The Association between Serum Bilirubin Level and Electrochemical Skin Conductance in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Bilirubin is an antioxidant and plays a protective role against cardiovascular and microvascular disease. The aim of this study is to explore the possible protective effect of bilirubin on small nerve function. A total of 265 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the study. Both SUDOSCAN and other traditional diabetic neuropathy examinations including neuropathy symptom score (NSS), the neuropathy disability score (NDS) and Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) scores were performed in all patients with T2DM. Blood bilirubin levels were tested in the study. Spearman correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine the relation between bilirubin level and hands and feet ESC values. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated a correlation between total bilirubin and ESC levels including hands (r = 0.165, P < 0.05) and feet (r = 0.122, P < 0.05) as well as between UCBil and ESC levels including both hands (r = 0.172, P < 0.05) and feet (r = 0.175, P < 0.05). Multivariate regression linear analyses showed both total bilirubin and UCBil level were independently associated with hands and feet ESC levels. All these results suggested a positive association between bilirubin level and ESC level, indicating a possible protective role of bilirubin in peripheral small nerve dysfunction of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Sudomotor dysfunction may be an early detectable abnormality in diabetic small fiber neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Sudoscan™ (Impeto Medical, Paris, France) in detecting diabetic neuropathy (DN), in comparison with other standardized tests, in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sudoscan measures electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) of hands and feet through reverse iontophoresis. We evaluated 83 DM patients with and without DN and 210 healthy controls (HCs). Neuropathy Impairment Score-Lower Legs (NIS-LL), quantitative autonomic function testing (QAFT), and quantitative sensory testing (QST) were performed. Symptomatic pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to evaluate the efficacy of Sudoscan in detecting DN compared with traditional modalities. RESULTS: Diabetes patients with DN had significantly worse ESCs of feet and hands than DM patients without DN and HCs (respectively, 56.3±3 vs. 75.9±5.5 and 84.4±0.9 [P<0.0001] for feet and 51.9±2.4 vs. 67.5±4.3 and 73.1±0.8 [P<0.0001] for hands). Increasing NIS-LL scores were associated with decreasing ESC values. ESCs correlated significantly with clinical (NIS-LL), somatic (QST), and autonomic (QAFT) measures of neuropathy and with pain scores. ROC curve analysis showed significant results for both hands and feet ESC (area under the curve of 0.86 and 0.88, respectively; P<0.0001) with sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 92% for feet to detect DN. CONCLUSIONS: Sudoscan is a promising, sensitive tool to detect neuropathy in patients with DM. This is a very simple, easy-to-perform test that can be done in the clinical setting in 3-5?min.
Project description:This study evaluated whether measuring the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC), as an indirect measure of sudomotor function, may be also a reliable surrogate for early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN).Longitudinal study included 37 type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects (mean age 38±13years, duration 15±7years, HbA1c 7.9±1.1%, no known complications at baseline), and 40 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Mean hands ESC (ESChands) and feet (ESCfeet) were measured with the SUDOSCAN (Impeto Medical, France). CAN was assessed with heart rate variability (HRV) studies (ANSAR Inc., PA), cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (deep-breathing, Valsalva, postural test), and positron emission tomography with sympathetic analogue [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine. Associations between measures of CAN and ESC were estimated using Spearman correlations. Longitudinal changes were analyzed using paired t-test.At baseline, there were no differences between T1D and HC in ESChands (69±14 vs. 69±13?S; P=0.84) or ESCfeet (82±8 vs. 78±9?S; P=0.12), while some indices of HRV and Valsalva ratio were significantly lower in T1D vs. HC. T1D subjects experienced a significant decline in both ESChands and ESCfeet at 12months (mean change -7.2±11.6µS, P=0.0006; -2.8±7.3µS, P=0.023 respectively). No significant correlations were consistently found between ESC and measures of CAN at baseline or at 12months.Comparing patients with T1D to controls, no differences in ESC were observed at baseline. The associations between ESC and established measures of CAN were inconsistent, which does not support ESC as a reliable surrogate for CAN. While both hands and feet ESC declined over time, the significance of this finding is unclear and warrants further reliability testing.
Project description:Purpose:Oxaliplatin is a platinum compound widely used in gastrointestinal cancer treatment but produces dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy. New insights into oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) assessment are needed to detect more effectively this condition. In this context, we conducted Canaloxa study, a prospective preliminary clinical trial that aimed to investigate how Electrochemical Skin Conductance (ESC), a parameter used in small fiber neuropathy assessment, could be helpful in OIPN diagnosis. Methods:Cancer patients treated for at least three months with oxaliplatin and suffering from clinically OIPN were included. Electrochemical Skin Conductance, thermal thresholds, and neuropathic pain were assessed in all included patients. Results:During one year, 36 patients were included. The main result was the correlation between ESC and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory score for hands (rho value = -0.69, p < 0.0001) and feet (rho value = -0.79, p < 0.0001). ESC values were lower in neuropathic patients with painful symptoms than in ones without painful symptoms (p = 0.0003 and p < 0.0001 for hands and feet, respectively). No correlation was observed between ESC and thermal thresholds. Conclusion:These preliminary data suggest that ESC could be a useful objective marker of painful oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and could complement the use of subjective clinical scales. This study was prospectively registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02827916) before patient recruitment has begun.
