Sex Differences in the Association of Diabetes With Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Among African-American and White Participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
ABSTRACT: A sex × diabetes interaction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been established among white persons; however, it is unknown whether this interaction occurs among African Americans. We hypothesized that there was a multiplicative sex × diabetes interaction for CVD among African Americans participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-2013). Race-specific Cox models were run in three stages: Stage 1 examined baseline diabetes status; stage 2 examined baseline diabetes status with the competing risk of non-CVD death; and stage 3 examined time-varying diabetes status with a competing risk of non-CVD death. There were 1,073 incident CVD events among 3,767 African Americans and 2,475 among 10,291 white persons. Among African Americans, in stage 1 analysis, the hazard ratio for women with diabetes was 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 2.7) compared with women without diabetes after adjustment for age, and the corresponding hazard ratio for men was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.1) (P for interaction = 0.014). After full adjustment, the diabetes hazard ratio was attenuated to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.3) among women and remained 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.1) for men (P for interaction = 0.058). A synergistic influence on CVD risk between being a black woman and having diabetes was consistent across stage 2 and stage 3 analyses, with marginally significant interaction, mirroring sex differences seen in whites.
Project description:PURPOSE:Determine the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among adults with clinically evident CVD who meet the inclusion criteria for the FOURIER clinical trial on PCSK9 inhibition in a real-world database. METHODS:We analyzed data from 2072 African American and 2972 white REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants 45-85 years of age with clinically evident CVD. Study participants meeting the FOURIER inclusion criteria (one major or two minor cardiovascular risk factors, fasting LDL cholesterol ??70 mg/dL or non-HDL cholesterol ??100 mg/dL, triglycerides ??400 mg/dL, and taking statin) were followed for CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, and CVD death) from baseline in 2003-2007 through 2014. RESULTS:Overall, 771 (37.2%) African Americans and 1200 (40.4%) whites met the FOURIER inclusion criteria. The CVD event rate per 1000 person years was 60.6 (95% CI 53.6-67.6) among African Americans and 63.5 (95% CI 57.7-69.3) among whites. The risk for CVD events among adults meeting the FOURIER inclusion criteria was higher for those with a history of multiple cardiovascular events (hazard ratios among African Americans and whites 1.34 [95% CI 1.05-1.71] and 1.34 [1.10-1.63], respectively), a prior coronary revascularization (1.44 [1.13-1.84] and 1.23 [1.00-1.52], respectively), diabetes (1.38 [1.08-1.76] and 1.41 [1.15-1.72], respectively), reduced glomerular filtration rate (1.63 [1.26-2.11] and 1.29 [1.03-1.62], respectively), and albuminuria (1.77 [1.37-2.27] and 1.33 [1.07-1.65], respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The CVD event rate is high among African Americans and whites meeting the FOURIER inclusion criteria. Characteristics associated with a higher CVD risk may inform the decision to initiate PCSK9 inhibition.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The epidemiology of American Heart Association ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics has not been fully examined in African Americans. This study examines the associations of CVH metrics with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Jackson Heart Study, a longitudinal cohort study of CVD in African Americans. METHODS:Jackson Heart Study participants without CVD (n=4,702) were followed prospectively between 2000 and 2011. Incidence rates and Cox proportional hazard ratios estimated risks for incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac procedures, and CVD mortality) associated with seven CVH metrics by sex. Analyses were performed in 2015. RESULTS:Participants were followed for a median of 8.3 years; none had ideal health on all seven CVH metrics. The prevalence of ideal health was low for nutrition, physical activity, BMI, and blood pressure metrics. The age-adjusted CVD incidence rate (IR) per 1,000 person years was highest for individuals with the least ideal health metrics: zero to one (IR=12.5, 95% CI=9.7, 16.1), two (IR=8.2, 95% CI=6.5, 10.4), three (IR=5.7, 95% CI=4.2, 7.6), and four or more (IR=3.4, 95% CI=2.0, 5.9). Adjusting for covariates, individuals with four or more ideal CVH metrics had lower risks of incident CVD compared with those with zero or one ideal CVH metric (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% CI=0.17, 0.52; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:African Americans with more ideal CVH metrics have lower risks of incident CVD. Comprehensive preventive behavioral and clinical supports should be intensified to improve CVD risk for African Americans with few ideal CVH metrics.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We sought to evaluate the cardiovascular impact of coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene APOL1 that protect against trypanosome infection but have been associated with kidney disease among African Americans. APPROACH AND RESULTS:As part of the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort of Americans aged ?65 years, we genotyped APOL1 polymorphisms rs73885319 and rs71785153 and examined kidney function, subclinical atherosclerosis, and incident cardiovascular disease and death over 13 years of follow-up among 91 African Americans with 2 risk alleles, 707 other African Americans, and 4964 white participants. The high-risk genotype with 2 risk alleles was associated with 2-fold higher levels of albuminuria and lower ankle-brachial indices but similar carotid intima-media thickness among African Americans. Median survival among high-risk African Americans was 