Simple geometry tribological study of osteochondral graft implantation in the knee.
ABSTRACT: Robust preclinical test methods involving tribological simulations are required to investigate and understand the tribological function of osteochondral repair interventions in natural knee tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of osteochondral allograft implantation on the local tribology (friction, surface damage, wear and deformation) of the tissues in the natural knee joint using a simple geometry, reciprocating pin-on-plate friction simulator. In addition, the study aimed to assess the ability of osteochondral grafts to restore a low surface damage, deformation and wear articulation when compared to the native state. A method was developed to characterise and quantify surface damage wear and deformation of the opposing cartilage-bone pin surface using a non-contacting optical profiler (Alicona Infinite Focus). Porcine 12?mm diameter cartilage-bone pins were reciprocated against bovine cartilage-bone plates that had 6?mm diameter osteochondral allografts, cartilage defects or stainless steel pins (positive controls) inserted centrally. Increased levels of surface damage with changes in geometry were not associated with significant increases in the coefficient of dynamic friction. Significant damage to the opposing cartilage surface was observed in the positive control groups. Cartilage damage, deformation and wear (as measured by change in geometry) in the xenograft (2.4?mm3) and cartilage defect (0.99?mm3) groups were low and not significantly different (p?>?0.05) compared to the negative control in either group. The study demonstrated the potential of osteochondral grafts to restore the congruent articular surface and biphasic tribology of the natural joint. An optical method has been developed to characterise cartilage wear, damage and deformation that can be applied to the tribological assessment of osteochondral grafts in a whole natural knee joint simulation model.
Project description:A new friction counterpart for carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic-matrix composites (C/SiCs) and zirconia (ZrO2) toughened by magnesia ceramics is proposed. The effects of the C/SiC surface processing parameters friction on the tribological performance are investigated under dry friction and ambient temperature conditions. The wear tests are carried out using the pin-on-disc friction method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on an instrument equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is used to observe the surfaces of the pins and discs before and after the application of friction to reveal the wear mechanism. The results show that surface processing influenced the tribological properties of C/SiC significantly. When the pressure is 30?N, the speed is 0.5?m/s, and the C/SiC surface is ground using 1500# sandpaper, the counterpart tribological performance is the best among the samples considered herein. It is found that the retention ability of the counterparts influenced the tribology performance significantly.
Project description:Articular cartilage is a highly efficacious water-based tribological system that is optimized to provide low friction and wear protection at both low and high loads (pressures) and sliding velocities that must last over a lifetime. Although many different lubrication mechanisms have been proposed, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the tribological performance of cartilage cannot be attributed to a single mechanism acting alone but on the synergistic action of multiple "modes" of lubrication that are adapted to provide optimum lubrication as the normal loads, shear stresses, and rates change. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is abundant in cartilage and synovial fluid and widely thought to play a principal role in joint lubrication although this role remains unclear. HA is also known to complex readily with the glycoprotein lubricin (LUB) to form a cross-linked network that has also been shown to be critical to the wear prevention mechanism of joints. Friction experiments on porcine cartilage using the surface forces apparatus, and enzymatic digestion, reveal an "adaptive" role for an HA-LUB complex whereby, under compression, nominally free HA diffusing out of the cartilage becomes mechanically, i.e., physically, trapped at the interface by the increasingly constricted collagen pore network. The mechanically trapped HA-LUB complex now acts as an effective (chemically bound) "boundary lubricant"--reducing the friction force slightly but, more importantly, eliminating wear damage to the rubbing/shearing surfaces. This paper focuses on the contribution of HA in cartilage lubrication; however, the system as a whole requires both HA and LUB to function optimally under all conditions.
Project description:Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test rig to study the effects of the strand lay direction and crossing angle on the winding rope's tribological behavior. Results show that the friction coefficient in the steady-state period shows a decreasing tendency with an increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions, but the variation range is different under different cross directions. Using thermal imaging, the high temperature regions always distribute along the strand lay direction in the gap between adjacent strands, as the cross direction is the same with the strand lay direction (right cross contact). Additionally, the temperature rise in the steady-state increases with the increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions. The differences of the wear scar morphology are obvious under different cross directions, especially for the large crossing angle tests. In the case of right cross, the variation range of wear mass loss is larger than that in left cross. The damage that forms on the wear surface is mainly ploughing, pits, plastic deformation, and fatigue fracture. The major wear mechanisms are adhesive wear, and abrasive and fatigue wear.
