Short-Term High-Salt Diet Increases Corin Level to Regulate the Salt-Water Balance in Humans and Rodents.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Dietary sodium and potassium affect the fluctuation in blood pressure (BP) and renal function. Corin, with its enzymatic activity to convert pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) to biologically active ANP, regulates BP, cardiac, and renal functions. We investigated whether corin expression responds to a high-salt (HS) diet to regulate salt and water balance. METHODS:Forty-two volunteers followed 3 sequential diets for 7 days each: a low-salt (LS) diet (3.0 g/day NaCl), a HS diet (18.0 g/day NaCl), followed by an HS diet with K+ supplementation (HS + K+) (18.0 g/day NaCl and 4.5 g/day KCl). RESULTS:Corin level was higher with the HS diet than the LS and HS + K+ diets and was positively correlated with systolic BP (SBP) and 24-hour urinary Na+ and microalbumin (U-mALB) excretion. In rodents, serum and renal levels of corin were transiently increased with the HS diet and were decreased if the HS diet was continued for up to 7 days. HS loading increased SBP, 24-hour urinary Na+, U-mALB excretion, and the expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 (PCSK6), a corin activator. Knockdown of PCSK6 or corin in high salt-treated M1-cortical collecting duct (M1-CCD) cells increased the expression of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) and ?-epithelial Na+ channel (?-ENaC). CONCLUSIONS:Short-term HS may induce the PCSK6-corin-ANP-AQP2/?-ENaC pathway in the kidney. Enhanced serum corin level in humans and rodents is positively correlated with HS-induced SBP and 24-hour urinary Na+ and U-mALB excretion, which suggests that corin is involved in the salt-water balance in response to HS intake. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:Public Trials Registry Number NCT02915315.
Project description:Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease, afflicting >30% of adults. The cause of hypertension in most individuals remains unknown, suggesting that additional contributing factors have yet to be discovered. Corin is a serine protease that activates the natriuretic peptides, thereby regulating blood pressure. It is synthesized as a zymogen that is activated by proteolytic cleavage. CORIN variants and mutations impairing corin activation have been identified in people with hypertension and pre-eclampsia. To date, however, the identity of the protease that activates corin remains elusive. Here we show that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 (PCSK6, also named PACE4; ref. 10) cleaves and activates corin. In cultured cells, we found that corin activation was inhibited by inhibitors of PCSK family proteases and by small interfering RNAs blocking PCSK6 expression. Conversely, PCSK6 overexpression enhanced corin activation. In addition, purified PCSK6 cleaved wild-type corin but not the R801A variant that lacks the conserved activation site. Pcsk6-knockout mice developed salt-sensitive hypertension, and corin activation and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide processing activity were undetectable in these mice. Moreover, we found that CORIN variants in individuals with hypertension and pre-eclampsia were defective in PCSK6-mediated activation. We also identified a PCSK6 mutation that impaired corin activation activity in a hypertensive patient. Our results indicate that PCSK6 is the long-sought corin activator and is important for sodium homeostasis and normal blood pressure.
Project description:Patients with proteinuric kidney diseases often have symptoms of salt and water retention. It has been hypothesized that dysregulated sodium absorption is due to increased proteolytic cleavage of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and increased Na,K-ATPase expression. Microarray analysis identified a reduction in kidney corin mRNA expression in rat models of puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome and acute anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis (GN). As atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) resistance is a mechanism accounting for volume retention, we analyzed the renal expression and function of corin; a type II transmembrane serine protease that converts pro-ANP to active ANP. Immunohistochemical analysis found that corin colocalized with ANP. The nephrotic and glomerulonephritic models exhibited concomitant increased pro-ANP and decreased ANP protein levels in the kidney consistent with low amounts of corin. Importantly, kidneys from corin knockout mice had increased amounts of renal ?-ENaC and its activators, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 and protein kinase G II, when compared to wild-type mice. A similar expression profile was also found in cell culture suggesting the increase in PDE5 and kinase G II could account for the increase in ?-ENaC seen in nephrotic syndrome and GN. Thus, we suggest that corin might be involved in the salt retention seen in glomerular diseases.
Project description:Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an important hormone in regulating salt-water balance and blood pressure. This review focuses on the regulation of corin function and potential roles of corin defects in hypertensive, heart, and renal diseases.Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 has been identified as a primary enzyme that converts zymogen corin to an active protease. Genetic variants that impair corin intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and zymogen activation have been found in patients with hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and pre-eclampsia. Reduced corin expression has been detected in animal models of cardiomyopathies and in human failing hearts. Low levels of circulating soluble corin have been reported in patients with heart disease and stroke. Corin, ANP and natriuretic peptide receptor-A mRNAs, and proteins have been colocalized in human renal segments, suggesting a corin-ANP autocrine function in the kidney.Corin is a key enzyme in the natriuretic peptide system. The latest findings indicate that corin-mediated ANP production may act in a tissue-specific manner to regulate cardiovascular and renal function. Corin defects may contribute to major diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, pre-eclampsia, and kidney disease.
