Effect of Electrical Contact Resistance on Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and Wiedemann-Franz Law for Individual Metallic Nanowires.
ABSTRACT: The electrical and thermal properties of metallic nanostructures have attracted considerable fundamental and technological interests. Recent studies confirmed a dramatic decrease in the electrical and thermal conductivities when the dimension is comparable or even smaller than the electron mean free path. However, the verification of the Wiedemann-Franz law in these nanostructures remains hotly debated. The Lorenz number obtained from the two-probe measurement is found to be much larger than that from the four-probe measurement. Here, we reported the electrical and thermal properties of the individual silver nanowires measured by the two-probe and four-probe configurations. The measured electrical contact resistance is found to be nearly temperature-independent, indicating a ballistic-dominant electronic transport at the contacts. When the effect of thermal contact resistance is diminished, the Lorenz number measured by the four-probe configuration is comparable to the Sommerfeld value, verifying that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds in the monocrystalline-like silver nanowire. Comparatively, the derived electrical conductivity becomes smaller and the thermal conductivity becomes larger in the two-probe measurement, confirming that the electrical contact resistance will introduce a large error. The present study experimentally demonstrates a reasonable explanation to the discouragingly broad span in the Lorenz number obtained from different metallic nanostructures.
Project description:The Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law has been tested in numerous solids, but the extent of its relevance to the anomalous transverse transport and the topological nature of the wave function, remains an open question. Here, we present a study of anomalous transverse response in the noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge extended from room temperature down to sub-kelvin temperature and find that the anomalous Lorenz ratio remains close to the Sommerfeld value up to 100 K but not above. The finite-temperature violation of the WF correlation is caused by a mismatch between the thermal and electrical summations of the Berry curvature and not by inelastic scattering. This interpretation is backed by our theoretical calculations, which reveals a competition between the temperature and the Berry curvature distribution. The data accuracy is supported by verifying the anomalous Bridgman relation. The anomalous Lorenz ratio is thus an extremely sensitive probe of the Berry spectrum of a solid.
Project description:Natural graphite sheet (NGS) is compressible, porous, electrically and thermally conductive material that shows a potential to be used in fuel cells, flow batteries, electronics cooling systems, supercapacitors, adsorption air conditioning, and heat exchangers. We report the results of an extensive material characterization study that focuses on thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, electrical conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), compression strain, and emissivity. All the properties are density-dependent and highly anisotropic. Increasing the compression from 100 to 1080 kPa causes the through-plane thermal and electrical conductivities to increase by up to 116% and 263%, respectively. The properties are independent of the sheet thickness. Thermal and electrical contact resistance between stacked NGS is negligible at pressures 100 to 1080 kPa. In the in-plane direction, NGS follows the Wiedemann-Franz law with Lorenz number 6.6 [Formula: see text] 10[Formula: see text] W [Formula: see text] K[Formula: see text]. The in-plane CTE is low and negative (shrinkage with increasing temperature), while the through-plane CTE is high, increases with density, and reaches 33 [Formula: see text] 10[Formula: see text] K[Formula: see text]. Microscope images are used to study the structure and relate it to material properties. An easy-to-use graphical summary of the forming process and NGS properties are provided in Appendices A and B.
Project description:In stark contrast to ordinary metals, in materials in which electrons strongly interact with each other or with phonons, electron transport is thought to resemble the flow of viscous fluids. Despite their differences, it is predicted that transport in both conventional and correlated materials is fundamentally limited by the uncertainty principle applied to energy dissipation. Here we report the observation of experimental signatures of hydrodynamic electron flow in the Weyl semimetal tungsten diphosphide. Using thermal and magneto-electric transport experiments, we find indications of the transition from a conventional metallic state at higher temperatures to a hydrodynamic electron fluid below 20?K. The hydrodynamic regime is characterized by a viscosity-induced dependence of the electrical resistivity on the sample width and by a strong violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law. Following the uncertainty principle, both electrical and thermal transport are bound by the quantum indeterminacy, independent of the underlying transport regime.
Project description:We report on coupled heat and particle transport measurements through a quantum point contact (QPC) connecting two reservoirs of resonantly interacting, finite temperature Fermi gases. After heating one of them, we observe a particle current flowing from cold to hot. We monitor the temperature evolution of the reservoirs and find that the system evolves after an initial response into a nonequilibrium steady state with finite temperature and chemical potential differences across the QPC. In this state any relaxation in the form of heat and particle currents vanishes. From our measurements we extract the transport coefficients of the QPC and deduce a Lorenz number violating the Wiedemann-Franz law by one order of magnitude, a characteristic persisting even for a wide contact. In contrast, the Seebeck coefficient takes a value close to that expected for a noninteracting Fermi gas and shows a smooth decrease as the atom density close to the QPC is increased beyond the superfluid transition. Our work represents a fermionic analog of the fountain effect observed with superfluid helium and poses challenges for microscopic modeling of the finite temperature dynamics of the unitary Fermi gas.