Project description:Stick-slip friction was observed in articular cartilage under certain loading and sliding conditions and systematically studied. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus, we show that stick-slip friction can induce permanent morphological changes (a change in the roughness indicative of wear/damage) in cartilage surfaces, even under mild loading and sliding conditions. The different load and speed regimes can be represented by friction maps--separating regimes of smooth and stick-slip sliding; damage generally occurs within the stick-slip regimes. Prolonged exposure of cartilage surfaces to stick-slip sliding resulted in a significant increase of surface roughness, indicative of severe morphological changes of the cartilage superficial zone. To further investigate the factors that are conducive to stick-slip and wear, we selectively digested essential components of cartilage: type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Compared with the normal cartilage, HA and GAG digestions modified the stick-slip behavior and increased surface roughness (wear) during sliding, whereas collagen digestion decreased the surface roughness. Importantly, friction forces increased up to 2, 10, and 5 times after HA, GAGs, and collagen digestion, respectively. Also, each digestion altered the friction map in different ways. Our results show that (i) wear is not directly related to the friction coefficient but (ii) more directly related to stick-slip sliding, even when present at small amplitudes, and that (iii) the different molecular components of joints work synergistically to prevent wear. Our results also suggest potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for sensing stick-slip in joints.
Project description:Polymer derived ceramic (PDC) composite coatings were deposited on AISI 304 substrates using siloxane based preceramic polymer polymethlysilsquioxane (PMS) and ZrSi2 as active filler or Ag as passive filler. The tribological performance of the composite coatings was evaluated at room temperature and moderately high temperatures (150?°C, 200?°C, 300?°C and 400?°C). The composite coatings showed low coefficient of friction (COF), µ, from 0.08 to 0.2 for SiOC-ZrSi2 composite coatings, and from 0.02 to 0.3 for SiOC-Ag composite coatings, at room temperature with increasing normal load from 1 to 5?N. High temperature tribology tests showed high COF values from 0.4 to 1 but low wear for SiOC-ZrSi2 coating, and low COF from 0.2 to 0.3 for SiOC-Ag coatings at lower temperature ranges. Low load friction tests at room temperature showed negligible wear in SiOC-ZrSi2 coatings, suggesting good wear resistant and lubricating properties due to formation of t-ZrO2 and carbon. Low COF and high amount of wear was observed in SiOC-Ag composite coatings at room temperature due to high ductility of Ag and smearing of wear debris in the wear track. The coatings and wear tracks were characterized to evaluate the lubrication and wear behavior.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased articular cartilage hydraulic permeability and decreased maintenance of high interstitial fluid load support (IFLS) during articulation, resulting in increased friction on the cartilage solid matrix. This study assesses frictional response following in situ synthesis of an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) designed to mimic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) depleted during OA.Cylindrical osteochondral explants containing various interpenetrating polymer concentrations were subjected to a torsional friction test under unconfined creep compression. Time-varying coefficient of friction, compressive engineering strain, and normalized strain values (?/?eq) were calculated and analyzed.The polymer network reduced friction coefficient over the duration of the friction test, with statistically significantly reduced friction coefficients (95% confidence interval 14-34% reduced) at equilibrium compressive strain upon completion of the test (P = 0.015). A positive trend was observed relating polymer network concentration with magnitude of friction reduction compared to non-treated tissue.The cartilage-interpenetrating polymer treatment improves lubrication by augmenting the biphasic tissue's interstitial fluid phase, and additionally improves the friction dissipation of the tissue's solid matrix. This technique demonstrates potential as a therapy to augment tribological function of articular cartilage.
Project description:Purpose: One of the essential requirements in maintaining the normal joint motor function is the perfect tribological property of the articular cartilage. Many cartilage regeneration strategies have been developed for treatment in early stages of osteoarthritis, but there is little information on how repaired articular cartilage regains durability. The identification of biomarkers that can predict wear resistant property is critical to advancing the success of cartilage regeneration therapies. Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a macromolecule distributing on the chondrocyte surface that contributes to lubrication. In this study, we investigate if PRG4 expression is associated with tribological properties of regenerated cartilage, and is able to predict its wear resistant status. Methods: Two different strategies including bone marrow enrichment plus microfracture (B/BME-MFX) and microfracture alone (B-MFX) of cartilage repair in sheep were used. PRG4 expression and a series of tribological parameters on regenerated cartilage were rigorously examined and compared. Results: Highly and continuously expression of PRG4 in regenerated cartilage surface was negatively correlated with each tribological parameter (P<0.0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that PRG4 expression was the key predictor that contributed to the promotion of cartilage wear resistance. Conclusion: Higher PRG4 expression in regenerated cartilage is significantly associated with wear resistance improvement. PRG4 may be useful for predicting the wear resistant status of regenerated cartilage and determining the optimal cartilage repair strategy.
