The Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Agonist 3-Iodothyronamine Induces Biased Signaling at the Serotonin 1b Receptor.
ABSTRACT: Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) belong to the class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and are evolutionary related to aminergic receptors. TAARs have been identified to mediate effects of trace amines. TAAR1 signaling is mainly mediated via activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase pathway. In addition to classical trace amines, TAAR1 can also be activated by the thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM). Pharmacological doses of 3-T1AM induced metabolic and anapyrexic effects, which might be centrally mediated in the hypothalamus in rodents. However, the observed anapyrexic effect of 3-T1AM persists in Taar1 knock-out mice which raises the question whether further GPCRs are potential targets for 3-T1AM and mediate the observed physiological effect. Anapyrexia has been observed to be related to action on aminergic receptors such as the serotonin receptor 1b (5-HT1b). This receptor primarily activates the Gi/o mediated pathway and PLC signaling through the G?? of Gi/o. Since the expression profiles of TAAR1 and 5-HT1b overlap, we questioned whether 3-T1AM may activate 5-HT1b. Finally, we also evaluated heteromerization between these two GPCRs and tested signaling under co-expressed conditions. In this study, we showed, that 3-T1AM can induce Gi/o signaling through 5-HT1b in a concentration of 10 ?M. Strikingly, at 5-HT1b the ligand 3-T1AM only activates the Gi/o mediated reduction of cAMP accumulation, but not PLC activation. Co-stimulation of 5-HT1b by both ligands did not lead to additive or synergistic signaling effects. In addition, we confirmed the capacity for heteromerization between TAAR1 and 5-HT1b. Under co-expression of TAAR1 and HTR1b, 3-T1AM action is only mediated via TAAR1 and activation of 5-HT1b is abrogated. In conclusion, we found evidence for 5-HT1b as a new receptor target for 3-T1AM, albeit with a different signaling effect than the endogenous ligand. Altogether, this indicates a complex interrelation of signaling effects between the investigated GPCRs and respective ligands.
Project description:Classical biogenic amines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and histamine) interact with specific families of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The term 'trace amines' is used when referring to p-tyramine, beta-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and octopamine, compounds that are present in mammalian tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. The pharmacological effects of trace amines are usually attributed to their interference with the aminergic pathways, but in 2001 a new gene was identified, that codes for a GPCR responding to p-tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine but not to classical biogenic amines. Several closely related genes were subsequently identified and designated as the trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Pharmacological investigations in vitro show that many TAAR subtypes may not respond to p-tyramine, beta-phenylethylamine, tryptamine or octopamine, suggesting the existence of additional endogenous ligands. A novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative, 3-iodothyronamine, has been found to interact with TAAR1 and possibly other TAAR subtypes. In vivo, micromolar concentrations of 3-iodothyronamine determine functional effects which are opposite to those produced on a longer time scale by thyroid hormones, including reduction in body temperature and decrease in cardiac contractility. Expression of all TAAR subtypes except TAAR1 has been reported in mouse olfactory epithelium, and several volatile amines were shown to interact with specific TAAR subtypes. In addition, there is evidence that TAAR1 is targeted by amphetamines and other psychotropic agents, while genetic linkage studies show a significant association between the TAAR gene family locus and susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (Taar1) is a Gs protein-coupled receptor activated by trace amines, such as ?-phenylethylamine (?-PEA) and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). T1AM is an endogenous biogenic amine and thyroid hormone derivative that exerts several biological functions. However, the physiological relevance of T1AM acting via Taar1 is still under discussion. Therefore, we studied the structural and functional evolution of Taar1 in vertebrates to provide evidence for a conserved Taar1-mediated T1AM function. STUDY DESIGN:We searched public sequence databases to retrieve Taar1 sequence information from vertebrates. We cloned and functionally characterized Taar1 from selected vertebrate species using cAMP assays to determine the evolutionary conservation of T1AM action at Taar1. RESULTS:We found intact open reading frames of Taar1 in more than 100 vertebrate species, including mammals, sauropsids and amphibians. Evolutionary conservation analyses of Taar1 protein sequences revealed a high variation in amino acid residues proposed to be involved in agonist binding, especially in rodent Taar1 orthologs. Functional characterization showed that T1AM, ?-PEA and p-tyramine (p-Tyr) act as agonists at all tested orthologs, but EC50 values of T1AM at rat Taar1 differed significantly when compared to all other tested vertebrate Taar1. CONCLUSIONS:The high structural conservation of Taar1 throughout vertebrate evolution highlights the physiological relevance of Taar1, but species-specific differences in T1AM potency at Taar1 orthologs suggest a specialization of rat Taar1 for T1AM recognition. In contrast, ?-PEA and p-Tyr potencies were rather conserved throughout all tested Taar1 orthologs. We provide evidence that the observed differences in potency are related to differences in constraint during Taar1 evolution.
