depletes M1P, a precursor of GDP-mannose, and consequently suppresses lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) levels needed for N-glycosylation, these deficiencies have not been demonstrated in patients or any animal model. Here we report a morpholino-based PMM2-CDG model in zebrafish. Morphant embryos had developmental abnormalities consistent with PMM2-CDG patients, including craniofacial defects and impaired motility associated with altered motor neurogenesis within the spinal cord. Significantly, global N-linked glycosylation and LLO levels were reduced in pmm2 morphants. Although M1P and GDP-mannose were below reliable detection/quantification limits, Pmm2 depletion unexpectedly caused accumulation of M6P, shown earlier to promote LLO cleavage in vitro. In pmm2 morphants, the free glycan by-products of LLO cleavage increased nearly twofold. Suppression of the M6P-synthesizing enzyme mannose phosphate isomerase within the pmm2 background normalized M6P levels and certain aspects of the craniofacial phenotype and abrogated pmm2-dependent LLO cleavage. In summary, we report the first zebrafish model of PMM2-CDG and uncover novel cellular insights not possible with other systems, including an M6P accumulation mechanism for underglycosylation.
Project description:Stroke-like episodes (SLE) occur in phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG), and may complicate the course of channelopathies related to Familial Hemiplegic Migraine (FHM) caused by mutations in CACNA1A (encoding CaV2.1 channel). The underlying pathomechanisms are unknown. We analyze clinical variables to detect risk factors for SLE in a series of 43 PMM2-CDG patients. We explore the hypothesis of abnormal CaV2.1 function due to aberrant N-glycosylation as a potential novel pathomechanism of SLE and ataxia in PMM2-CDG by using whole-cell patch-clamp, N-glycosylation blockade and mutagenesis. Nine SLE were identified. Neuroimages showed no signs of stroke. Comparison of characteristics between SLE positive versus negative patients' group showed no differences. Acute and chronic phenotypes of patients with PMM2-CDG or CACNA1A channelopathies show similarities. Hypoglycosylation of both CaV2.1 subunits (?1A and ?2?) induced gain-of-function effects on channel gating that mirrored those reported for pathogenic CACNA1A mutations linked to FHM and ataxia. Unoccupied N-glycosylation site N283 at ?1A contributes to a gain-of-function by lessening CaV2.1 inactivation. Hypoglycosylation of the ??? subunit also participates in the gain-of-function effect by promoting voltage-dependent opening of the CaV2.1 channel. CaV2.1 hypoglycosylation may cause ataxia and SLEs in PMM2-CDG patients. Aberrant CaV2.1 N-glycosylation as a novel pathomechanism in PMM2-CDG opens new therapeutic possibilities.
Project description:Pathogenic mutations in DPAGT1 are manifested as two possible phenotypes: congenital disorder of glycosylation DPAGT1-CDG (also known as CDG-Ij), and limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) with tubular aggregates. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosamine phosphotransferase (GPT), the protein encoded by DPAGT1, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein involved in an initial step in the N-glycosylation pathway. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of six variants in DPAGT1 detected in patients with DPAGT1-CDG, and the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress, as part of the search for therapeutic strategies to use against DPAGT1-CDG. The effect of the six mutations, i.e., c.358C>A (p.Leu120Met), c.791T>G (p.Val264Gly), c.901C>T (p.Arg301Cys), c.902G>A (p.Arg301His), c.1154T>G (p.Leu385Arg), and of the novel mutation c.329T>C (p.Phe110Ser), were examined via the analysis of DPAGT1 transcriptional profiles and GTP levels in patient-derived fibroblasts. In addition, the transient expression of different mutations was analysed in COS-7 cells. The results obtained, together with those of bioinformatic studies, revealed these mutations to affect the splicing process, the stability of GTP, or the ability of this protein to correctly localise in the ER membrane. The unfolded protein response (UPR; the response to ER stress) was found not to be active in patient-derived fibroblasts, unlike that seen in cells from patients with PMM2-CDG or DPM1-CDG. Even so, the fibroblasts of patients with DPAGT1-CDG seemed to be more sensitive to the stressor tunicamycin. The present work improves our knowledge of DPAGT1-CDG and provides bases for developing tailored splicing and folding therapies.