Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Pathway Is Not Only Dominant in Metabolic Modulation but Associated With Phenotypic Variation After Acute Hypoxia Exposure.
ABSTRACT: Background: The modulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism pathway is identified in metabolic alterations after hypoxia exposure, but its biological function is controversial. We aimed at integrating plasma metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches to systematically explore the roles of the AA metabolism pathway in response to acute hypoxia using an acute mountain sickness (AMS) model. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 53 enrolled subjects before and after exposure to high altitude. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and RNA sequencing were separately performed for metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling, respectively. Influential modules comprising essential metabolites and genes were identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) after integrating metabolic information with phenotypic and transcriptomic datasets, respectively. Results: Enrolled subjects exhibited diverse response manners to hypoxia. Combined with obviously altered heart rate, oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and Lake Louise Score (LLS), metabolomic profiling detected that 36 metabolites were highly related to clinical features in hypoxia responses, out of which 27 were upregulated and nine were downregulated, and could be mapped to AA metabolism pathway significantly. Integrated analysis of metabolomic and transcriptomic data revealed that these dominant molecules showed remarkable association with genes in gas transport incapacitation and disorders of hemoglobin metabolism pathways, such as ALAS2, HEMGN. After detailed description of AA metabolism pathway, we found that the molecules of 15-d-PGJ2, PGA2, PGE2, 12-O-3-OH-LTB4, LTD4, LTE4 were significantly up-regulated after hypoxia stimuli, and increased in those with poor response manner to hypoxia particularly. Further analysis in another cohort showed that genes in AA metabolism pathway such as PTGES, PTGS1, GGT1, TBAS1 et al. were excessively elevated in subjects in maladaptation to hypoxia. Conclusion: This is the first study to construct the map of AA metabolism pathway in response to hypoxia and reveal the crosstalk between phenotypic variation under hypoxia and the AA metabolism pathway. These findings may improve our understanding of the advanced pathophysiological mechanisms in acute hypoxic diseases and provide new insights into critical roles of the AA metabolism pathway in the development and prevention of these diseases.
Project description:Background: Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism pathway is dominant in metabolic programming after hypoxia exposure, but its biological function is disputed and require in-depth studies. In this research, we aimed at integrating plasma metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches to systematically explore its roles in response to acute hypoxia based on model of acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 53 enrolled subjects before and after their exposure to high altitude. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and RNA sequencing were performed to acquire corresponding metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling along with hypoxia exposure, separately. Influential modules comprising essential metabolites and genes were identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) after integrating metabolic information with phenotypic and transcriptomic datasets, respectively. Results: Enrolled individuals showed significant alterations in heart rate, SpO2, hemoglobin and Lake Louise Score (LLS) in response to hypoxia. Metabolomics profiling demonstrated that AA metabolism pathway was remarkable in these metabolic alterations. Integrated analysis of metabolomic and transcriptomic data revealed that increasing AA metabolism pathway might count for gas transport incapacitation and disorders in hemoglobin metabolism under hypoxia stimuli. Moreover, identified in further analysis and another cohort, excessively elevated AA metabolism pathway was involved in poor response to hypoxia. Conclusion: Our study, for the first time, constructed the maps of AA metabolism pathway in response to hypoxia; and revealed the crosstalk between phenotypic variation to hypoxia and AA metabolism pathway. These findings will not only advanced pathophysiological mechanisms for acute hypoxic diseases, but provided new insights into critical roles of AA metabolism pathway in development and prevention of these diseases. Overall design: Transcriptome from blood samples of individuals were measured and analyzed before their departure and upon their arrival at high altitude (5300m).
Project description:Hypoxia affects the tumor microenvironment and is considered important to metastasis progression and therapy resistance. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of tumor hypoxia responses have been limited to just a single omics level. Combining multiple omics data can broaden our understanding of tumor hypoxia. Here, we investigate the temporal change of the metabolite composition with gene expression data from literature to provide a more comprehensive insight into the system level in response to hypoxia. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to perform metabolomic profiling on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line under hypoxic conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the metabolic difference between hypoxia and normoxia was similar over 24 h, but became distinct over 48 h. Time dependent microarray data from the same cell line in the literature displayed different gene expressions under hypoxic and normoxic conditions mostly at 12 h or earlier. The direct metabolomic profiles show a large overlap with theoretical metabolic profiles deduced from previous transcriptomic studies. Consistent pathways are glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate, purine and arginine and proline metabolism. Ten metabolic pathways revealed by metabolomics were not covered by the downstream of the known transcriptomic profiles, suggesting new metabolic phenotypes. These results confirm previous transcriptomics understanding and expand the knowledge from existing models on correlation and co-regulation between transcriptomic and metabolomics profiles, which demonstrates the power of integrated omics analysis.