Project description:3-Iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) is an endogenous thyroid hormone metabolite. The profound pharmacological effects of 3-T1AM on energy metabolism and thermal homeostasis have raised interest to elucidate its signaling properties in tissues that pertain to metabolic regulation and thermogenesis. Previous studies identified G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) as targets of 3-T1AM in different cell types. These two superfamilies of membrane proteins are largely expressed in tissue which influences energy balance and metabolism. As the first indication that 3-T1AM virtually modulates the function of the neurons in hypothalamus, we observed that intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg bodyweight of 3-T1AM significantly increased the c-FOS activation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of C57BL/6 mice. To elucidate the underlying mechanism behind this 3-T1AM-induced signalosome, we used three different murine hypothalamic cell lines, which are all known to express PVN markers, GT1-7, mHypoE-N39 (N39) and mHypoE-N41 (N41). Various aminergic GPCRs, which are the known targets of 3-T1AM, as well as numerous members of TRP channel superfamily, are expressed in these cell lines. Effects of 3-T1AM on activation of GPCRs were tested for the two major signaling pathways, the action of G?s/adenylyl cyclase and Gi/o. Here, we demonstrated that this thyroid hormone metabolite has no significant effect on Gi/o signaling and only a minor effect on the G?s/adenylyl cyclase pathway, despite the expression of known GPCR targets of 3-T1AM. Next, to test for other potential mechanisms involved in 3-T1AM-induced c-FOS activation in PVN, we evaluated the effect of 3-T1AM on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and whole-cell currents. The fluorescence-optic measurements showed a significant increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration in the three cell lines in the presence of 10 ?M 3-T1AM. Furthermore, this thyroid hormone metabolite led to an increase of whole-cell currents in N41 cells. Interestingly, the TRPM8 selective inhibitor (10 ?M AMTB) reduced the 3-T1AM stimulatory effects on cytosolic Ca2+ and whole-cell currents. Our results suggest that the profound pharmacological effects of 3-T1AM on selected brain nuclei of murine hypothalamus, which are known to be involved in energy metabolism and thermoregulation, might be partially attributable to TRP channel activation in hypothalamic cells.
Project description:3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) is a metabolite of thyroid hormone. It is an agonist at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a recently identified receptor involved in monoaminergic regulation and a potential novel therapeutic target. Here, T1AM was studied using rhesus monkey TAAR1 and/or human dopamine transporter (DAT) co-transfected cells, and wild-type (WT) and TAAR1 knock-out (KO) mice. The IC(50) of T1AM competition for binding of the DAT-specific radio-ligand [(3)H]CFT was highly similar in DAT cells, WT striatal synaptosomes and KO striatal synaptosomes (0.72-0.81 microM). T1AM inhibition of 10 nM [(3)H]dopamine uptake (IC(50): WT, 1.4 + or - 0.5 microM; KO, 1.2 + or - 0.4 microM) or 50 nM [(3)H]serotonin uptake (IC(50): WT, 4.5 + or - 0.6 microM; KO, 4.7 + or - 1.1 microM) in WT and KO synaptosomes was also highly similar. Unlike other TAAR1 agonists that are DAT substrates, TAAR1 signaling in response to T1AM was not enhanced in the presence of DAT as determined by CRE-luciferase assay. In vivo, T1AM induced robust hypothermia in WT and KO mice equivalently and dose dependently (maximum change degrees Celsius: 50 mg/kg at 60 min: WT -6.0 + or - 0.4, KO -5.6 + or - 1.0; and 25 mg/kg at 30 min: WT -2.7 + or - 0.4, KO -3.0 + or - 0.2). Other TAAR1 agonists including beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and methamphetamine also induced significant, time-dependent thermoregulatory responses that were alike in WT and KO mice. Therefore, TAAR1 co-expression does not alter T1AM binding to DAT in vitro nor T1AM inhibition of [(3)H]monoamine uptake ex vivo, and TAAR1 agonist-induced thermoregulatory responses are TAAR1-independent. Accordingly, TAAR1-directed compounds will likely not affect thermoregulation nor are they likely to be cryogens.
