Original Findings and Updated Meta-Analysis for the Association Between Maternal Diabetes and Risk for Congenital Heart Disease Phenotypes.
ABSTRACT: Maternal diabetes is associated with congenital heart defects (CHDs) as a group, but few studies have assessed risk for specific CHD phenotypes. We analyzed these relationships using data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and statewide vital records for deliveries taking place in 1999-2009 (n = 48,249 cases). We used Poisson regression to calculate prevalence ratios for the associations between maternal diabetes (pregestational or gestational) and each CHD phenotype, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were repeated by type of diabetes. To address the potential for misclassification bias, we performed logistic regression, using malformed controls. We also conducted meta-analyses, combining our estimates of the association between pregestational diabetes and each CHD phenotype with previous estimates. The prevalence of every CHD phenotype was greater among women with pregestational diabetes than among nondiabetic women. Most of these differences were statistically significant (adjusted prevalence ratios = 2.47-13.20). Associations were slightly attenuated for many CHD phenotypes among women with gestational diabetes. The observed associations did not appear to be the result of misclassification bias. In our meta-analysis, pregestational diabetes was significantly associated with each CHD phenotype. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the teratogenic effects of maternal diabetes and improved counseling for risk of specific CHD phenotypes.
Project description:Background Tetrahydrobiopterin is a cofactor of endothelial NO synthase ( eNOS ), which is critical to embryonic heart development. We aimed to study the effects of sapropterin (Kuvan), an orally active synthetic form of tetrahydrobiopterin on eNOS uncoupling and congenital heart defects ( CHD s) induced by pregestational diabetes mellitus in mice. Methods and Results Adult female mice were induced to pregestational diabetes mellitus by streptozotocin and bred with normal male mice to produce offspring. Pregnant mice were treated with sapropterin or vehicle during gestation. CHD s were identified by histological analysis. Cell proliferation, eNOS dimerization, and reactive oxygen species production were assessed in the fetal heart. Pregestational diabetes mellitus results in a spectrum of CHD s in their offspring. Oral treatment with sapropterin in the diabetic dams significantly decreased the incidence of CHD s from 59% to 27%, and major abnormalities, such as atrioventricular septal defect and double-outlet right ventricle, were absent in the sapropterin-treated group. Lineage tracing reveals that pregestational diabetes mellitus results in decreased commitment of second heart field progenitors to the outflow tract, endocardial cushions, and ventricular myocardium of the fetal heart. Notably, decreased cell proliferation and cardiac transcription factor expression induced by maternal diabetes mellitus were normalized with sapropterin treatment. Furthermore, sapropterin administration in the diabetic dams increased eNOS dimerization and lowered reactive oxygen species levels in the fetal heart. Conclusions Sapropterin treatment in the diabetic mothers improves eNOS coupling, increases cell proliferation, and prevents the development of CHD s in the offspring. Thus, sapropterin may have therapeutic potential in preventing CHD s in pregestational diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect approximately 1% of newborns. Epidemiological studies have identified several genetically-mediated maternal phenotypes (e.g., pregestational diabetes, chronic hypertension) that are associated with the risk of CHDs in offspring. However, the role of the maternal genome in determining CHD risk has not been defined. We present findings from gene-level, genome-wide studies that link CHDs to maternal effect genes as well as to maternal genes related to hypertension and proteostasis. Maternal effect genes, which provide the mRNAs and proteins in the oocyte that guide early embryonic development before zygotic gene activation, have not previously been implicated in CHD risk. Our findings support a role for and suggest new pathways by which the maternal genome may contribute to the development of CHDs in offspring.
Project description:The objectives of this study were 1) to describe maternal glucose and lipid kinetics and 2) to examine the relationships with infant birth weight in obese women with pregestational type 2 diabetes during late pregnancy. Using stable isotope tracer methodology and mass spectrometry, maternal glucose and lipid kinetic rates during the basal condition were compared in three groups: lean women without diabetes (Lean, n = 25), obese women without diabetes (OB, n = 26), and obese women with pregestational type 2 diabetes (OB+DM, n = 28; total n = 79). Glucose and lipid kinetics during hyperinsulinemia were also measured in a subset of participants (n = 56). Relationships between maternal glucose and lipid kinetics during both conditions and infant birth weight were examined. Maternal endogenous glucose production (EGP) rate was higher in OB+DM than OB and Lean during hyperinsulinemia. Maternal insulin value at 50% palmitate Ra suppression (IC50) for palmitate suppression with insulinemia was higher in OB+DM than OB and Lean. Maternal EGP per unit insulin and plasma free fatty acid concentration during hyperinsulinemia most strongly predicted infant birth weight. Our findings suggest maternal fatty acid and glucose kinetics are altered during late pregnancy and might suggest a mechanism for higher birth weight in obese women with pregestational diabetes.
Project description:To estimate nationwide trends in the prevalence of maternal congenital heart disease (CHD) and determine whether women with CHD are more likely than women without maternal CHD to have medical and obstetric complications.The 2000-2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes to identify delivery hospitalizations of women with and without CHD. Trends in the prevalence of CHD were determined and then rates of complications were reported for CHD per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations. For Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2008-2010, logistic regression was used to examine associations between CHD and complications.From 2000 to 2010, there was a significant linear increase in the prevalence of CHD from 6.4 to 9.0 per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations (P<.001). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that all selected medical complications, including mortality (17.8 compared with 0.7/10,000 deliveries, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 22.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.96-34.97), mechanical ventilation (91.9 compared with 6.9/10,000, adjusted OR 9.94, 95% CI 7.99-12.37), and a composite cardiovascular outcome (614 compared with 34.3/10,000, adjusted OR 10.54, 95% CI 9.55-11.64) were more likely to occur among delivery hospitalizations with maternal CHD than without. Obstetric complications were also common among women with CHD. Delivery hospitalizations with maternal CHD that also included codes for pulmonary circulatory disorders had higher rates of medical complications compared with hospitalizations with maternal CHD without pulmonary circulatory disorders.The number of delivery hospitalizations with maternal CHD in the United States is increasing, and although we were not able to determine whether correction of the cardiac lesion affected outcomes, these hospitalizations have a high burden of medical and obstetric complications.II.
Project description:Maternal pregestational diabetes (PGDM) is a risk factor for development of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Glycemic control before pregnancy reduces the risk of CHDs. A meta-analysis was used to estimate summary ORs and mathematical modeling was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAFs) and the annual number of CHDs in the U.S. potentially preventable by establishing glycemic control before pregnancy.A systematic search of the literature through December 2012 was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Case-control or cohort studies were included. Data were abstracted from 12 studies for a meta-analysis of all CHDs.Summary estimates of the association between PGDM and CHDs and 95% credible intervals (95% CrIs) were developed using Bayesian random-effects meta-analyses for all CHDs and specific CHD subtypes. Posterior estimates of this association were combined with estimates of CHD prevalence to produce estimates of PAFs and annual prevented cases. Ninety-five percent uncertainty intervals (95% UIs) for estimates of the annual number of preventable cases were developed using Monte Carlo simulation. Analyses were conducted in 2013. The summary OR estimate for the association between PGDM and CHDs was 3.8 (95% CrI=3.0, 4.9). Approximately 2670 (95% UI=1795, 3795) cases of CHDs could potentially be prevented annually if all women in the U.S. with PGDM achieved glycemic control before pregnancy.Estimates from this analysis suggest that preconception care of women with PGDM could have a measureable impact by reducing the number of infants born with CHDs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Obesity is a risk factor for congenital heart defects (CHDs), but whether risk is independent of abnormal glucose metabolism remains unknown. Data on whether overweight status increases the risk are also conflicting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We included 121?815 deliveries from a cohort study, the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL), after excluding women with pregestational diabetes as recorded in the electronic medical record. CHD was identified via medical record discharge summaries. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for any CHD were calculated for prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories of overweight (25-<30?kg?m(-2)), obese (30-<40?kg?m(-2)) and morbidly obese (?40?kg?m(-2)) compared with normal weight (18.5-<25?kg?m(-2)) women, and for specific CHD with obese groups combined (?30?kg?m(-2)). A subanalysis adjusting for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results where available was performed as a proxy for potential abnormal glucose metabolism present at the time of organogenesis. RESULTS:There were 1388 (1%) infants with CHD. Overweight (OR=1.15, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-1.32), obese (OR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.09-1.44) and morbidly obese (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.02-1.76) women had greater OR of having a neonate with CHD than normal weight women (P<0.001 for trend). Obese women (BMI?30?kg?m(-2)) had higher OR of having an infant with conotruncal defects (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: (1.03–1.72) [corrected], atrial septal defects (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.43) and ventricular septal defects (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.06-1.79). Being obese remained a significant predictor of CHD risk after adjusting for OGTT. CONCLUSION:Increasing maternal weight class was associated with an increased risk for CHD. In obese women, abnormal glucose metabolism did not completely explain the increased risk for CHD; the possibility that other obesity-related factors are teratogenic requires further investigation.