Project description:There is a need to identify patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) using noninvasive, cost-effective screening tests. Sudoscan®, a device using electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) to measure sweat gland dysfunction, is valuable for detecting peripheral neuropathy. ESC was tested for association with DKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) in 383 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D)-affected patients; diagnostic thresholds were determined in 540 patients.Relationships between ESC with eGFR and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed in 202 European Americans and 181 African Americans with T2D.In 92 European American DKD cases and 110 T2D non-nephropathy controls, respectively, mean (SD) ages were 69 (9.7) and 61 (10.8) years, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.4 (1.2) and 7.4 (1.3)%, eGFR 29.6 (12.2) and 87.8 (14.2) ml/min/1.73 m(2), and UACR 1,214 (1,705) and 7.5 (5.8) mg/g. In 57 African American cases and 124 controls, respectively, mean (SD) ages were 64.0 (11.9) and 59.5 (9.7) years, HbA1c 7.4 (1.3) and 7.5 (1.7)%, eGFR 29.6 (13.3) and 90.2 (16.2) ml/min/1.73 m(2), and UACR 1,172 (1,564) and 7.8 (7.1) mg/g. Mean (SD) ESC (?S) was lower in cases than controls (European Americans: case/control hands 49.5 (18.5)/62.3 (16.2); feet 62.1 (17.9)/73.6 (13.8), both p < 1.3 × 10(-6); African Americans: case/control hands 39.8 (19.0)/48.5 (17.1); feet 53.2 (21.3)/63.5 (19.4), both p ? 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, body mass index and HbA1c, hands and feet ESC associated with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (p ? 7.2 × 10(-3)), UACR >30 mg/g (p ? 7.0 × 10(-3)), UACR >300 mg/g (p ? 8.1 × 10(-3)), and continuous traits eGFR and UACR (both p ? 5.0 × 10(-9)). HbA1c values were not useful for risk stratification.ESC measured using Sudoscan® is strongly associated with DKD in African Americans and European Americans. ESC is a useful screening test to identify DKD in patients with T2D.
Project description:Sudomotor dysfunction is manifested clinically as abnormal sweating leading to dryness of feet skin and increased risk of foot ulceration. The aim of this study was to test the performance of foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration against traditional methods in Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus.This cross-sectional study was conducted on 296 Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus. Painful neuropathic symptoms were evaluated using the neuropathy symptom score (NSS). The risk of foot ulceration and diabetic peripheral neuropathy were determined using the neuropathy disability score (NDS). Vibration perception threshold (VPT) was assessed using neurothesiometer. Neurophysiological assessment of the right and left sural, peroneal and tibial nerves was performed in 222 participants. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was defined according to the definition of the American Academy of Neurology. ESC was measured with Sudoscan.Feet-ESC decreased as the scores of sensory and motor function tests increased. Feet-ESC decreased as the NSS, NDS and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy increased. Sensitivity of feet-ESC < 50μS to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessed by VPT ≥ 25 V, NDS ≥ 3, NDS ≥ 6 was 90.1, 61 and 63.8 % respectively and specificity 77, 85 and 81.9 % respectively. Sensitivity of feet-ESC < 70μS to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessed by VPT ≥ 25 V, NDS ≥ 3, NDS ≥ 6 was 100, 80.6 and 80.9 % respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of feet-ESC < 70μS to detect confirmed-diabetic peripheral neuropathy were 67.5 and 58.9 % respectively.Sudoscan a simple and objective tool can be used to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration among patients with diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies to confirm our results are warranted.
Project description:The early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is challenging. Sudomotor dysfunction is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in DPN. The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) test in detecting early DPN, compared with the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test and diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS) score, using the modified neuropathy disability score (NDS) as the reference standard. Five hundred and twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes underwent an NDS-based clinical assessment for neuropathy. Participants were classified into the DPN and non-DPN groups based on the NDS (? 6). Both groups were evaluated further using the DNS, and VPT and ESC testing. A receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of ESC measurements with those of DNS and VPT testing in detecting DPN. The DPN group (n = 110, 21%) had significantly higher HbA1c levels and longer diabetes durations compared with the non-DPN group (n = 413). The sensitivity of feet ESC < 60 ?S, VPT testing, and DNS in detecting DPN were 85%, 72%, and 52%, respectively. The specificity of feet ESC, VPT, and DNS in detecting DPN were 85%, 90% and 60% respectively. The areas under the curves of the ROC plots for feet ESC, VPT testing, and DNS were 0.88, 0.84, and 0.6, respectively. A significant inverse linear relationship was noted between VPT and feet ESC (r = -0.45, p = <0.0001). The odds ratios for having DPN, based on the mean feet ESC testing < 60 ?S, VPT testing > 15 V, and DNS ? 1, were 16.4, 10.9 and 1.8, respectively. ESC measurement is an objective and sensitive technique for the early detection of DPN. Feet ESC measurement was superior to VPT testing for identifying patients with early DPN.