Project description:Objectives:A correlation exists between breast cancer and thyroid disorders, which are common in elderly women. Thyroid hormones are degraded into trace amines, which can bind to the G-protein-coupled receptor trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and thereby activate it. The transformation of thyroid hormones into trace amines is carried out by the ornithine decarboxylase. Previously, we showed that TAAR1 overexpression (IRS ≥6) was associated with a significantly longer OS in primary breast cancer patients during a long-term follow-up of up to 14 years. Aim of the present study was to analyze the regulation of TAAR1 in breast cancer cell lines and the influence of triiodothyronine (T3), thyronamines, and tetraiodothyroacetic acid (Tetrac) on the expression of TAAR1 in breast cancer cells. Methods:The effect of T3, thyronamines, and Tetrac on the expression of TAAR1 in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D was analyzed via PCR and Western blot. A MTT assay was performed to test the metabolic cell viability. A scratch assay was performed to analyze cell migration. Results:Stimulation of MCF-7 cells with 10 nM 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) significantly increased TAAR1 protein expression (P=0.008). In T47D cells, TAAR1 expression was significantly upregulated after the addition of 10 µg/mL estradiol to 10 nM T1AM (P=0.008). A significant (P=0.028) reduction in MCF-7 cell viability through the incubation with T1AM could be detected. Cell migration of MCF cells was significantly reduced through incubation with 10 nM T1AM. Conclusion:A significant upregulation of TAAR1 induced by stimulation with T1AM may be a sign for an increased decarboxylation of thyroid hormones in breast cancer cells. In addition, there seems to be an influence of estradiol for the T1AM-induced upregulation of TAAR1 in T47D cells. TAAR1-related cell transduction mechanisms seem to be an interesting target for endocrine treatment options of breast cancer patients.
Project description:Application of 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) results in decreased body temperature and body weight in rodents. The trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) 1, a family A G protein-coupled receptor, is a target of 3-T1AM. However, 3-T1AM effects still persist in mTaar1 knockout mice, which suggest so far unknown further receptor targets that are of physiological relevance. TAAR5 is a highly conserved TAAR subtype among mammals and we here tested TAAR5 as a potential 3-T1AM target. First, we investigated mouse Taar5 (mTaar5) expression in several brain regions of the mouse in comparison to mTaar1. Secondly, to unravel the full spectrum of signaling capacities, we examined the distinct Gs-, Gi/o-, G12/13-, Gq/11- and MAP kinase-mediated signaling pathways of mouse and human TAAR5 under ligand-independent conditions and after application of 3-T1AM. We found overlapping localization of mTaar1 and mTaar5 in the amygdala and ventromedial hypothalamus of the mouse brain. Second, the murine and human TAAR5 (hTAAR5) display significant basal activity in the Gq/11 pathway but show differences in the basal activity in Gs and MAP kinase signaling. In contrast to mTaar5, 3-T1AM application at hTAAR5 resulted in significant reduction in basal IP3 formation and MAP kinase signaling. In conclusion, our data suggest that the human TAAR5 is a target for 3-T1AM, exhibiting inhibitory effects on IP3 formation and MAP kinase signaling pathways, but does not mediate Gs signaling effects as observed for TAAR1. This study also indicates differences between TAAR5 orthologs with respect to their signaling profile. In consequence, 3-T1AM-mediated effects may differ between rodents and humans.
Project description:Background: The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is expressed across brain areas involved in emotions, reward and cognition, and modulates monoaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions. TAAR1 is stimulated with nanomolar affinity by 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), an endogenous messenger considered a novel branch of thyroid hormone signaling. The human gene for TAAR1 maps to locus 6q23, within a region associated with major mental disorders. Materials and Methods: We screened a cohort of patients with major mental disorders (n = 104) and a group of healthy controls (n = 130) for TAAR1 variants. HEK293 cells were transiently transfected with: i) wild-type TAAR1 and ii) mutated TAAR1, either in homozygous or heterozygous state. Cell surface expression and Gs/adenylyl cyclase activation upon administration of ?-phenylethylamine (PEA), T1AM, and RO5166017, were assessed. Results: We detected 13 missense variants in TAAR1 coding region, with a significant enrichment in patients as compared to healthy controls (11 vs. 1, 1 variant in both groups, p < 0.01). In silico analysis identified four dysfunctional variants, all in patients. Three of these-R23C, Y131C, and C263R-were functionally characterized. In cells co-transfected with wild-type and mutated TAAR1, we observed a significant reduction of cell surface expression. In heterozygosity, the three TAAR1 variants substantially dampened Gs signaling in response to PEA, and, more robustly, to T1AM. Co-stimulation with PEA and RO5166017 did not yield any improvement in Gs signaling. R23C, Y131C, and C263R are rare in the general population and map in functionally important highly conserved positions across TAAR1 orthologous and paralogous genes. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that disruptions of TAAR1 activity may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mental disorders, thereby providing a promising target for novel psychopharmacological interventions.
Project description:Trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) are rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). TAAR are involved in modulation of neuronal, cardiac and vascular functions and they are potentially linked with neurological disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Subtype TAAR1, the best characterized TAAR so far, is promiscuous for a wide set of ligands and is activated by trace amines tyramine (TYR), phenylethylamine (PEA), octopamine (OA), but also by thyronamines, dopamine, and psycho-active drugs. Unfortunately, effects of trace amines on signaling of the two homologous ?-adrenergic receptors 1 (ADRB1) and 2 (ADRB2) have not been clarified yet in detail. We, therefore, tested TAAR1 agonists TYR, PEA and OA regarding their effects on ADRB1/2 signaling by co-stimulation studies. Surprisingly, trace amines TYR and PEA are partial allosteric antagonists at ADRB1/2, whereas OA is a partial orthosteric ADRB2-antagonist and ADRB1-agonist. To specify molecular reasons for TAAR1 ligand promiscuity and for observed differences in signaling effects on particular aminergic receptors we compared TAAR, tyramine (TAR) octopamine (OAR), ADRB1/2 and dopamine receptors at the structural level. We found especially for TAAR1 that the remarkable ligand promiscuity is likely based on high amino acid similarity in the ligand-binding region compared with further aminergic receptors. On the other hand few TAAR specific properties in the ligand-binding site might determine differences in ligand-induced effects compared to ADRB1/2. Taken together, this study points to molecular details of TAAR1-ligand promiscuity and identified specific trace amines as allosteric or orthosteric ligands of particular ?-adrenergic receptor subtypes.
Project description:The trace amine associated receptor family is a diverse array of GPCRs that arose before the first vertebrates walked on land. Trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a wide spectrum aminergic receptor that acts as a modulator in brain monoaminergic systems. Other trace amine associated receptors appear to relate to environmental perception and show a birth-and-death pattern in mammals similar to olfactory receptors.Across mammals, avians, and amphibians, the TAAR1 gene is intact and appears to be under strong purifying selection based on rates of amino acid fixation compared to neutral mutations. We have found that in dogs it has become a pseudogene. Our analyses using a comparative genetics approach revealed that the pseudogenization event predated the emergence of the Canini tribe rather than being coincident with canine domestication. By assessing the effects of the TAAR1 agonist beta-phenylethylamine on [3H]dopamine uptake in canine striatal synaptosomes and comparing the degree and pattern of uptake inhibition to that seen in other mammals, including TAAR1 knockout mice, wild type mice and rhesus monkey, we found that the TAAR1 pseudogenization event resulted in an uncompensated loss of function.The gene family has seen expansions among certain mammals, notably rodents, and reductions in others, including primates. By placing the trace amine associated receptors in an evolutionary context we can better understand their function and their potential associations with behavior and neurological disease.
Project description:Thyroid hormones play an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Their derivates, endogenous amines, act via binding to the trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR1). The aim of our study was to analyse the regulation of TAAR1, serine/threonine kinase (pGSK3?) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in placentas of healthy pregnancies, spontaneous (SM) and recurrent miscarriages (RM) and to investigate the influence of thyroid hormone derivates on TAAR1 expression in trophoblast model cells in vitro.Patients with SM (n?=?15) and RM (n?=?15) were compared with patients with healthy pregnancies (n?=?15) (pregnancy weeks 7-13 each). Immunohistochemistry was applied to analyse placental TAAR1, pGSK3? and ODC expression. Protein expression of the receptors after stimulation with T3, T1AM and RO5203548 in BeWo trophoblast model cells was determined via Western blot. Double-immunofluorescence was used to determine placental expression of TAAR1 and ODC.Levels of TAAR1, pGSK3? and ODC were higher in placentas of RM in comparison to healthy controls. Stimulation of BeWo cells with T3, T1AM and RO5203548 significantly increased TAAR1 expression. ODC expression in BeWo cells was upregulated through T3. Via double-immunofluorescence, TAAR1 and ODC-positive EVT could be detected.Upregulation of placental TAAR1 may indicate an increased decarboxylation of thyroid hormones in miscarriages. Patients with RM may have a lack of T3 through an enhanced transformation of T3 into T1AM induced by the ODC. Future investigations could be carried out to analyse what role a prophylactic T3 substitution plays for patients.