9.9 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7-11.9), compared with 13.6 years (95% CI, 12.5-14.3) among other African Americans and 13.3 years (95% CI, 13.0-13.6) among whites (P=0.03). The high-risk genotype was also associated with increased risk for incident myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0) and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Albuminuria and risk for myocardial infarction and mortality were nearly identical between African Americans with 0 to 1 risk alleles and whites. CONCLUSIONS:APOL1 genotype is associated with albuminuria, subclinical atherosclerosis, incident myocardial infarction, and mortality in older African Americans. African Americans without 2 risk alleles do not differ significantly in risk of myocardial infarction or mortality from whites. APOL1 trypanolytic variants may account for a substantial proportion of the excess risk of chronic disease in African Americans.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study examined the association of aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), using a composite endpoint of coronary heart disease, stroke, and/or heart failure and mortality among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. BACKGROUND:There is a paucity of data for the association of aldosterone and PRA with incident CVD or all-cause mortality among community-dwelling African Americans. METHODS:A total of 4,985 African American adults, 21 to 94 years of age, were followed for 12 years. Aldosterone, PRA, and cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (from 2000 to 2004). Incident events included coronary heart disease and stroke (assessed from 2000 to 2011) and heart failure (assessed from 2005 to 2011). Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident CVD and mortality, adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, current smoking, physical activity, dietary intake, and body mass index. RESULTS:Among 4,160 participants without prevalent CVD over a median follow-up of 7 years, there were 322 incident CVD cases. In adjusted analyses, each 1-U SD increase in log-aldosterone and log-PRA were associated with HR of 1.26 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.14 to 1.40) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.33) for incident CVD, respectively. Over a median of 8 years, 513 deaths occurred among 4,985 participants. In adjusted analyses, each 1-U SD increase in log-aldosterone and log-PRA were associated with HRs of 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.23) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.24) for mortality, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated aldosterone and PRA may play a significant role in the development of CVD and all-cause mortality among African Americans.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, disproportionately affecting African Americans. Aspirin is an effective, low cost option to reduce cardiovascular events. This study sought to describe the use of aspirin for CVD prevention in African Americans and evaluate associations with demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors and beliefs. A total of 684 African Americans adults ages 45-79 years completed surveys and were included in this analysis. Proportions of aspirin use were stratified by primary and secondary prevention and by number of CVD risk factors in the primary prevention population. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations with aspirin use. Secondary prevention aspirin use was 62%. Primary prevention aspirin use was 32% overall and increased to 54% in those with >?2 CVD risk factors. A history of diabetes [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.42, 95% CI 2.18-5.35] and hypertension (aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.39-3.65) were strongly associated with primary prevention aspirin use, but a conversation with a health care provider was even stronger (aOR 6.41, 95% CI 4.07-10.08). Participants who answered positively to statements about people similar to them taking aspirin or that close contacts think they should take aspirin, were much more likely to take aspirin (aOR 4.80; 95% CI 2.58-8.93 and aOR 7.45; 95% CI 4.70-11.79 respectively). These findings support a hypothesis that aspirin use may increase by encouraging conversations with health care providers and creating a supportive social environment for aspirin use. Further studies need to be done to test this hypothesis.
Project description:Previous studies on the association between hs-CRP and incident type 2 diabetes among African Americans have been inconclusive. We examined the association between hs-CRP and incident diabetes in a large African American cohort (Jackson Heart Study).hs-CRP was measured in 3,340 participants. Incident diabetes was defined by fasting glucose ?126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes drugs, or A1C ?6.5% (48 mmol/mol) at follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes, adjusting for age, sex, education, diabetes family history, alcohol, HDL, triglycerides, hypertension status, hypertension medications, physical activity, BMI, HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMAIR), and waist circumference.Participants (63% women) were aged 53.3 ± 12.5 years. During a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 17.4% developed diabetes (23.1/1,000 person-years, 95% CI 21.3-25.1). After adjustment, the HR (hs-CRP third vs. first tertile) was 1.64 (95% CI 1.26-2.13). In separate models, further adjustment for BMI and waist circumference attenuated this association (HR 1.28 [95% CI 0.97-1.69] and 1.35 [95% CI 1.03-1.78, P < 0.05 for trend], respectively). Upon adding HOMAIR in the models, the association was no longer significant. In adjusted HOMAIR-stratified analysis, the hs-CRP-diabetes association appeared stronger in participants with HOMAIR <3.0 compared with HOMAIR ?3.0 (P < 0.0001 for interaction). The association was also stronger among nonobese participants, although not significant when adjusted for HOMAIR.Low-grade inflammation, as measured by hs-CRP level, may have an important role in the development of diabetes among African Americans with a lesser degree of insulin resistance.
