EIF3C-enhanced exosome secretion promotes angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Targeting tumor angiogenesis is a common strategy against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, identification of molecular targets as biomarker for elevating therapeutic efficacy is critical to prolong HCC patient survival. Here, we showed that EIF3C (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit C) is upregulated during HCC tumor progression and associated with poor patient survival. Expression of EIF3C did not alter proliferation and expression of other tumor progressive genes such as HIF1A, TGF?1 and VEGF, but reduced cell migration in HCC cells. Nevertheless, expression of EIF3C in HCC cells significantly increase secretion of extracellular exosomes confirmed by increased exosomes labelling by PKH26 fluorescent dye, vesicles in exosome size detected by electronic microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis, and expression of divergent exosome markers. The EIF3C-increased exosomes were oncogenic to potentiate tumor angiogenesis via tube formation of HUVEC cells and growth of vessels by plugs assays on nude mice. Subcutaneous inoculation of EIF3C-exosomes mixed with Huh7 HCC cells not only promoted growth of vessels but also increased expression of EIF3C in tumors. Conversely, treatment of exosome inhibitor GW4869 reversed aforementioned oncogenic assays. We identified EIF3C activated expression of S100A11 involved in EIF3C-exosome increased tube formation in angiogenesis. Simultaneous high expression of EIF3C and S100A11 in human HCC tumors for RNA level in TCGA and protein level by IHC are associated with poor survival of HCC patients. Collectively, our results demonstrated that EIF3C overexpression is a potential target of angiogenesis for treatment with exosome inhibitor or S100A11 reduction to suppress HCC angiogenesis and tumorigenesis.
Project description:RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play fundamental roles in the RNA life cycle. The aberrant expression of RBPs is often observed in human disease, including cancer. In this study, we screened for the expression levels of 1542 human RBPs in The Cancer Genome Atlas liver hepatocellular carcinoma samples and found 92 consistently upregulated RBP genes in HCC compared with normal samples. Additionally, we undertook a Kaplan-Meier analysis and found that high expression of 15 RBP genes was associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Furthermore, we found that eIF3c promotes HCC cell proliferation in vitro as well as tumorigenicity in vivo. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that high eIF3c expression is positively associated with KRAS, vascular endothelial growth factor, and Hedgehog signaling pathways, all of which are closely associated with specific cancer-related gene sets. Our study provides the basis for further investigation of the molecular mechanism by which eIF3c promotes the development and progression of HCC.
Project description:Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a natural compound with anticancer and anti-angiogenesis activity that is currently under investigation as both a preventative agent and an adjuvant to breast cancer therapy. However, the precise mechanisms of DHA's anticancer activities are unclear. It is understood that the intercommunication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is essential to tumor angiogenesis. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are important mediators of intercellular communication and play a role in promoting angiogenesis. However, very little is known about the contribution of breast cancer exosomes to tumor angiogenesis or whether exosomes can mediate DHA's anticancer action.Exosomes were collected from MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells after treatment with DHA. We observed an increase in exosome secretion and exosome microRNA contents from the DHA-treated cells. The expression of 83 microRNAs in the MCF7 exosomes was altered by DHA (>2-fold). The most abundant exosome microRNAs (let-7a, miR-23b, miR-27a/b, miR-21, let-7, and miR-320b) are known to have anti-cancer and/or anti-angiogenic activity. These microRNAs were also increased by DHA treatment in the exosomes from other breast cancer lines (MDA-MB-231, ZR751 and BT20), but not in exosomes from normal breast cells (MCF10A). When DHA-treated MCF7 cells were co-cultured with or their exosomes were directly applied to endothelial cell cultures, we observed an increase in the expression of these microRNAs in the endothelial cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-23b and miR-320b in endothelial cells decreased the expression