Project description:To determine the prevalence and severity of neuropathic pain, sudomotor dysfunction and abnormal vibration perception in patients with MS.73 patients with MS and 32 age-matched healthy controls underwent assessment of expanded disability severity score (EDSS), DN4 to assess neuropathic pain, electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) to assess sudomotor function and vibration perception threshold (VPT).Patients with MS had a higher DN4 score (p < 0.001) with 14% fulfilling the criteria for neuropathic pain elevated VPT (p < 0.001) and lower ESC on the feet (p < 0.001) and hands (p < 0.001) compared to control participants. ESC on the feet (32% of MS patients) and hands (30% of MS patients) were lower, and DN4 (77% of MS patients) and VPT (64% of MS patients) were greater than 2SD of the healthy control values, respectively. EDSS correlated with the number of relapses (r = 0.564, p < 0.001), VPT (r = -0.457, < 0.001) and ESC on the feet (r = -0.268, p = 0.023).Patients with multiple sclerosis have evidence of sudomotor dysfunction and elevated vibration perception, which were associated with neurological disability from MS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is an inborn lysosomal storage disorder which is associated with small fiber neuropathy. We set out to investigate small fiber conduction in Fabry patients using pain-related evoked potentials (PREP). METHODS: In this case-control study we prospectively studied 76 consecutive Fabry patients for electrical small fiber conduction in correlation with small fiber function and morphology. Data were compared with healthy controls using non-parametric statistical tests. All patients underwent neurological examination and were investigated with pain and depression questionnaires. Small fiber function (quantitative sensory testing, QST), morphology (skin punch biopsy), and electrical conduction (PREP) were assessed and correlated. Patients were stratified for gender and disease severity as reflected by renal function. RESULTS: All Fabry patients (31 men, 45 women) had small fiber neuropathy. Men with Fabry disease showed impaired cold (p < 0.01) and warm perception (p < 0.05), while women did not differ from controls. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) was reduced at the lower leg (p < 0.001) and the back (p < 0.05) mainly of men with impaired renal function. When investigating A-delta fiber conduction with PREP, men but not women with Fabry disease had lower amplitudes upon stimulation at face (p < 0.01), hands (p < 0.05), and feet (p < 0.01) compared to controls. PREP amplitudes further decreased with advance in disease severity. PREP amplitudes and warm (p < 0.05) and cold detection thresholds (p < 0.01) at the feet correlated positively in male patients. CONCLUSION: Small fiber conduction is impaired in men with Fabry disease and worsens with advanced disease severity. PREP are well-suited to measure A-delta fiber conduction.
Project description:Welander distal myopathy is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by muscle weakness in the hands and feet. Exome sequencing of affected families discovered a segregating p.Glu384Lys pathogenic variant in TIA-1 as the main genetic cause of Welander distal myopathy. TIA-1 encodes an RNA-binding protein which serves as a key component of stress granules. This protein also regulates splicing and translation of mRNA. Our patient developed progressive weakness in his hands and feet during his late 40s that was misdiagnosed as a neuropathy that caused muscle atrophy. Follow-up genetic testing revealed a p.Glu384Lys pathogenic variant in TIA-1, and he was then diagnosed with Welander distal myopathy. Our case report underlines the importance of electrodiagnostic and genetic testing of patients.
Project description:Non-freezing cold injury develops after sustained exposure to cold temperatures, resulting in tissue cooling but not freezing. This can result in persistent sensory disturbance of the hands and feet including numbness, paraesthesia and chronic pain. Both vascular and neurological aetiologies of this pain have been suggested but remain unproven. We prospectively approached patients referred for clinical assessment of chronic pain following non-freezing cold injury between 12 February 2014 and 30 November 2016. Of 47 patients approached, 42 consented to undergo detailed neurological evaluations including: questionnaires to detail pain location and characteristics, structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fibre assessment. Of the 42 study participants, all had experienced non-freezing cold injury while serving in the UK armed services and the majority were of African descent (76.2%) and male (95.2%). Many participants reported multiple exposures to cold. The median time between initial injury and referral was 3.72 years. Pain was principally localized to the hands and the feet, neuropathic in nature and in all study participants associated with cold hypersensitivity. Clinical examination and quantitative sensory testing were consistent with a sensory neuropathy. In all cases, large fibre nerve conduction studies were normal. The intraepidermal nerve fibre density was markedly reduced with 90.5% of participants having a count at or below the 0.05 centile of published normative controls. Using the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain grading for neuropathic pain, 100% had probable and 95.2% definite neuropathic pain. Chronic non-freezing cold injury is a disabling neuropathic pain disorder due to a sensory neuropathy. Why some individuals develop an acute painful sensory neuropathy on sustained cold exposure is not yet known, but individuals of African descent appear vulnerable. Screening tools, such as the DN4 questionnaire, and treatment algorithms for neuropathic pain should now be used in the management of these patients.