Differential Regulation of Genes Involved in Root Morphogenesis and Cell Wall Modification is Associated with Salinity Tolerance in Chickpea.
ABSTRACT: Salinity is a major constraint for intrinsically salt sensitive grain legume chickpea. Chickpea exhibits large genetic variation amongst cultivars, which show better yields in saline conditions but still need to be improved further for sustainable crop production. Based on previous multi-location physiological screening, JG 11 (salt tolerant) and ICCV 2 (salt sensitive) were subjected to salt stress to evaluate their physiological and transcriptional responses. A total of ~480 million RNA-Seq reads were sequenced from root tissues which resulted in identification of 3,053 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to salt stress. Reproductive stage shows high number of DEGs suggesting major transcriptional reorganization in response to salt to enable tolerance. Importantly, cationic peroxidase, Aspartic ase, NRT1/PTR, phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase, DREB1E and ERF genes were significantly up-regulated in tolerant genotype. In addition, we identified a suite of important genes involved in cell wall modification and root morphogenesis such as dirigent proteins, expansin and casparian strip membrane proteins that could potentially confer salt tolerance. Further, phytohormonal cross-talk between ERF and PIN-FORMED genes which modulate the root growth was observed. The gene set enrichment analysis and functional annotation of these genes suggests they may be utilised as potential candidates for improving chickpea salt tolerance.
Project description:Globally, chickpea production is severely affected by salinity stress. Understanding the genetic basis for salinity tolerance is important to develop salinity tolerant chickpeas. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed using parental lines ICCV 10 (salt-tolerant) and DCP 92-3 (salt-sensitive) was screened under field conditions to collect information on agronomy, yield components, and stress tolerance indices. Genotyping data generated using Axiom®CicerSNP array was used to construct a linkage map comprising 1856 SNP markers spanning a distance of 1106.3 cM across eight chickpea chromosomes. Extensive analysis of the phenotyping and genotyping data identified 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) explaining up to 28.40% of the phenotypic variance in the population. We identified QTL clusters on CaLG03 and CaLG06, each harboring major QTLs for yield and yield component traits under salinity stress. The main-effect QTLs identified in these two clusters were associated with key genes such as calcium-dependent protein kinases, histidine kinases, cation proton antiporter, and WRKY and MYB transcription factors, which are known to impart salinity stress tolerance in crop plants. Molecular markers/genes associated with these major QTLs, after validation, will be useful to undertake marker-assisted breeding for developing better varieties with salinity tolerance.
Project description:In this study, the root tissues from the salt tolerant genotype (JG 11) and the salt sensitive genotype (ICCV 2) were analyzed using RNA sequencing to identify genes/pathways associated with salt tolerance/sensitivity in the both genotypes. Overall design: The salt sensitive and salt tolerant genotypes were subject to 40 mM of NaCl treatment and the root tissues at two developmental stages were collected and sequenced to profile the differential genes expression in response to the salt stress.
Project description:Drought adversely affects crop production across the globe. The root system immensely contributes to water management and the adaptability of plants to drought stress. In this study, drought-induced phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of two contrasting chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes were compared at the vegetative, reproductive transition, and reproductive stages. At the vegetative stage, drought-tolerant genotype maintained higher root biomass, length, and surface area under drought stress as compared to sensitive genotype. However, at the reproductive stage, root length and surface area of tolerant genotype was lower but displayed higher root diameter than sensitive genotype. The shoot biomass of tolerant genotype was overall higher than the sensitive genotype under drought stress. RNA-seq analysis identified genotype- and developmental-stage specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought stress. At the vegetative stage, a total of 2161 and 1873 DEGs, and at reproductive stage 4109 and 3772 DEGs, were identified in the tolerant and sensitive genotypes, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed enrichment of biological categories related to cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, response to abiotic stress, and response to hormones. Interestingly, the expression of stress-responsive transcription factors, kinases, ROS signaling and scavenging, transporters, root nodulation, and oxylipin biosynthesis genes were robustly upregulated in the tolerant genotype, possibly contributing to drought adaptation. Furthermore, activation/repression of hormone signaling and biosynthesis genes was observed. Overall, this study sheds new insights on drought tolerance mechanisms operating in roots with broader implications for chickpea improvement.
