Ancestry-specific and sex-specific risk alleles identified in a genome-wide gene-by-alcohol dependence interaction study of risky sexual behaviors.
ABSTRACT: We previously mapped loci for the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genome-wide gene-by-alcohol dependence interaction (GW-GxAD) analyses of risky sexual behaviors (RSB). This study extends those findings by analyzing the ancestry- and sex-specific AD-stratified effects on RSB. We examined the concordance of findings for the AD-stratified GWAS and the GW-GxAD analysis of RSB, with concordance defined as genome-wide significance in one analysis and at least nominal significance in the second analysis. A total of 2,173 African-American (AA) and 1,751 European-American (EA) subjects were investigated. Information regarding RSB (lifetime experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners) and DSM-IV diagnosis of lifetime AD were derived from the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA). In our ancestry- and sex-specific analyses, we identified four independent genome-wide significant (GWS) loci (p?
Project description:We report a GWAS of alcohol dependence (AD) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations, with replication in independent samples of EAs, AAs and Germans. Our sample for discovery and replication was 16?087 subjects, the largest sample for AD GWAS to date. Numerous genome-wide significant (GWS) associations were identified, many novel. Most associations were population specific, but in several cases were GWS in EAs and AAs for different SNPs at the same locus,showing biological convergence across populations. We confirmed well-known risk loci mapped to alcohol-metabolizing enzyme genes, notably ADH1B (EAs: Arg48His, P=1.17 × 10(-31); AAs: Arg369Cys, P=6.33 × 10(-17)) and ADH1C in AAs (Thr151Thr, P=4.94 × 10(-10)), and identified novel risk loci mapping to the ADH gene cluster on chromosome 4 and extending centromerically beyond it to include GWS associations at LOC100507053 in AAs (P=2.63 × 10(-11)), PDLIM5 in EAs (P=2.01 × 10(-8)), and METAP in AAs (P=3.35 × 10(-8)). We also identified a novel GWS association (1.17 × 10(-10)) mapped to chromosome 2 at rs1437396, between MTIF2 and CCDC88A, across all of the EA and AA cohorts, with supportive gene expression evidence, and population-specific GWS for markers on chromosomes 5, 9 and 19. Several of the novel associations implicate direct involvement of, or interaction with, genes previously identified as schizophrenia risk loci. Confirmation of known AD risk loci supports the overall validity of the study; the novel loci are worthy of genetic and biological follow-up. The findings support a convergence of risk genes (but not necessarily risk alleles) between populations, and, to a lesser extent, between psychiatric traits.
Project description:Genetic influences on alcohol and drug dependence partially overlap, however, specific loci underlying this overlap remain unclear. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a phenotype representing alcohol or illicit drug dependence (ANYDEP) among 7291 European-Americans (EA; 2927 cases) and 3132 African-Americans (AA: 1315 cases) participating in the family-based Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. ANYDEP was heritable (h 2 in EA = 0.60, AA = 0.37). The AA GWAS identified three regions with genome-wide significant (GWS; P?<?5E-08) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosomes 3 (rs34066662, rs58801820) and 13 (rs75168521, rs78886294), and an insertion-deletion on chromosome 5 (chr5:141988181). No polymorphisms reached GWS in the EA. One GWS region (chromosome 1: rs1890881) emerged from a trans-ancestral meta-analysis (EA?+?AA) of ANYDEP, and was attributable to alcohol dependence in both samples. Four genes (AA: CRKL, DZIP3, SBK3; EA: P2RX6) and four sets of genes were significantly enriched within biological pathways for hemostasis and signal transduction. GWS signals did not replicate in two independent samples but there was weak evidence for association between rs1890881 and alcohol intake in the UK Biobank. Among 118 AA and 481 EA individuals from the Duke Neurogenetics Study, rs75168521 and rs1890881 genotypes were associated with variability in reward-related ventral striatum activation. This study identified novel loci for substance dependence and provides preliminary evidence that these variants are also associated with individual differences in neural reward reactivity. Gene discovery efforts in non-European samples with distinct patterns of substance use may lead to the identification of novel ancestry-specific genetic markers of risk.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Genetic loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified in whites of European ancestry, but the genetic architecture of AD among other populations is less understood. METHODS:We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for late-onset AD in Stage 1 sample including whites of European Ancestry, African-Americans, Japanese, and Israeli-Arabs assembled by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. Suggestive results from Stage 1 from novel loci were followed up using summarized results in the International Genomics Alzheimer's Project GWAS dataset. RESULTS:Genome-wide significant (GWS) associations in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based tests (P < 5 × 10-8) were identified for SNPs in PFDN1/HBEGF, USP6NL/ECHDC3, and BZRAP1-AS1 and for the interaction of the (apolipoprotein E) APOE ?4 allele with NFIC SNP. We also obtained GWS evidence (P < 2.7 × 10-6) for gene-based association in the total sample with a novel locus, TPBG (P = 1.8 × 10-6). DISCUSSION:Our findings highlight the value of transethnic studies for identifying novel AD susceptibility loci.
Project description:Outcomes related to disordered metabolism are common in alcohol dependence (AD). To investigate alterations in the regulation of body mass that occur in the context of AD, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) with AD. Subjects were recruited for genetic studies of AD or drug dependence and evaluated using the Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We investigated a total of 2587 AAs and 2959 EAs with DSM-IV AD diagnosis. In the stage 1 sample (N?=?4137), we observed three genome-wide significant (GWS) single-nucleotide polymorphism associations, rs200889048 (P?=?8.98?*?10-12 ) and rs12490016 (P?=?1.44?*?10-8 ) in EAs and rs1630623 (P?=?5.14?*?10-9 ) in AAs and EAs meta-analyzed. In the stage 2 sample (N?=?1409), we replicated 278, 253 and 168 of the stage 1 suggestive loci (P?<?5*10-4 ) in AAs, EAs, and AAs and EAs meta-analyzed, respectively. A meta-analysis of stage 1 and stage 2 samples (N?=?5546) identified two additional GWS signals: rs28562191 in EAs (P?=?4.46?*?10-8 ) and rs56950471 in AAs (P?=?1.57?*?10-9 ). Three of the GWS loci identified (rs200889048, rs12490016 and rs1630623) were not previously reported by GWAS of BMI in the general population, and two of them raise interesting hypotheses: rs12490016-a regulatory variant located within LINC00880, where there are other GWAS-identified variants associated with birth size, adiposity in newborns and bulimia symptoms, which also interact with social stress in relation to birth size; rs1630623-a regulatory variant related to ALDH1A1, a gene involved in alcohol metabolism and adipocyte plasticity. These loci offer molecular insights regarding the regulatory mechanisms of body mass in the context of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of nicotine dependence defined on the basis of scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations. METHODS:Our sample, from the one used in our previous GWAS, included only subjects who had smoked >100 cigarettes lifetime (2114 EA and 2602 AA subjects) and an additional 927 AA and 2003 EA subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment project [via the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGAP)]. GWAS analysis considered Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score as an ordinal trait, separately in each population and sample and by combining the results in meta-analysis. We also conducted analyses that were adjusted for other substance use disorder criteria in a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) subset. RESULTS:In EAs, one chromosome 7 intergenic region was genome-wide significant (GWS): rs13225753, p = 3.48 × 10(-8) (adjusted). In AAs, GWS associations were observed at numerous SNPs mapped to a region on chromosome 14 of >305,000 base pairs (minimal p = 4.74 × 10(-10)). Two chromosome 8 regions were associated: p = 4.45 × 10(-8) at DLC1 SNP rs289519 (unadjusted) and p = 1.10 × 10(-9) at rs6996964 (adjusted for other substances), located between CSGALNACT1 and INTS10. No GWS associations were observed at the chromosome 15 nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) previously associated with nicotine dependence and smoking quantity traits. TSNAX-DISC1 SNP rs821722 (p = 1.46 × 10(-7)) was the most significant result with substantial contributions from both populations; we previously identified DISC1 associations with opioid dependence. Pathway analysis identified association with nitric oxide synthase and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathways in EAs. CONCLUSIONS:The key risk loci identified, which require replication, offer novel insights into nicotine dependence biology.
Project description:To identify genetic mechanisms involved in the interplay of risky sexual behaviors (RSBs) and alcohol dependence (AD), we conducted genome-wide gene-by-AD (GW-GxAD) analyses of RSB in 3924 alcohol-exposed and sexually experienced subjects. RSBs were defined as a score based on lifetime experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners. Diagnosis of lifetime AD was defined by DSM-IV criteria. To follow-up the genetic findings, functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses were conducted in an independent sample. A trans-population genome-wide significant signal was identified in LHPP (rs34997829; z=-5.573, p=2.51 × 10-8) in the GxAD analysis that also showed associations in the AD-stratified association analysis (AD z=-2.032 and non-AD z=4.903). The clinical relevance of the result was confirmed by the significant interaction between LHPP rs34997829 and AD with respect to self-reported sexually transmitted disease (STD; z=-2.809, p=4.97 × 10-3). The neuroimaging follow-up analysis of LHPP rs34997829 showed reduced power of the left superior frontal gyrus (t=-3.386, p=9.56 × 10-4) and increased power at the right amygdala (t=3.287, p=1.33 × 10-3) in the resting amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis; and reduced activation of the anterior cingulate region (t=-2.961, p=3.69 × 10-3) in the monetary incentive delay task. In conclusion, LHPP locus is associated to AD-RSB interaction; and with brain circuitries previously implicated in the inhibition of risky behavior and impulsiveness, emotional regulation, and impulse control/error monitoring. Thus, LHPP is a strong candidate to influence RSB and STD risk in the context of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Over the past decade genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been applied to aid in the understanding of the biology of traits. The success of this approach is governed by the underlying effect sizes carried by the true risk variants and the corresponding statistical power to observe such effects given the study design and sample size under investigation. Previous ASD GWAS have identified genome-wide significant (GWS) risk loci; however, these studies were of only of low statistical power to identify GWS loci at the lower effect sizes (odds ratio (OR) <1.15). METHODS:We conducted a large-scale coordinated international collaboration to combine independent genotyping data to improve the statistical power and aid in robust discovery of GWS loci. This study uses genome-wide genotyping data from a discovery sample (7387 ASD cases and 8567 controls) followed by meta-analysis of summary statistics from two replication sets (7783 ASD cases and 11359 controls; and 1369 ASD cases and 137308 controls). RESULTS:We observe a GWS locus at 10q24.32 that overlaps several genes including PITX3, which encodes a transcription factor identified as playing a role in neuronal differentiation and CUEDC2 previously reported to be associated with social skills in an independent population cohort. We also observe overlap with regions previously implicated in schizophrenia which was further supported by a strong genetic correlation between these disorders (Rg?=?0.23; P?=?9?×?10-6). We further combined these Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) ASD GWAS data with the recent PGC schizophrenia GWAS to identify additional regions which may be important in a common neurodevelopmental phenotype and identified 12 novel GWS loci. These include loci previously implicated in ASD such as FOXP1 at 3p13, ATP2B2 at 3p25.3, and a 'neurodevelopmental hub' on chromosome 8p11.23. CONCLUSIONS:This study is an important step in the ongoing endeavour to identify the loci which underpin the common variant signal in ASD. In addition to novel GWS loci, we have identified a significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia and association of ASD with several neurodevelopmental-related genes such as EXT1, ASTN2, MACROD2, and HDAC4.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified several risk loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nonetheless, these loci do not explain the entire susceptibility of the disease, suggesting that other genetic contributions remain to be identified. Here, we performed a meta-analysis combining data of 4,569 individuals (2,540 cases and 2,029 healthy controls) derived from three publicly available GWAS in AD and replicated a broad genomic region (>248,000 bp) associated with the disease near the APOE/TOMM40 locus in chromosome 19. To detect minor effect size contributions that could help to explain the remaining genetic risk, we conducted network-based pathway analyses either by extracting gene-wise p-values (GW), defined as the single strongest association signal within a gene, or calculated a more stringent gene-based association p-value using the extended Simes (GATES) procedure. Comparison of these strategies revealed that ontological sub-networks (SNs) involved in glutamate signaling were