Project description:Energy dissipation due to friction and wear is reducing the energy efficiency and reliability of mechanical systems. Thus, great efforts are being made to minimize friction for technical applications. In our present work, we investigate the tribological behavior of stainless steel 100Cr6 with a-C:H and a-C:H:Si coating lubricated with a surface-active formanisotropic 1,3-diketone. The results show that superlow friction can be achieved on the macroscale using a steel 100Cr6 self pairing (COF ? 0.005) and with 100Cr6 in combination with a-C:H coating (COF ? 0.008). Furthermore, the replacement of steel with a-C:H coating leads to a considerable decrease of wear. The reduced COF arises from the chemical interaction of the lubricant with the surface and nascent iron ions. It was found that interfacial parameters correlate with tribological results. In addition, the alignment of the formanisotropic molecules in the tribological contact at thin-film lubrication leads to an anisotropic viscosity with a minimum shear resistance in sliding direction. Atomistic simulation of tribochemical interactions was conducted to derive a friction model based on the thin-film lubrication theory. This investigation indicates the potential to substantially reduce friction and wear using this fluid in real technical applications.
Project description:Osteochondral grafts are used clinically to repair cartilage and bone defects and to restore the congruent articulating surfaces of the knee joint following cartilage damage or injury. The clinical success of such osteochondral grafts is heavily reliant on the biomechanical and tribological properties of the surgical repair; however, a limited number of studies have investigated these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of graft harvesting and implantation technique as well as bone properties on the primary stability of press-fit implanted osteochondral grafts using a series of uniaxial experimental push-in and push-out tests. Animal (porcine and bovine) knees were used to deliver models of different bone properties (elastic modulus and yield stress). The study showed the graft harvesting method using either a chisel or drill-aided trephine to have no influence on primary graft stability; however, the preparation technique for the graft recipient site was shown to influence the force required to push the graft into the host tissue. For example, when the length of the graft was equal to the recipient site (bottomed), the graft was more stable and dilation of the recipient site was shown to reduce short-term graft stability especially in immature or less dense bone tissue. The push-out tests which compared tissue of different skeletal maturities demonstrated that the maturity of both the graft and host bone tissue to influence the stability of the graft. A higher force was required to push out more skeletally mature grafts from mature bone tissue. The study demonstrates the importance of surgical technique and bone quality/properties on the primary stability and ultimately, the success of osteochondral grafts in the knee.
Project description:Biological tissues at articulating surfaces, such as articular cartilage, typically have remarkable low-friction properties that limit tissue shear during movement. However, these frictional properties change with trauma, aging, and disease, resulting in an altered mechanical state within the tissues. Yet, it remains unclear how these surface changes affect the behaviour of embedded cells when the tissue is mechanically loaded. Here, we developed a cytocompatible, bilayered hydrogel system that permits control of surface frictional properties without affecting other bulk physicochemical characteristics such as compressive modulus, mass swelling ratio, and water content. This hydrogel system was applied to investigate the effect of variations in surface friction on the biological response of human articular chondrocytes to shear loading. Shear strain in these hydrogels during dynamic shear loading was significantly higher in high-friction hydrogels than in low-friction hydrogels. Chondrogenesis was promoted following dynamic shear stimulation in chondrocyte-encapsulated low-friction hydrogel constructs, whereas matrix synthesis was impaired in high-friction constructs, which instead exhibited increased catabolism. Our findings demonstrate that the surface friction of tissue-engineered cartilage may act as a potent regulator of cellular homeostasis by governing the magnitude of shear deformation during mechanical loading, suggesting a similar relationship may also exist for native articular cartilage.Excessive mechanical loading is believed to be a major risk factor inducing pathogenesis of articular cartilage and other load-bearing tissues. Yet, the mechanisms leading to increased transmission of mechanical stimuli to cells embedded in the tissue remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that the tribological properties of loadbearing tissues regulate cellular behaviour by governing the magnitude of mechanical deformation arising from physiological tissue function. Based on these findings, we propose that changes to articular surface friction as they occur with trauma, aging, or disease, may initiate tissue pathology by increasing the magnitude of mechanical stress on embedded cells beyond a physiological level.