Project description:Salinity stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and productivity. As a moderately salt-tolerant crop, shrub willow (Salix spp.) is widely distributed over the world and can provide multiple bioenergy product and environmental benefits. To delve into the salt tolerance mechanism and screen out salt-tolerant genes, two shrub willow cultivars (a salt-sensitive genotype JW9-6 and a salt-tolerant genotype JW2372) at three time points (0, 2, and 12?h) after NaCl treatments were used for RNA sequencing. A comparative analysis between genotypes and time points showed 1,706 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 1,029 and 431 DEGs were only found in the JW9-6 and JW2372, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and MapMan annotations suggested that many DEGs were involved in various defense-related biological pathways, including cell wall integrity, hormone signaling, antioxidant system, heat shock proteins, and transcription factors. Compared to JW9-6, JW2372 contained more DEGs involved in the maintenance of the cell wall integrity, ABA, and ethylene signal transduction pathways. In addition, more DEGs encoding heat shock proteins were found in JW2372. Instead, transcription factors including ERF, MYB, NAC, and WRKY were found to be more differentially expressed in JW9-6 under salinity stress. Furthermore, expressions of nine randomly selected DEGs were verified by qRT-PCR analysis. This study contributes in new perspicacity into underlying the salt tolerance mechanism of a shrub willow at the transcriptome level and also provides numerous salt-tolerant genes for further genetic engineering and breeding purposes in the future.
Project description:The growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is extremely hampered by salt stress. Understanding of physio-biochemical and molecular attributes along with morphological traits contributing to the salinity tolerance is important for developing salt tolerant chickpea varieties. To explore these facts, two genotypes CSG8962 and HC5 with contrasting salt tolerance were evaluated in the salinity stress (Control and 120 mM NaCl) conditions. CSG8962 maintained lower Na/K ratio in root and shoot, trammeled Na translocation to the shoots from roots compared to HC5 which ascribed to better exclusion of salt from its roots and compartmentation in the shoot. In chickpea, salt stress specifically induced genes/sequences involved at several levels in the salt stress signaling pathway. Higher induction of trehalose 6 phosphate synthase and protein kinase genes pertaining to the osmotic and signaling modules, respectively, were evident in CSG8962 compared to HC5. Further transcripts of late embryogenesis abundant, non-specific lipid transfer protein, HI and 219 genes/sequences were also highly induced in CSG8962 compared to HC5 which emphasizes the better protection of cellular membranous network and membrane-bound macromolecules under salt stress. This further suppressed the stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, loss of turgidity, promoted the higher compatible solute accumulation and maintained better cellular ion homoeostasis in CSG8962 compared to HC5. Our study further adds to the importance of these genes in salt tolerance by comparing their behavior in contrasting chickpea genotypes.
Project description:Abiotic stresses comprise all nonliving factors, such as soil salinity, drought, extreme temperatures, and metal toxicity, posing a serious threat to agriculture and affecting the plant production around the world. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important crops for vegetable oil, proteins, minerals, and vitamins in the world. Therefore, it is of importance to understand the molecular mechanism of peanut against salt stress. Six transcriptome sequencing libraries including 24-hour salt treatments and control samples were constructed from the young leaves of peanut. A comprehensive analysis between two groups detected 3,425 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 2,013 upregulated genes and 1,412 downregulated genes. Of these DEGs, 141 transcription factors (TFs) mainly consisting of MYB, AP2/ERF, WRKY, bHLH, and HSF were identified in response to salinity stress. Further, GO categories of the DEGs highly related to regulation of cell growth, cell periphery, sustained external encapsulating structure, cell wall organization or biogenesis, antioxidant activity, and peroxidase activity were significantly enriched for upregulated DEGs. The function of downregulated DEGs was mainly enriched in regulation of metabolic processes, oxidoreductase activity, and catalytic activity. Fourteen DEGs with response to salt tolerance were validated by real-time PCR. Taken together, the identification of DEGs' response to salt tolerance of cultivated peanut will provide a solid foundation for improving salt-tolerant peanut genetic manipulation in the future.