of their pro-angiogenic target genes (PLAU, AMOTL1, NRP1 and ETS2) and significantly inhibited tube formation by endothelial cells, suggesting that the microRNAs transferred by exosomes mediate DHA's anti-angiogenic action. These effects could be reversed by knockdown of the Rab GTPase, Rab27A, which controls exosome release.We conclude that DHA alters breast cancer exosome secretion and microRNA contents, which leads to the inhibition of angiogenesis. Our data demonstrate that breast cancer exosome signaling can be targeted to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and provide new insight into DHA's anticancer action, further supporting its use in cancer therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and is a highly vascularized solid tumor. Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) has been described as an attractive target for antiangiogenic therapy. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles secreted by most cell types and contribute to cell-to-cell communication by delivering functional cargo to recipient cells. The expression of ANGPT2 in tumor-derived exosomes remains unknown. METHODS:We detected the ANGPT2 expression in HCC-derived exosomes by immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunogold labeling, then observed exosomal ANGPT2 internalization and recycling by confocal laser scanning microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. We used two HCC cell lines (Hep3B and MHCC97H) to overexpress ANGPT2 by lentivirus infection or knockdown ANGPT2 by the CRISPR/Cas system, then isolated exosomes to coculture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and observed the angiogenesis by Matrigel microtubule formation assay, transwell migration assay, wound healing assay, cell counting kit-8 assay, immunoblotting and in vivo tumorigenesis assay. RESULTS:We found that HCC-derived exosomes carried ANGPT2 and delivered it into HUVECs by exosome endocytosis, this delivery led to a notable increase in angiogenesis by a Tie2-independent pathway. Concomitantly, we observed that HCC cell-secreted exosomal ANGPT2 was recycled by recipient HUVECs and might be reused. In addition, the CRISPR-Cas systems to knock down ANGPT2 significantly inhibited the angiogenesis induced by HCC cell-secreted exosomal ANGPT2, and obviously suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition activation in HCC. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, these results reveal a novel pathway of tumor angiogenesis induced by HCC cell-secreted exosomal ANGPT2 that is different from the classic ANGPT2/Tie2 pathway. This way may be a potential therapeutic target for antiangiogenic therapy. Video Abstract.
Project description:The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be attributed partly to humoral factors such as growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Human term placental tissue-derived MSCs (PlaMSCs), or conditioned medium left over from cultures of these cells, have been reported to enhance angiogenesis. Recently, the exosome, which can transport a diverse suite of macromolecules, has gained attention as a novel intercellular communication tool. However, the potential role of the exosome in PlaMSC therapeutic action is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PlaMSC-derived exosome angiogenesis promotion in vitro and in vivo.MSCs were isolated from human term placental tissue by enzymatic digestion. Conditioned medium was collected after 48-h incubation in serum-free medium (PlaMSC-CM). Angiogenic factors present in PlaMSC-CM were screened by a growth factor array. Exosomes were prepared by ultracentrifugation of PlaMSC-CM, and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and western blot analyses. The proangiogenic activity of PlaMSC-derived exosomes (PlaMSC-exo) was assessed using an endothelial tube formation assay, a cell migration assay, and reverse transcription-PCR analysis. The in-vivo angiogenic activity of PlaMSC-exo was evaluated using a murine auricle ischemic injury model.PlaMSC-CM contained both angiogenic and angiostatic factors, which enhanced endothelial tube formation. PlaMSC-exo were incorporated into endothelial cells; these exosomes stimulated both endothelial tube formation and migration, and enhanced angiogenesis-related gene expression. Laser Doppler blood flow analysis showed that PlaMSC-exo infusion also enhanced angiogenesis in an in-vivo murine auricle ischemic injury model.PlaMSC-exo enhanced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that exosomes play a role in the proangiogenic activity of PlaMSCs. PlaMSC-exo may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating ischemic diseases.