Project description:Carbon-based nanostructures are attracting tremendous interest as components in ultrafast electronics and optoelectronics. The electrical interfaces to these structures play a crucial role for the electron transport, but the lack of control at the atomic scale can hamper device functionality and integration into operating circuitry. Here we study a prototype carbon-based molecular junction consisting of a single C60 molecule and probe how the electric current through the junction depends on the chemical nature of the foremost electrode atom in contact with the molecule. We find that the efficiency of charge injection to a C60 molecule varies substantially for the considered metallic species, and demonstrate that the relative strength of the metal-C bond can be extracted from our transport measurements. Our study further suggests that a single-C60 junction is a basic model to explore the properties of electrical contacts to meso- and macroscopic sp(2) carbon structures.
Project description:Electrical and thermal transport properties of liquid Fe under high pressure have important implications for the dynamics and thermal evolution of planetary cores and the geodynamo. However, electrical resistivity (?) and thermal conductivity (k) of liquid Fe at high pressure still remain contentious properties. To date, only two experimental investigations of ? of liquid Fe in the pressure region below 7?GPa are reported in literature. Here we report the results of measurements of ? for solid and liquid Fe (inversely proportional to k through the Wiedemann-Franz law) at pressures from 3 to 12?GPa, using a large multi-anvil press. We show that ? of liquid Fe decreases as a function of pressure up to the ?-?-liquid triple point at ~5.2?GPa, and subsequently remains invariant from 6 to 12?GPa, which is consistent with an earlier study on liquid Ni. Our results demonstrate an important effect of solid phase on the structure and properties of liquid Fe. Our values of ? for solid and liquid Fe are used to calculate k in Mercury's solid inner core and along the adiabat in the liquid outer cores of Moon, Ganymede, Mercury and Mars. Our robust values of thermal conductivity place the focus on uncertainties in thermal expansion as the cause of variation in values of core conducted heat. Except for Mercury, our adiabatic heat flux values in these terrestrial cores validate the use of similar values used in several previous studies. Our high values of core adiabatic heat flux in Mercury would provide a stabilizing effect on, and lead to an increase in thickness of, the thermally stratified layer at the top of the core.
Project description:The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps. The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.
Project description:Controlling thermal emission with resonant photonic nanostructures has recently attracted much attention. Most of the work has concentrated on the mid-infrared wavelength range and/or was based on metallic nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the experimental operation of a resonant thermal emitter operating in the near-infrared (≈1.5 μm) wavelength range. The emitter is based on a doped silicon photonic crystal consisting of a two dimensional square array of holes and using silicon-on-insulator technology with a device-layer thickness of 220 nm. The device is resistively heated by passing current through the photonic crystal membrane. At a temperature of ≈1100 K, we observe relatively sharp emission peaks with a Q factor around 18. A support structure system is implemented in order to achieve a large area suspended photonic crystal thermal emitter and electrical injection. The device demonstrates that weak absorption together with photonic resonances can be used as a wavelength-selection mechanism for thermal emitters, both for the enhancement and the suppression of emission.
Project description:Nuclear dynamics in dense hydrogen, which is determined by the key physics of large-angle scattering or many-body collisions between particles, is crucial for the dynamics of planet's evolution and hydrodynamical processes in inertial confinement confusion. Here, using improved ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the nuclear quantum dynamics regarding transport behaviors of dense hydrogen up to the temperatures of 1 eV. With the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), the ionic diffusions are largely higher than the classical treatment by the magnitude from 20% to 146% as the temperature is decreased from 1 eV to 0.3 eV at 10 g/cm(3), meanwhile, electrical and thermal conductivities are significantly lowered. In particular, the ionic diffusion is found much larger than that without NQEs even when both the ionic distributions are the same at 1 eV. The significant quantum delocalization of ions introduces remarkably different scattering cross section between protons compared with classical particle treatments, which explains the large difference of transport properties induced by NQEs. The Stokes-Einstein relation, Wiedemann-Franz law, and isotope effects are re-examined, showing different behaviors in nuclear quantum dynamics.
Project description:Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a versatile tool for the direct-write fabrication of nanostructures on surfaces. However, FEBID nanostructures are usually highly contaminated by carbon originating from the precursor used in the process. Recently, it was shown that platinum nanostructures produced by FEBID can be efficiently purified by electron irradiation in the presence of water. If such processes can be transferred to FEBID deposits produced from other carbon-containing precursors, a new general approach to the generation of pure metallic nanostructures could be implemented. Therefore this study aims to understand the chemical reactions that are fundamental to the water-assisted purification of platinum FEBID deposits generated from trimethyl(methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPtMe3). The experiments performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions apply a combination of different desorption experiments coupled with mass spectrometry to analyse reaction products. Electron-stimulated desorption monitors species that leave the surface during electron exposure while post-irradiation thermal desorption spectrometry reveals products that evolve during subsequent thermal treatment. In addition, desorption of volatile products was also observed when a deposit produced by electron exposure was subsequently brought into contact with water. The results distinguish between contributions of thermal chemistry, direct chemistry between water and the deposit, and electron-induced reactions that all contribute to the purification process. We discuss reaction kinetics for the main volatile products CO and CH4 to obtain mechanistic information. The results provide novel insights into the chemistry that occurs during purification of FEBID nanostructures with implications also for the stability of the carbonaceous matrix of nanogranular FEBID materials under humid conditions.