Project description:High salinity is a major environmental stressor for crops. To understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying salt tolerance, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive jute (Corchorus spp.) genotypes in leaf and root tissues under salt stress and control conditions. In total, 68,961 unigenes were identified. Additionally, 11,100 unigenes (including 385 transcription factors (TFs)) exhibited significant differential expression in salt-tolerant or salt-sensitive genotypes. Numerous common and unique differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) between the two genotypes were discovered. Fewer DEGs were observed in salt-tolerant jute genotypes whether in root or leaf tissues. These DEGs were involved in various pathways, such as ABA signaling, amino acid metabolism, etc. Among the enriched pathways, plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075) and cysteine/methionine metabolism (ko00270) were the most notable. Eight common DEGs across both tissues and genotypes with similar expression profiles were part of the PYL-ABA-PP2C (pyrabactin resistant-like/regulatory components of ABA receptors-abscisic acid-protein phosphatase 2C). The methionine metabolism pathway was only enriched in salt-tolerant jute root tissue. Twenty-three DEGs were involved in methionine metabolism. Overall, numerous common and unique salt-stress response DEGs and pathways between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive jute have been discovered, which will provide valuable information regarding salt-stress response mechanisms and help improve salt-resistance molecular breeding in jute.
Project description:Salt stress is one of the major adverse environmental factors limiting crop productivity. Considering Iran as one of the bread wheat origins, we sequenced root transcriptome of an Iranian salt tolerant cultivar, Arg, under salt stress to extend our knowledge of the molecular basis of salinity tolerance in Triticum aestivum. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 113 million reads and about 104013 genes were obtained, among which 26171 novel transcripts were identified. A comparison of abundances showed that 5128 genes were differentially expressed due to salt stress. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were annotated with Gene Ontology terms, and the key pathways were identified using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) pathway mapping. The DEGs could be classified into 227 KEGG pathways among which transporters, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, transcription factors, glycosyltransferases, glutathione metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction represented the most significant pathways. Furthermore, the expression pattern of nine genes involved in salt stress response was compared between the salt tolerant (Arg) and susceptible (Moghan3) cultivars. A panel of novel genes and transcripts is found in this research to be differentially expressed under salinity in Arg cultivar and a model is proposed for salt stress response in this salt tolerant cultivar of wheat employing the DEGs. The achieved results can be beneficial for better understanding and improvement of salt tolerance in wheat.
Project description:Salt stress is one of the major devastating factors affecting the growth and yield of almost all crops, including the crucial staple food crop sweet potato. To understand their molecular responses to salt stress, comparative transcriptome and proteome analysis of salt-tolerant cultivar Xushu 22 and salt-sensitive cultivar Xushu 32 were investigated. The results showed the two genotypes had distinct differences at the transcription level and translation level even without salt stress, while inconsistent expression between the transcriptome and proteome data was observed. A total of 16,396 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 727 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. Wherein, 1,764 DEGs and 93 DEPs were specifically expressed in the tolerant genotype. Furthermore, the results revealed that the significantly upregulated genes were mainly related to the regulation of ion accumulation, stress signaling, transcriptional regulation, redox reactions, plant hormone signal transduction, and secondary metabolite accumulation, which may be involved in the response of sweet potato to salt stress and/or may determine the salt tolerance difference between the two genotypes. In addition, 1,618 differentially expressed regulatory genes were identified, including bZIP, bHLH, ERF, MYB, NAC, and WRKY. Strikingly, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing IbNAC7 displayed enhanced salt tolerance compared to WT plants, and higher catalase (CAT) activity, chlorophyll and proline contents, and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were detected in transgenic plants compared with that of WT under salt stress. Furthermore, RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis displayed that the expression of many stress-related genes was upregulated in transgenic plants. Collectively, these findings provide revealing insights into sweet potato molecular response to salt stress and underlie the complex salt tolerance mechanisms between genotypes, and IbNAC7 was shown as a promising candidate gene to enhance salt tolerance of sweet potato.
Project description:Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na+ were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato.