PIWIL1/piRNA-DQ593109 Regulates the Permeability of the Blood-Tumor Barrier via the MEG3/miR-330-5p/RUNX3 Axis.
ABSTRACT: The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) restricts the efficient delivery of anti-glioma drugs to cranial glioma tissues. Increased BTB permeability may allow greater delivery of the therapeutic agents. Increasing evidence has revealed that PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in tumor progression. However, whether PIWI proteins and piRNAs regulate BTB permeability remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that the PIWIL1/piRNA-DQ593109 (piR-DQ593109) complex was the predominant regulator of BTB permeability. Briefly, PIWIL1 was upregulated in glioma endothelial cells (GECs). Furthermore, piR-DQ593109 was also overexpressed in GECs, as revealed via a piRNA microarray. Downregulation of PIWIL1 or piR-DQ593109 increased the permeability of the BTB. Moreover, PIWIL1 and piR-DQ593109, which formed a piRNA-induced silencing complex, degraded the long non-coding RNA maternally expressed 3 (MEG3) in a sequenced-dependent manner. Furthermore, restoring MEG3 released post-transcriptional inhibition of Runt related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) by sponging miR-330-5p. In addition, RUNX3 bounded to the promoter regions and reduced the promoter activities of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5, which significantly impaired the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. In conclusion, downregulating PIWIL1 and piR-DQ593109 increased BTB permeability through the MEG3/miR-330-5p/RUNX3 axis. These data may provide insight into glioma treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) strongly restricts the entry of anti-glioma drugs into tumor tissues and thus decreases chemotherapy efficacy. Malignant gliomas are highly invasive tumours that use the perivascular space for invasion and co-opt existing vessels as satellite tumor form. Because regulation of the effect of noncoding RNA on BBB function is attracting growing attention, we investigated the effects of noncoding RNA on the permeability of glioma conditioned normal BBB and the mechanism involved using PIWI-associated RNA piR-DQ590027 as a starting point. METHODS:The mRNA levels of MIR17HG, miR-153, miR-377, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 were determined using real-time PCR. Transient cell transfection was performed using Lipofectamine 3000 reagent. TEER and HRP flux were applied to measure the permeability of glioma conditioned normal BBB. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to measure ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 levels. Reporter vector construction and a luciferase reporter assay were performed to detect the binding sites of MIR17HG and piR-DQ590027, MIR17HG and miR-153 (miR-377), and FOXR2 and miR-153 (miR-377). RNA immunoprecipitation was used to test the interaction between miR-153 (miR-377) and its target proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to detect the interaction between the transcription factor FOXR2 and ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. RESULTS:piR-DQ590027 was expressed at low levels in glioma-conditioned ECs (GECs) of the in vitro glioma conditioned normal BBB model. Overexpression of piR-DQ590027 down-regulated the expressions of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and increased the permeability of glioma conditioned normal BBB. MIR17HG had high expression in GECs but miR-153 and miR-377 had low expression. piR-DQ590027 bound to and negatively regulated MIR17HG. FOXR2 was a downstream target of miR-153 and miR-377; MIR17HG bound separately to miR-153 and miR-377 and negatively regulated their ability to mediate FOXR2 expression. FOXR2 associated with the promoter regions of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 in GECs to promote their transcription. CONCLUSION:The piR-DQ590027/MIR17HG/miR-153 (miR-377)/FOXR2 pathway plays an important role in regulating glioma conditioned normal BBB permeability and provides a new target for the comprehensive treatment of glioma.
Project description:Blood-tumour barrier (BTB) has been known to significantly attenuate the efficacy of chemotherapy for glioma. In this report, we identified that insulin-like grown factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) was over-expressed in glioma microvessel and glioma endothelial cells (GECs). Knockdown of IGF2BP2 decreased the expression of lncRNA FBXL19-AS1 and tight junction-related proteins, thereby promoting BTB permeability. FBXL19-AS1 was over-expressed and more enriched in the cytoplasm of GECs. In addition, FBXL19-AS1 could bind to 3'-UTR of ZNF765 mRNA and down-regulate ZNF765 mRNA expression through STAU1-mediated mRNA decay (SMD). The low expression of ZNF765 was discovered in GECs and verified to increase BTB permeability by inhibiting the promoter activities of tight junction-related proteins. Meanwhile, ZNF765 also inhibited the transcriptional activity of IGF2BP2, thereby forming a feedback loop in regulating the BTB permeability. Single or combined application of silenced IGF2BP2 and FBXL19-AS1 improved the delivery and antitumor efficiency of doxorubicin (DOX). In general, our study revealed the regulation mechanism of IGF2BP2/FBXL19-AS1/ZNF765 axis on BTB permeability, which may provide valuable insight into treatment strategy for glioma.