significantly overrepresented in AD (p<2.7×10(-11), p<1.9×10(-11); GW and GATES, respectively). Notably, glutamate signaling SNs were also found to be significantly overrepresented (p<5.1×10(-8)) in the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study, which was used as a targeted replication sample. Interestingly, components of the glutamate signaling SNs are coordinately expressed in disease-related tissues, which are tightly related to known pathological hallmarks of AD. Our findings suggest that genetic variation within glutamate signaling contributes to the remaining genetic risk of AD and support the notion that functional biological networks should be targeted in future therapies aimed to prevent or treat this devastating neurological disorder.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) have reliably identified variation within alcohol metabolizing genes (eg, ADH1B) but have inconsistently located other signals, which may be partially attributable to symptom heterogeneity underlying the disorder. We conducted GWAS of DSM-IV AD (primary analysis), DSM-IV AD criterion count (secondary analysis), and individual dependence criteria (tertiary analysis) among 7418 (1121 families) European American (EA) individuals from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Trans-ancestral meta-analyses combined these results with data from 3175 (585 families) African-American (AA) individuals from COGA. In the EA GWAS, three loci were genome-wide significant: rs1229984 in ADH1B for AD criterion count (P = 4.16E-11) and Desire to cut drinking (P = 1.21E-11); rs188227250 (chromosome 8, Drinking more than intended, P = 6.72E-09); rs1912461 (chromosome 15, Time spent drinking, P = 1.77E-08). In the trans-ancestral meta-analysis, rs1229984 was associated with multiple phenotypes and two additional loci were genome-wide significant: rs61826952 (chromosome 1, DSM-IV AD, P = 8.42E-11); rs7597960 (chromosome 2, Time spent drinking, P = 1.22E-08). Associations with rs1229984 and rs18822750 were replicated in independent datasets. Polygenic risk scores derived from the EA GWAS of AD predicted AD in two EA datasets (P?<?.01; 0.61%-1.82% of variance). Identified novel variants (ie, rs1912461, rs61826952) were associated with differential central evoked theta power (loss - gain; P = .0037) and reward-related ventral striatum reactivity (P = .008), respectively. This study suggests that studying individual criteria may unveil new insights into the genetic etiology of AD liability.
Project description:APOE ?4, the most significant genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), may mask effects of other loci. We re-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) Consortium in APOE ?4+ (10?352 cases and 9207 controls) and APOE ?4- (7184 cases and 26?968 controls) subgroups as well as in the total sample testing for interaction between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and APOE ?4 status. Suggestive associations (P<1 × 10(-4)) in stage 1 were evaluated in an independent sample (stage 2) containing 4203 subjects (APOE ?4+: 1250 cases and 536 controls; APOE ?4-: 718 cases and 1699 controls). Among APOE ?4- subjects, novel genome-wide significant (GWS) association was observed with 17 SNPs (all between KANSL1 and LRRC37A on chromosome 17 near MAPT) in a meta-analysis of the stage 1 and stage 2 data sets (best SNP, rs2732703, P=5·8 × 10(-9)). Conditional analysis revealed that rs2732703 accounted for association signals in the entire 100-kilobase region that includes MAPT. Except for previously identified AD loci showing stronger association in APOE ?4+ subjects (CR1 and CLU) or APOE ?4- subjects (MS4A6A/MS4A4A/MS4A6E), no other SNPs were significantly associated with AD in a specific APOE genotype subgroup. In addition, the finding in the stage 1 sample that AD risk is significantly influenced by the interaction of APOE with rs1595014 in TMEM106B (P=1·6 × 10(-7)) is noteworthy, because TMEM106B variants have previously been associated with risk of frontotemporal dementia. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed that rs113986870, one of the GWS SNPs near rs2732703, is significantly associated with four KANSL1 probes that target transcription of the first translated exon and an untranslated exon in hippocampus (P ? 1.3 × 10(-8)), frontal cortex (P ? 1.3 × 10(-9)) and temporal cortex (P?1.2 × 10(-11)). Rs113986870 is also strongly associated with a MAPT probe that targets transcription of alternatively spliced exon 3 in frontal cortex (P=9.2 × 10(-6)) and temporal cortex (P=2.6 × 10(-6)). Our APOE-stratified GWAS is the first to show GWS association for AD with SNPs in the chromosome 17q21.31 region. Replication of this finding in independent samples is needed to verify that SNPs in this region have significantly stronger effects on AD risk in persons lacking APOE ?4 compared with persons carrying this allele, and if this is found to hold, further examination of this region and studies aimed at deciphering the mechanism(s) are warranted.