Project description:An altered metabolism is involved in the development of clear cell - renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and in this tumor many altered genes play a fundamental role in controlling cell metabolic activities. We delineated a large-scale metabolomic profile of human ccRCC, and integrated it with transcriptomic data to connect the variations in cancer metabolism with gene expression changes. Moreover, to better analyze the specific contribution of metabolic gene alterations potentially associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression, we evaluated the transcription profile of primary renal tumor cells. Untargeted metabolomic analysis revealed a signature of an increased glucose uptake and utilization in ccRCC. In addition, metabolites related to pentose phosphate pathway were also altered in the tumor samples in association with changes in Krebs cycle intermediates and related metabolites. We identified NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex 4-like 2 (NDUFA4L2) as the most highly expressed gene in renal cancer cells and evaluated its role in sustaining angiogenesis, chemoresistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, we showed that silencing of NDUFA4L2 affects cell viability, increases mitochondrial mass, and induces ROS generation in hypoxia.
Project description:Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs) represent a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites and many display potent pharmacological activities. The AA metabolic pathway is poorly understood and resources are minimal. To enable AA pathway elucidation and novel biosynthetic enzymes discovery, we generated comprehensive metabolomic and corresponding transcriptomic datasets from different tissues of Narcissus pseudonarcissus 'King Alfred'. In this study, we performed untargeted UPLC-QTOF-MS metabolite analysis from different tissues, which generated exhaustive list of compounds, including several AAs, most predominant and diverse in bulbs. RNA sequencing of N. pseudonarcissus 'King Alfred' bulbs yielded 195,347 transcripts, after assembly. Top expressed genes belong to process like metabolism, survival, and defense including alkaloid biosynthetic genes. The transcriptome contained complete sequences for all proposed genes encoding AA-biosynthetic enzymes such as tyrosine decarboxylase (TYDC1 and TYDC2), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL1 and PAL2) and phenolic acids hydroxylases (C4H and C3H) to name a few. Furthermore, transcriptome data were validated using RT-qPCR analysis and expression study in different tissues of N. pseudonarcissus 'King Alfred' was performed. Here, we present the first comprehensive metabolome and transcriptome study from N. pseudonarcissus 'King Alfred' providing invaluable resources for metabolic engineering and biotechnological applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine synthesized from Tyr and serotonin synthesized from Trp, are of concern in PKU. Our objective was to utilize metabolomics analysis to assess monoamine metabolites in subjects with PKU consuming amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) and glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). METHODS:Subjects with PKU consumed a low-Phe diet combined with AA-MF or GMP-MF for 3weeks each in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Metabolomic analysis was conducted by Metabolon, Inc. on plasma (n=18) and urine (n=9) samples. Catecholamines and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were measured in 24-h urine samples. RESULTS:Intake of Tyr and Trp was ~50% higher with AA-MF, and AA-MF were consumed in larger quantities, less frequently during the day compared with GMP-MF. Performance on neuropsychological tests and concentrations of neurotransmitters derived from Tyr and Trp were not significantly different with AA-MF or GMP-MF. Plasma serotonin levels of gut origin were higher in subjects with variant compared with classical PKU, and with GMP-MF compared with AA-MF in subjects with variant PKU. Metabolomics analysis identified higher levels of microbiome-derived compounds synthesized from Tyr, such as phenol sulfate, and higher levels of compounds synthesized from Trp in the kynurenine pathway, such as quinolinic acid, with ingestion of AA-MF compared with GMP-MF. CONCLUSIONS:The Tyr from AA-MF is less bioavailable due, in part, to greater degradation by intestinal microbes compared with the Tyr from prebiotic GMP-MF. Research is needed to understand how metabolism of Trp via the kynurenine pathway and changes in the intestinal microbiota affect health for individuals with PKU. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.