Project description:The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the transport of chemotherapeutic drugs to brain tumor tissues and impacts the treatment of glioma. Long non-coding RNAs play critical roles in various biological processes of tumors; however, the function of these in BTB permeability is still unclear. In this study, we have identified that long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 174 (linc00174) was upregulated in glioma endothelial cells (GECs) from glioma tissues. Additionally, linc00174 was also upregulated in GECs from the BTB model in vitro. Knock down of linc00174 increased BTB permeability and reduced the expression of the tight junction-related proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Both bioinformatics data and results of luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that linc00174 regulated BTB permeability by binding to miR-138-5p and miR-150-5p. Furthermore, knock down of linc00174 inhibited FOSL2 expression via upregulating miR-138-5p and miR-150-5p. FOSL2 interacted with the promoter regions and upregulated the promoter activity of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5, and linc00174 in GECs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the linc00174/miR-138-5p (miR-150-5p)/FOSL2 feedback loop played an essential role in regulating BTB permeability.
Project description:Homeobox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), as a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), has been considered to play critical roles in the biological properties of various tumors. The purposes of this study were to investigate the role and possible molecular mechanisms of HOTAIR in regulating the permeability of blood tumor barrier (BTB) <i>in vitro</i>. Our present study elucidated that the expressions of HOTAIR and upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) was up-regulated, but miR-148b-3p was down-regulated in glioma microvascular endothelial cells (GECs). Knockdown of HOTAIR could increase the permeability of BTB as well as down-regulated the expressions of tight junction related proteins ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5, but up-regulated miR-148b-3p expressions in GECs. Meanwhile, dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that HOTAIR was a target RNA of miR-148b-3p. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-148b-3p increased the permeability of BTB by down-regulating the expressions of tight junction related proteins and USF1 in GECs, and vice versa. And further result revealed USF1 was a target of miR-148b-3p. Silence of USF1 increased the permeability of BTB duo to their interaction with the promoters of <i>ZO-1, occludin</i>, and <i>claudin-5</i> in GECs. Taken together, our finding indicated that knockdown of HOTAIR increased BTB permeability via binding to miR-148b-3p, which further reducing tight junction related proteins in GECs by targeting USF1. Thus, HOTAIR will attract more attention since it can serve as a potential target of drug delivery across BTB and may provide novel strategies for glioma treatment.
Project description:The presence of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB) severely impedes the transport of anti-neoplasm drugs to the central nervous system, affecting the therapeutic effects of glioma. Glioma endothelial cells (GECs) are the main structural basis of the BTB. Circular RNA is considered to be an important regulator of endothelial cell growth. In this study, we found that polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and circRNA_001160 were remarkably upregulated in GECs. Knockdown of PTBP1 or circRNA_001160 significantly increased BTB permeability, respectively. As a molecular sponge of miR-195-5p, circRNA_001160 attenuated its negative regulation of the target gene ETV1 by adsorbing miR-195-5p. In addition, ETV1 was overexpression in GECs. ETV1 bounded to the promoter regions of tight junction-related proteins and increased the promoter activities, which significantly promoted the expression levels of tight junction-related proteins. The present study showed that the combined application of PTBP1, circRNA_001160, and miR-195-5p with the anti-tumor drug Dox effectively promoted Dox through BTB and extremely induced the apoptosis of glioma cells. Our results demonstrated that the PTBP1/circRNA_001160/miR-195-5p/ETV1 axis was critical in the regulation of BTB permeability and provided new targets for the treatment of glioma.
Project description:Targeted cancer therapy aims to achieve specific elimination of cancerous but not normal cells. Recently, PIWI proteins, a subfamily of the PAZ-PIWI domain (PPD) protein family, have emerged as promising candidates for targeted cancer therapy. PPD proteins are essential for small noncoding RNA pathways. The Argonaute subfamily partners with microRNA and small interfering RNA, whereas the PIWI subfamily partners with PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA). Both PIWI proteins and piRNA are mostly expressed in the germline and best known for their function in transposon silencing, with no detectable function in mammalian somatic tissues. However, PIWI proteins become aberrantly expressed in multiple types of somatic cancers, thus gaining interest in targeted therapy. Despite this, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of PIWI proteins in cancer. Here we report that one of the four PIWI proteins in humans, PIWIL1, is highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Knocking out the PIWIL1 gene (<i>PIWIL1-</i>KO) drastically reduces gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration, metastasis, and tumorigenesis. RNA deep sequencing of gastric cancer cell line SNU-1 reveals that KO significantly changes the transcriptome, causing the up-regulation of most of its associated transcripts. Surprisingly, few bona fide piRNAs exist in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, abolishing the piRNA-binding activity of PIWIL1 does not affect its oncogenic function. Thus, PIWIL1 function in gastric cancer cells is independent of piRNA. This piRNA-independent regulation involves interaction with the UPF1-mediated nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) mechanism. Altogether, our findings reveal a piRNA-independent function of PIWIL1 in promoting gastric cancer.