Project description:Purpose:Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury primarily causes myocardial infarction (MI), which is manifested by cell death. Angiogenesis is essential for repair and regeneration in cardiac tissue after MI. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of exosomes derived from the serum of MI patients in angiogenesis and its related mechanism. Patients and Methods:Exosomes, isolated from serum, were collected from MI (MI-exosome) and control (Con-exosome) patients. After coculturing with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, MI-exosome promoted cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Results:The results revealed that the production and release of MI-exosome were associated with cardiomyocytes. Moreover, microarray assays demonstrated that miRNA-143 was significantly decreased in MI-exosome. Meanwhile, the overexpression and knockdown of miRNA-143 could inhibit and enhance angiogenesis, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of exosomal miRNA-143 on angiogenesis was mediated by its targeting gene, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), and was associated with the production of nitric oxide (NO). Conclusion:Taken together, exosomes derived from the serum of patients with MI promoted angiogenesis through the IGF-IR/NO signaling pathway. The results provide novel understanding of the function of exosomes in MI.
Project description:Exosomes, microvesicles of endocytic origin released by normal and tumor cells, play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Angiogenesis has been shown to regulate progression of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The mechanism through which this happens has not been elucidated. We isolated and characterized exosomes from K562 CML cells and evaluated their effects on human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fluorescent-labeled exosomes were internalized by HUVECs during tubular differentiation on Matrigel. Exosome localization was perinuclear early in differentiation, moving peripherally in cells undergoing elongation and connection. Exosomes move within and between nanotubular structures connecting the remodeling endothelial cells. They stimulated angiotube formation over a serum/growth factor-limited medium control, doubling total cumulative tube length (P = 0.003). Treatment of K562 cells with two clinically active tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and dasatinib, reduced their total exosome release (P < 0.009); equivalent concentrations of drug-treated exosomes induced a similar extent of tubular differentiation. However, dasatinib treatment of HUVECs markedly inhibited HUVEC response to drug control CML exosomes (P < 0.002). In an in vivo mouse Matrigel plug model angiogenesis was induced by K562 exosomes and abrogated by oral dasatinib treatment (P < 0.01). K562 exosomes induced dasatinib-sensitive Src phosphorylation and activation of downstream Src pathway proteins in HUVECs. Imatinib was minimally active against exosome stimulation of HUVEC cell differentiation and signaling. Thus, CML cell-derived exosomes induce angiogenic activity in HUVEC cells. The inhibitory effect of dasatinib on exosome production and vascular differentiation and signaling reveals a key role for Src in both the leukemia and its microenvironment.
Project description:Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a natural compound with anticancer and anti-angiogenesis activity that is currently under investigation as both a preventative agent and an adjuvant to breast cancer therapy. However, the precise mechanisms of DHA’s anticancer activities are unclear. It is understood that the intercommunication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is essential to tumor angiogenesis. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are important mediators of intercellular communication and play a role in promoting angiogenesis. However, very little is known about the contribution of breast cancer exosomes to tumor angiogenesis or whether exosomes can mediate DHA’s anticancer action. Results: Exosomes were collected from MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells after treatment with DHA. We observed an increase in exosome secretion and exosome microRNA contents from the DHA-treated cells. The expression of 83 microRNAs in the MCF7 exosomes was altered by DHA (>2-fold). The most abundant exosome microRNAs (let-7a, miR-23b, miR-27a/b, miR-21, let-7, and miR-320b) are known to have anti-cancer and/or anti-angiogenic activity. These microRNAs were also increased by DHA treatment in the exosomes from other breast cancer lines (MDA-MB-231, ZR751 and BT20), but not in exosomes from normal breast cells (MCF10A). When DHA-treated MCF7 cells were co-cultured with or their exosomes were directly applied to endothelial cell cultures, we observed an increase in the expression of these microRNAs in the endothelial cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-23b and miR-320b in endothelial cells decreased the expression of their pro-angiogenic target genes (PLAU, AMOTL1, NRP1 and ETS2) and significantly inhibited tube formation by endothelial cells, suggesting that the microRNAs transferred by exosomes mediate DHA’s anti-angiogenic action. These effects could be reversed by knockdown of the Rab GTPase, Rab27A, which controls exosome release. Conclusions: We conclude that DHA alters breast cancer exosome secretion and microRNA contents, which leads to the inhibition of angiogenesis. Our data demonstrate that breast cancer exosome signaling can be targeted to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and provide new insight into DHA’s anticancer action, further supporting its use in cancer therapy. Examination of small RNA populations in MCF7 cells and exosomes after DHA treatment.