Project description:PURPOSE:Evidence suggests that snoring is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Limited data exists pertaining to this association among African Americans. We therefore examined the association between self-reported habitual snoring and incident CVD in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a population-based cohort study of African Americans. METHODS:Self-reported data on snoring and risk factors for CVD were collected at baseline (2000-2004). Participants were followed prospectively for the development of incident CVD. Habitual snoring was defined as present if the participants reported it as "often" or "almost always" or absent if reported as "sometimes," "never," or "seldom." A CVD event included stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, or fatal CHD event. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the independent association between self-reported habitual snoring and incident CVD event adjusting for multiple covariates, including age, sex, hypertension, body mass index, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking status. RESULTS:The snorer group consisted of 787 participants (mean age 52.1 years) and the nonsnorer group consisted of 3708 participants (mean age 54.9 years). Frequency of incident CVD events in the snorer group was not significantly different from the nonsnorer group. The fully adjusted hazard ratio for a CVD event in the snorer group was 1.01 (95% confidence interval [0.69, 1.47], p value of 0.96). CONCLUSION:In conclusion, self-reported habitual snoring was not associated with incident CVD among this large African American cohort. Future studies providing objective data on snoring and sleep apnea may provide more information on the snoring-CVD association among African Americans. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Identification Number: NCT00005485.
Project description:Background:Diabetes has been proposed to be a risk factor for and a consequence of pancreatic cancer (PC). The relationship between recent-onset diabetes and PC is not well understood, and data in minorities are sparse. We examined the relationships between recent-onset diabetes and PC incidence in African Americans and Latinos in the Multiethnic Cohort. Methods:A total of 48 995 African Americans and Latinos without prior diabetes and cancer at baseline (1993-1996) were included in the study. Questionnaires, Medicare data, and California hospital discharge files were used to identify new diabetes diagnoses. Cox regressions were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer associated with diabetes and with diabetes duration. Results:A total of 15 833 (32.3%) participants developed diabetes between baseline and 2013. A total of 408 incident PC cases were identified during follow-up. Diabetes was associated with PC (HRage75 = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.91 to 2.98). Individuals with recent-onset diabetes (within three or fewer years of PC diagnosis) had a greater risk compared with those with long-term diabetes across all ages. The HRage75 for recent-onset diabetes was 4.08 (95% CI = 2.76 to 6.03) in Latinos and 3.38 (95% CI = 2.30 to 4.98) in African Americans. Conclusions:Diabetes was associated with a more than twofold higher risk of PC in African Americans and Latinos, but recent-onset diabetes was associated with a 2.3-fold greater increase in risk of PC than long-standing diabetes. Our findings support the hypothesis that recent-onset diabetes is a manifestation of PC and that long-standing diabetes is a risk factor for this malignancy.
Project description:Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a strong predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whites appear to have a higher prevalence of CAC than African-Americans (AAs), but it is unknown if type 2 diabetes, a major cardiovascular risk factor, attenuates this difference. We investigated the relationship of race and CAC in a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical CVD.multivariable analyses of self-reported ethnicity and CAC scores, stratified by gender, in 861 subjects [32% AA, 66.9% male] with type 2 diabetes.AA race was associated with lower CAC scores in age-adjusted models in males [Tobit ratio for AAs vs. Whites 0.14 (95% CI 0.08-0.24, p<0.001)] and females [Tobit ratio 0.26 (95% CI 0.09-0.77, p=0.015)]. This persisted in men after adjustment for traditional, metabolic and inflammatory risk factors, but adjustment for plasma triglycerides [0.48 (95% CI 0.15-1.49, p=0.201)] and HOMA-IR [0.28 (95% CI 0.08-1.03, p=0.055)] partially attenuated the association in women.relative to African-Americans, White race is a strong predictor of CAC, even in the presence of type 2 diabetes. The relationship in women appears less robust possibly due to gender differences in metabolic risk factors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To validate a Cardiometabolic Disease Staging (CMDS) system for assigning risk level for diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. DESIGN AND METHODS:Two large national cohorts, CARDIA and NHANES III, were used to validate CMDS. CMDS: Stage 0: metabolically healthy; Stage 1: one or two metabolic syndrome risk factors [other than impaired fasting glucose (IFG)]; Stage 2: IFG or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (without IFG); Stage 3: two of three (IFG, IGT, and/or metabolic syndrome); and Stage 4: type 2 diabetes mellitus/CVD. RESULTS:In the CARDIA study, compared with Stage 0 metabolically healthy subjects, adjusted risk for diabetes exponentially increased from Stage 1 [hazard ratio (HR) 2.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.76-4.55], to Stage 2 (HR 8.06, 95% CI 4.91-13.2), to Stage 3 (HR 23.5, 95% CI 13.7-40.1) (P for trend <0.001). In NHANES III, both cumulative incidence and multivariable adjusted HRs markedly increased for both all-cause and CVD mortality with advancement of the risk stage from Stages 0 to 4. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI) minimally affected the risks for diabetes and all-cause/CVD mortality using CMDS. CONCLUSION:CMDS can discriminate a wide range of risk for diabetes, CVD mortality, and all-cause mortality independent of BMI, and should be studied as a risk assessment tool to guide interventions that prevent and treat cardiometabolic disease.