Project description:We elucidated the role of collecting duct kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in the development of salt-sensitivity and angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. To this end, we used a Cre-Lox recombination strategy to generate mice lacking Bdkrb2 gene for B2R in the collecting duct (Hoxb7-Cre(tg/+):Bdkrb2(flox/flox)). In 3 groups of control (Bdkrb2(flox/flox)) and 3 groups of UB(Bdkrb2-/-) mice, systolic blood pressure (SBP) responses to high salt intake (4 or 8% NaCl; HS) were monitored by radiotelemetry in comparison with standard salt diet (0.4% NaCl) prior to and during subcutaneous ANG II infusion (1000?ng/min/kg) via osmotic minipumps. High salt intakes alone for 2 weeks did not alter SBP in either strain. ANG II significantly increased SBP equally in control (121?±?2 to 156?±?3?mmHg) and UB(Bdkrb2-/-) mice (120?±?2 to 153?±?2?mmHg). The development of ANG II-induced hypertension was exacerbated by 4%HS in both control (125?±?3 to 164?±?5?mmHg) and UB(Bdkrb2-/-) mice (124?±?2 to 162?±?3?mmHg) during 2 weeks. Interestingly, 8%HS caused a more profound and earlier ANG II-induced hypertension in UB(Bdkrb2-/-) (129?±?2 to 166?±?3?mmHg) as compared to control (128?±?2 to 158?±?2?mmHg) and it was accompanied by body weight loss and increased mortality. In conclusion, targeted inactivation of B2R in the renal collecting duct does not cause salt-sensitivity; however, collecting duct B2R attenuates the hypertensive actions of ANG II under conditions of very high salt intake.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 (PCSK6) is a secretory protein that activates corin in the heart. Higher circulating levels of corin are associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This study aimed to determine the role of serum PCSK6 and corin levels in predicting cardiovascular outcomes in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS:In total, 565 patients who had undergone coronary angiography were enrolled. Serum PCSK6 and corin levels were determined before the administration of contrast media. In this study, coronary revascularization, acute myocardial infarction, acute stroke, and death were defined as cardiovascular outcomes. All patients were followed up for at least one year after coronary angiography or until the occurrence of death. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 691 days, 67 patients (15.7%) developed composite cardiovascular outcomes after coronary angiography, including 51 incidents of coronary revascularization, 7 instances of acute myocardial infarction, 2 acute strokes, and 15 deaths. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and all significant variables in the univariate analysis, serum levels of neither PCSK6 nor corin were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. This correlation remained insignificant in patients with underlying hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CAD, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, in patients without CKD, higher serum PCSK6 levels were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes (hazard ratio 1.380; 95% confidence interval 1.023-1.862). CONCLUSIONS:We found no association between cardiovascular outcomes and pre-procedural serum levels of PCSK6 or corin in patients undergoing coronary angiography. However, an increased risk was seen in non-CKD patients with higher PCSK6 levels. Further studies are needed to verify these results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Corin is a serine protease that converts pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a cardiac hormone that regulates salt-water balance and blood pressure. ANP is degraded by natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR). This study was to determine if aberrant pro-ANP/corin/NPR signaling is present in maternal vascular system in preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN:Maternal venous blood was obtained from 197 pregnant women (84 normotensive, 16 complicated with chronic hypertension (CHT), 11 mild and 86 severe preeclampsia). Plasma corin and pro-ANP concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Maternal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained from 12 pregnant women with cesarean section delivery (6 normotensive and 6 preeclampsia). Vascular ANP and its receptors NPR-A, NPR-B, and NPR-C expression were examined by immunostaining of paraffin embedded subcutaneous fat tissue sections. RESULTS:Corin concentrations were significantly higher in mild (2.78?±?0.67?ng/ml, p?<?.05) and severe (2.53?±?0.18?ng/ml, p?<?.01) preeclampsia than in normotensive (1.58?±?0.08?ng/ml) and CHT (1.55?±?0.20?ng/ml) groups. Pro-ANP concentrations were significantly higher in CHT (1.59?±?0.53?ng/ml, p?<?.05) and severe preeclampsia (1.42?±?0.24?ng/ml, p?<?.01) than in normotensive (0.48?±?0.06?ng/ml) and mild preeclampsia (0.52?±?0.09?ng/ml) groups. ANP and NPR-B expression was undetectable in maternal vessels from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies, but reduced NPR-A expression and increased NPR-C expression was found in maternal vessel endothelium in preeclampsia. CONCLUSIONS:ANP is a vasodilator and NPR-C is a clearance receptor for ANP. The finding of upregulation of NPR-C expression suggests that circulating ANP clearance or degradation is increased in preeclampsia. These results also suggest that pro-ANP/corin/NPR signaling is dominant in the vascular system in preeclampsia.