Project description:Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) presents a major obstacle to brain drug delivery. Therefore, it is urgent to enhance BTB permeability for the treatment of glioma. In this study, we demonstrated that MIAT, ZAK, and phosphorylated NF?B-p65 (p-NF?B-p65) were upregulated, while miR-140-3p was downregulated in glioma-exposed endothelial cells (GECs) of BTB compared with those in endothelial cells cocultured with astrocytes (ECs) of blood-brain barrier (BBB). MIAT inhibited miR-140-3p expression, increased the expression of ZAK, enhanced the ratio of p-NF?B-p65:NF?B-p65, and promoted the endothelial leakage of BTB. Our current study revealed that miR-140-3p was complementary to the ZAK 3'untranslated regions (3'-UTR), and luciferase activity of ZAK was inhibited by miR-140-3p in 293T cells. MiR-140-3p silencing resulted in an increase in BTB permeability by targeting ZAK, while overexpression of miR-140-3p had the opposite results in GECs of BTB. Overexpression of ZAK induced an increase in BTB permeability, and this effect was related to ZAK's ability to mediate phosphorylation of NF?B-p65. Conversely, ZAK silencing get opposite results in GECs of BTB. As a molecular sponge of miR-140-3p, MIAT attenuated its negative regulation of the target gene ZAK by adsorbing miR-140-3p. P-NF?B-p65 as a transcription factor negatively regulated the expression of TJ-associated proteins by means of chip assay and luciferase assay. Single or combined application of MIAT and miR-140-3p effectively promoted antitumor drug doxorubicin (Dox) across BTB to induce apoptosis of glioma cells. In summary, MIAT functioned as a miR-140-3p sponge to regulate the expression of its target gene ZAK, which contribution to phosphorylation of NF?B-p65 was associated with an increase in BTB permeability by down-regulating the expression of TJ associated proteins, thereby promoting Dox delivery across BTB. These results might provide a novel strategy and target for chemotherapy of glioma.
Project description:The existence of blood-tumor barrier (BTB) severely restricts the efficient delivery of antitumor drugs to cranial glioma tissues. Various strategies have been explored to increase BTB permeability. RNA-binding proteins and circular RNAs have recently emerged as potential regulators of endothelial cells functions. In this study, RNA-binding protein KH RNA-binding domain containing, signal transduction associated 3 (KHDRBS3) and circular RNA DENND4C (cDENND4C) were enriched in GECs. KHDRBS3 bound to cDENND4C and increased its stability. The knockdown of cDENND4C increased the permeability of BTB via downregulating the expressions of tight junction-related proteins. The miR-577 was lower expressed in GECs. The overexpressed miR-577 increased the permeability of BTB by reducing the tight junction-related protein expressions, and vice versa. Furthermore, cDENND4C acted as a molecular sponge of miR-577, which bound to miR-577 and inhibited its negative regulation of target genes ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 to regulate BTB permeability. Single or combined treatment of KHDRBS3, cDENND4C, and miR-577 effectively promoted antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) across BTB to induce apoptosis of glioma cells. Collectively, the present study indicated that KHDRBS3 could regulate BTB permeability through the cDENND4C/miR-577 axis, which enhanced doxorubicin delivery across BTB. These findings may provide a novel strategy for chemotherapy of brain tumors.
Project description:Recent studies indicate circular RNAs are related to dysregulation of vascular endothelial cell function, yet the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, we characterized the functional role of circular RNA USP1 (circ-USP1) in the regulation of the blood-tumour barrier (BTB) permeability and the potential mechanisms. In the current study, the circ-USP1 expressing level was up-regulated in glioma cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (GECs) of the BTB model in vitro. Knockdown of circ-USP1 disrupted the barrier integrity, increased its permeability as well as reduced tight junction-related protein claudin-5, occludin and ZO-1 expressions in GECs. Bioinformatic prediction and luciferase assay indicated that circ-USP1 bound to miR-194-5p and suppressed its activity. MiR-194-5p contributed to circ-USP1 knockdown-induced increase of BTB permeability via targeting and down-regulating transcription factor FLI1. Furthermore, FLI1 regulated the expressions of claudin-5, occludin and ZO-1 in GECs through binding to their promoter regions. Single or combined treatment of circ-USP1 and miR-194-5p effectively promoted anti-tumour drug doxorubicin across BTB to induce apoptosis of glioma cells. Overall, this present study identified the crucial regulation of circ-USP1 on BTB permeability via miR-194-5p/FLI1 axis-mediated regulation of tight junction proteins, which might facilitate the development of therapeutics against human gliomas.
Project description:Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) constitutes an efficient organization of tight junctions that impairs the delivery of therapeutic drugs. However, the methods and molecular mechanisms underlying the BTB opening remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of various biologic processes and therapeutic targets. In this study, we have identified microRNA-181a (miR-181a) as a critical miRNA in opening BTB. MicroRNA-181a expression was upregulated in glioma endothelial cells (GECs), which were obtained by coculturing endothelial cells (ECs) with glioma cells. Overexpression of miR-181a resulted in an impaired and permeability increased BTB, and meanwhile reduced the expression of zonula occluden (ZO)-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6), a transcription factor of the zinc-finger family, was downregulated in GECs. Mechanistic investigations defined it as a direct and functional downstream target of miR-181a, which was involved in the regulation of BTB permeability and the expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Furthermore, luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that KLF6 upregulated the promoter activities and interacted with the promoters of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 in GECs. Collectively, we showed the possibility that overexpression of miR-181a contributes to the increased permeability of BTB by targeting KLF6, thereby revealing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of brain gliomas.