Project description:A transgenic mouse model for conditional induction of long-term hibernation via myocardium-specific expression of a VEGF-sequestering soluble receptor allowed the dissection of the hibernation process into an initiation and a maintenance phase. The hypoxic initiation phase was characterized by peak levels of K(ATP) channel and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K(ATP) channels, blocked GLUT1 induction. In the maintenance phase, tissue hypoxia and GLUT1 expression were reduced. Thus, we employed a combined "-omics" approach to resolve this cardioprotective adaptation process. Unguided bioinformatics analysis on the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic datasets confirmed that anaerobic glycolysis was affected and that the observed enzymatic changes in cardiac metabolism were directly linked to hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 activation. Although metabolite concentrations were kept relatively constant, the combination of the proteomic and transcriptomic dataset improved the statistical confidence of the pathway analysis by 2 orders of magnitude. Importantly, proteomics revealed a reduced phosphorylation state of myosin light chain 2 and cardiac troponin I within the contractile apparatus of hibernating hearts in the absence of changes in protein abundance. Our study demonstrates how combining different "-omics" datasets aids in the identification of key biological pathways: chronic hypoxia resulted in a pronounced adaptive response at the transcript and the protein level to keep metabolite levels steady. This preservation of metabolic homeostasis is likely to contribute to the long-term survival of the hibernating myocardium.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To identify metabolomic and genomic markers associated with the presence of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) from a general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS:One thousand five hundred and two subjects, Caucasian, > 18 years, representative of the general population, were included. Blood pressure measurement, anthropometric parameters and metabolic markers were measured. Subjects were grouped according the number of CMRFs (Group 1: <2; Group 2: 2; Group 3: 3 or more CMRFs). Using SNPlex, 1251 SNPs potentially associated to clustering of three or more CMRFs were analyzed. Serum metabolomic profile was assessed by 1H NMR spectra using a Brucker Advance DRX 600 spectrometer. From the total population, 1217 (mean age 54±19, 50.6% men) with high genotyping call rate were analysed. A differential metabolomic profile, which included products from mitochondrial metabolism, extra mitochondrial metabolism, branched amino acids and fatty acid signals were observed among the three groups. The comparison of metabolomic patterns between subjects of Groups 1 to 3 for each of the genotypes associated to those subjects with three or more CMRFs revealed two SNPs, the rs174577_AA of FADS2 gene and the rs3803_TT of GATA2 transcription factor gene, with minimal or no statistically significant differences. Subjects with and without three or more CMRFs who shared the same genotype and metabolomic profile differed in the pattern of CMRFS cluster. Subjects of Group 3 and the AA genotype of the rs174577 had a lower prevalence of hypertension compared to the CC and CT genotype. In contrast, subjects of Group 3 and the TT genotype of the rs3803 polymorphism had a lower prevalence of T2DM, although they were predominantly males and had higher values of plasma creatinine. CONCLUSIONS:The results of the present study add information to the metabolomics profile and to the potential impact of genetic factors on the variants of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors.
Project description:Dysregulated metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, manifested through alterations in metabolites. We performed metabolomic profiling on 138 matched clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC)/normal tissue pairs and found that ccRCC is characterized by broad shifts in central carbon metabolism, one-carbon metabolism, and antioxidant response. Tumor progression and metastasis were associated with metabolite increases in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism pathways. We develop an analytic pipeline and visualization tool (metabolograms) to bridge the gap between TCGA transcriptomic profiling and our metabolomic data, which enables us to assemble an integrated pathway-level metabolic atlas and to demonstrate discordance between transcriptome and metabolome. Lastly, expression profiling was performed on a high-glutathione cluster, which corresponds to a poor-survival subgroup in the ccRCC TCGA cohort.
Project description:Disrupted iron metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that severely affects movement and coordination, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown. To this end, we performed a transcriptomic meta-analysis of four blood microarrays in PD. We observed a significant downregulation of genes related to hemoglobin including, hemoglobin delta (HBD), alpha hemoglobin stabilizing protein (ASHP), genes implicated in iron metabolism including, solute carrier family 11 member 2 (SLC11A2), ferrochelatase (FECH), and erythrocyte-specific genes including erythrocyte membrane protein (EPB42), and 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2). Pathway and network analysis identified enrichment in processes related to mitochondrial membrane, oxygen transport, oxygen and heme binding, hemoglobin complex, erythrocyte development, tetrapyrrole metabolism and the spliceosome. Collectively, we identified a subnetwork of genes in blood that may provide a molecular explanation for the disrupted hemoglobin and iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of PD.
Project description:After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, the intestine undergoes structural and metabolic reprogramming and appears to enhance use of energetic fuels including glucose and amino acids (AAs), changes that may be related to the surgery's remarkable metabolic effects. Consistently, RYGB alters serum levels of AAs and other metabolites, perhaps reflecting mechanisms for metabolic improvement. To home in on the intestinal contribution, we performed metabolomic profiling in portal venous (PV) blood from lean, Long Evans rats after RYGB vs sham surgery. We found that one-carbon metabolism (OCM), nitrogen metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism were significantly enriched in PV blood. Nitrogen, OCM, and sphingolipid metabolism as well as ubiquinone biosynthesis were also overrepresented among metabolites uniquely affected in PV vs peripheral blood in RYGB-operated but not sham-operated animals. Peripheral blood demonstrated changes in AA metabolism, OCM, sphingolipid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Despite enrichment for many of the same pathways, the overall metabolite fingerprint of the 2 compartments did not correlate, highlighting a unique role for PV metabolomic profiling as a window into gut metabolism. AA metabolism and OCM were enriched in peripheral blood both from humans and lean rats after RYGB, demonstrating that these conserved pathways might represent mechanisms for clinical improvement elicited by the surgery in patients. Together, our data provide novel insight into RYGB's effects on the gut-liver axis and highlight a role for OCM as a key metabolic pathway affected by RYGB.