Project description:Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a serious vascular complication in the setting of liver disease. Factors produced by the liver are essential to regulate pulmonary angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of HPS; however, the pathogenic mechanisms of pulmonary angiogenesis are not fully understood. We investigated the role of HPS rat serum exosomes (HEs) and sham-operated rat serum exosomes (SEs) in the regulation of angiogenesis. We found that HEs significantly enhance PMVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. We further identified miR-194 was the most notably increased miRNA in HEs compared to SEs. Once released, hepatocyte-derived exosomal miR-194 was internalized by PMVECs, leading to the promotion of PMVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation through direct targeting of THBS1, STAT1, and LIF. Importantly, the pathogenic role of exosomal miR-194 in initiating angiogenesis was reversed by P53 inhibition, exosome secretion inhibition or miR-194 inhibition. Additionally, high levels of miR-194 were found in serum exosomes and were positively correlated with P(A-a)O2 in HPS patients and rats. Thus, our results highlight that the exosome/miR-194 axis plays a critical pathologic role in pulmonary angiogenesis, representing a new therapeutic target for HPS.
Project description:Abnormal angiogenesis is one of the significant features in periodontitis leading to progressive inflammation, but angiogenic changes of periodontal ligaments under inflammatory condition were rarely reported. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) were a kind of dental stem cells associated with vascularization. Here we investigated the alteration of angiogenesis of periodontal ligament in periodontitis, and revealed an exosome-mediated pathway to support the effect of PDLSCs on angiogenic improvement. Vascular specific marker CD31 and VEGFA were found to be highly expressed in periodontal ligaments of periodontitis. The VEGFA expression was up-regulated in inflamed PDLSCs compared to control, meanwhile the tube formation of HUVECs was improved when co-cultured with inflamed PDLSCs. Exosomes secretion of PDSLCs was augmented by inflammation, and promoted angiogenesis of HUVECs, whereas blocking secretion of exosomes led to degenerated angiogenesis of HUVECs. Exosome-trasferred VEGFA was proven to be the crucial communicator between PDLSCs and HUVECs. Inflammation inhibited miR-17-5p expression of PDLSCs and relieved its target VEGFA. However, overexpression of miR-17-5p blocked the pro-angiogenic ability of inflamed PDLSCs. In conclusion, the findings indicated that vascularization of periodontal ligaments was enhanced, and inflammatory micro-environment of periodontitis facilitated pro-angiogenesis of PDLSCs through regulating exosome-mediated transfer of VEGFA, which was targeted by miR-17-5p.
Project description:Background:As a component of the EIF3 complex, EIF3C is essential for several steps in protein synthesis initiation. Recently, it has been addressed that EIF3C is overexpressed in several human cancers and plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Materials and methods:Immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and Western blotting assays were employed to determine the expression of EIF3C in osteosarcoma (OsC) tissues obtained from 60 patients. The levels of EIF3C mRNA and protein were assessed by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. The effect of EIF3C knockdown on OsC cell proliferation was detected by MTT and colony formation assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis induced by EIF3C silencing was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. PathScan stress and apoptosis signaling antibody array kit was used to analyze the potential effects of EIF3C knockdown on OsC cells. Results:The levels of EIF3C were high in OsC tissues and cell lines. In addition, EIF3C knockdown by lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting EIF3C significantly suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis in U-2OS cells. Moreover, EIF3C knockdown led to the upregulated expression of CASP3/7, Chk1/2, and SAPK/JNK, indicating that the downregulated expression of EIF3C might be associated with pro-apoptosis of U-2OS cells. Conclusion:EIF3C may be a promising target for gene therapy of human OsC. However, the precise mechanisms behind the effect of EIF3C on OsC tumorigenesis require further analysis.