Project description:We have demonstrated that Na/K-ATPase acts as a receptor for reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulating renal Na+ handling and blood pressure. TALLYHO/JngJ (TH) mice are believed to mimic the state of obesity in humans with a polygenic background of type 2 diabetes. This present work is to investigate the role of Na/K-ATPase signaling in TH mice, focusing on susceptibility to hypertension due to chronic excess salt ingestion. Age-matched male TH and the control C57BL/6J (B6) mice were fed either normal diet or high salt diet (HS: 2, 4, and 8% NaCl) to construct the renal function curve. Na/K-ATPase signaling including c-Src and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, as well as protein carbonylation (a commonly used marker for enhanced ROS production), were assessed in the kidney cortex tissues by Western blot. Urinary and plasma Na+ levels were measured by flame photometry. When compared to B6 mice, TH mice developed salt-sensitive hypertension and responded to a high salt diet with a significant rise in systolic blood pressure indicative of a blunted pressure-natriuresis relationship. These findings were evidenced by a decrease in total and fractional Na+ excretion and a right-shifted renal function curve with a reduced slope. This salt-sensitive hypertension correlated with changes in the Na/K-ATPase signaling. Specifically, Na/K-ATPase signaling was not able to be stimulated by HS due to the activated baseline protein carbonylation, phosphorylation of c-Src and ERK1/2. These findings support the emerging view that Na/K-ATPase signaling contributes to metabolic disease and suggest that malfunction of the Na/K-ATPase signaling may promote the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in obesity. The increased basal level of renal Na/K-ATPase-dependent redox signaling may be responsible for the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in polygenic obese TH mice.
Project description:Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-mediated natriuretic response is a well-established cardiac endocrine function. Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates ANP in the heart. Corin expression has been detected in non-cardiac tissues including the kidney. Here we examined corin, pro-ANP/ANP and natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) expression in human renal segments. By immunostaining and in situ hybridization, we found similar corin, pro-ANP/ANP and NPR-A protein and mRNA expression in human renal segments. The expression was most abundant in the proximal convoluted tubules and the medullary connecting ducts. In the proximal tubules, corin protein was present in the apical membrane region underneath the brush border where the ANP-degrading protease neprilysin was abundant. These results suggest that corin-mediated pro-ANP activation may occur in renal segments and that locally produced ANP may act in an autocrine manner to regulate sodium and water reabsorption in situ Our results also point to the proximal convoluted tubules as a major site for local ANP action. Such a renal corin/ANP autocrine mechanism may differ from the cardiac corin/ANP endocrine mechanism in regulating sodium homoeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions.
Project description:Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) represents an attractive therapeutic target in hypertension and heart failure. The biologically active form of ANP is produced by the cardiac serine protease corin, and modulation of its activity might therefore represent a novel approach for ANP augmentation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pervasive regulators of gene expression, but their potential role in regulating corin activity has not been elucidated. Our aim was to systematically identify and characterize miRNA regulators of corin activity in human cardiomyocytes. An assay for measuring serine protease activity in human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived cardiomyocytes was used to perform a comprehensive screening of miRNA family inhibitors (n?=?42). miRNA 1-3p (miR-1-3p) was identified as a potent inhibitor of corin activity. The interaction between miR-1-3p and a specific target site in the CORIN 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) was confirmed through argonaute 2 (AGO2)-RNA immunoprecipitation and reporter assays. Inhibition of miR-1-3p resulted in upregulation of CORIN gene and protein expression, as well as a concomitant increase in extracellular ANP. Additionally, miR-1-3p was found to interact with and inhibit the expression of several transcriptional activators of ANP gene expression. In conclusion, we have identified a novel regulator of corin activity and ANP biogenesis in human cardiomyocytes that might be of potential future therapeutic utility.
Project description:Dilated cardiomyopathy is a major cause of heart failure (HF) that affects millions. Corin cleaves and biologically activates pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP). High corin levels reduce the development of systolic dysfunction and HF in experimental dilated cardiomyopathy. Yet, patients with significant HF unexpectedly show low corin levels with high plasma ANP/BNP levels. Therefore, we examined the relationship between cardiac corin expression, ANP/BNP levels, and the stages of HF. We used a well-established, dilated cardiomyopathy model to evaluate gene and protein expression as mice longitudinally developed Stages A-D HF. Cardiac systolic function (ejection fraction) continuously declined over time (P<0.001). Cardiac corin transcripts were decreased at early Stage B HF and remained low through Stages C and D (P<0.001). Cardiac corin levels were positively correlated with systolic function (r=0.96, P=0.003) and inversely with lung water (r=-0.92, P=0.001). In contrast, cardiac pro-ANP/BNP transcripts increased later (Stages C and D) and plasma levels rose only with terminal HF (Stage D, P<0.001). Immunoreactive plasma ANP and BNP levels were positively associated with plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels (r=0.82, P=0.01 and r=0.8, P=0.02, respectively). In experimental dilated cardiomyopathy, corin levels declined early with progressive systolic dysfunction before the development of HF, whereas significant increases in plasma ANP, BNP, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels were found only in later stage (C and D) HF. This dyssynchrony in expression of corin versus ANP/BNP may impair cleavage activation of pro-natriuretic peptides, and thereby promote the transition from earlier to later stage HF.