Project description:Complete atrioventricular canal defects (CAVC) are a common heart defect, but few epidemiologic studies have evaluated non-syndromic CAVC. Risk factors for non-syndromic CAVC have not been well established.To assess the relationship between risk for non-syndromic CAVC in offspring and several sociodemographic and reproductive parental factors, including maternal diabetes and obesity, we conducted Poisson regression analyses, using data ascertained through the Texas Birth Defects Registry, a large, population-based birth defects registry. Data were evaluated for 563 non-syndromic cases with CAVC.Significant associations were observed between non-syndromic CAVC in offspring and maternal pregestational diabetes (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 6.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.67, 12.37), gestational diabetes (aPR 1.69; 95% CI 1.03, 2.79) and obesity (aPR 1.69; 95% CI 1.24, 2.30).?Our findings add non-syndromic CAVC to the growing list of birth defects that appear to be associated with maternal diabetes and obesity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare perinatal outcome and glycaemic control in two groups of pregnant diabetic patients receiving two insulin regimens. DESIGN:Randomised controlled open label study. SETTING:University affiliated hospital, Israel. PARTICIPANTS:138 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and 58 patients with pregestational diabetes mellitus received insulin four times daily, and 136 patients with gestational diabetes and 60 patients with pregestational diabetes received insulin twice daily. INTERVENTION:Three doses of regular insulin before meals and an intermediate insulin dose before bedtime (four times daily regimen), and a combination of regular and intermediate insulin in the morning and evening (twice daily regimen). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Maternal glycaemic control and perinatal outcome. RESULTS:Mean daily insulin concentration before birth was higher in the women receiving insulin four times daily compared with twice daily: by 22 units (95% confidence interval 12 to 32) in patients with gestational diabetes and by 28 units (15 to 41) in patients with pregestational diabetes. Glycaemic control was better with the four times daily regimen than with the twice daily regimen: in patients with gestational diabetes mean blood glucose concentrations decreased by 0.19 mmol/l (0.13 to 0.25), HbA(1c) by 0.3% (0.2% to 0.4%), and fructosamine by 41 micromol/l (37 to 45), and adequate glycaemic control (mean blood glucose concentration <5.8 mmol/l) was achieved in 17% (8% to 26%) more women; in patients with pregestational diabetes mean blood glucose concentration decreased by 0.44 mmol/l (0.28 to 0.60), HbA(1c) by 0.5% (0.2% to 0.8%), and fructosamine by 51 micromol/l (45 to 57), and adequate glycaemic control was achieved in 31% (15% to 47%) more women. Maternal severe hypoglycaemic events, caesarean section, preterm birth, macrosomia, and low Apgar scores were similar in both dose groups. In women with gestational diabetes the four times daily regimen resulted in a lower rate of overall neonatal morbidity than the twice daily regimen (relative risk 0.59, 0.38 to 0.92), and the relative risk for hyperbilirubinaemia and hypoglycaemia was lower (0.51, 0.29 to 0.91 and 0.12, 0.02 to 0.97 respectively). The relative risk of hypoglycaemia in newborn infants to mothers with pregestational diabetes was 0.17 (0.04 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS:Giving insulin four times rather than twice daily in pregnancy improved glycaemic control and perinatal outcome without further risking the mother.
Project description:Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth defect and is both a significant pediatric and adult health problem, in light of a growing population of survivors. The etiology of CHD has been considered to be multifactorial with genetic and environmental factors playing important roles. The combination of advances in cardiac developmental biology, which have resulted in the elucidation of molecular pathways regulating normal cardiac morphogenesis, and genome sequencing technology have allowed the discovery of numerous genetic contributors of CHD ranging from chromosomal abnormalities to single gene variants. Conversely, mechanistic details of the contribution of environmental factors to CHD remain unknown. Maternal diabetes mellitus (matDM) is a well-established and increasingly prevalent environmental risk factor for CHD, but the underlying etiologic mechanisms by which pregestational matDM increases the vulnerability of embryos to cardiac malformations remains largely elusive. Here, we will briefly discuss the multifactorial etiology of CHD with a focus on the epidemiologic link between matDM and CHD. We will describe the animal models used to study the underlying mechanisms between matDM and CHD and review the numerous cellular and molecular pathways affected by maternal hyperglycemia in the developing heart. Last, we discuss how this increased understanding may open the door for the development of novel prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of CHD in this high-risk population.
Project description:We investigated the role of maternal environmental factors in the aetiology of congenital heart disease (CHD). A population-based case-control study (242 CHD cases, 966 controls) was conducted using an iPad questionnaire for mother with linkage to maternity and first trimester prescription records. Risk of CHD was associated with low maternal education (OR adjusted for confounders 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.49), pregestational diabetes (OR 4.04; 95% CI 1.00-16.28), self-reported maternal clotting disorders (adjOR 8.55, 95%CI 1.51-48.44), prescriptions for the anticlotting medication enoxaparin (adjOR 3.22, 95%CI 1.01-10.22) and self-reported vaginal infections (adjOR 1.69, 95%CI 1.01-2.80). There was no strong support for the hypothesis that periconceptional folic acid supplements have a protective effect, but there was a protective effect of frequent consumption of folate rich fruits (adjOR 0.64, 95%CI 0.47-0.89). Compared to the most common pre-pregnancy dietary pattern, CHD risk was associated with a poor diet low in fruit and vegetables (adjOR 1.56, 95%CI 1.05-2.34). Mothers of cases reported more pregnancy related stress (adjOR 1.69; 95% CI 1.22-2.34) and multiple stressors (adjOR 1.94, 95%CI 0.83-4.53). We found no supportive evidence for CHD risk being associated with obesity, smoking, depression or antidepressant use in this population. Our findings add to the previous evidence base to show potential for public health approaches to help prevent CHD in future by modifying environmental factors. Independent confirmation should be sought regarding elevated CHD risk associated with maternal blood clotting disorders and their treatment, since we are the first to report this.