Effect of fatigue and gender on kinematics and ground reaction forces variables in recreational runners.
ABSTRACT: The presence of fatigue has been shown to modify running biomechanics. Overall in terms of gender, women are at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries, although it depends on the factors taken into account. One possible reason for these differences in the injury rate and location might be the dissimilar running patterns between men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fatigue and gender on the kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) parameters in recreational runners. Fifty-seven participants (28 males and 29 females) had kinematic and GRF variables measured while running at speed of 3.3 m s-1 before and after a fatigue test protocol. The fatigue protocol included (1) a running Course-Navette test, (2) running up and down a flight of stairs for 5 min, and (3) performance of alternating jumps on a step (five sets of 1 minute each with 30 resting seconds between the sets). Fatigue decreased dorsiflexion (14.24 ± 4.98° in pre-fatigue and 12.65 ± 6.21° in fatigue condition, p < 0.05) at foot strike phase in females, and plantar flexion (-19.23 ± 4.12° in pre-fatigue and -18.26 ± 5.31° in fatigue condition, p < 0.05) at toe-off phase in males. These changes led to a decreased loading rate (88.14 ± 25.82 BW/s in pre-fatigue and 83.97 ± 18.83 BW/s in fatigue condition, p < 0.05) and the impact peak in females (1.95 ± 0.31 BW in pre-fatigue and 1.90 ± 0.31 BW in fatigue condition, p < 0.05), and higher peak propulsive forces in males (-0.26 ± 0.04 BW in pre-fatigue and -0.27 ± 0.05 BW in fatigue condition, p < 0.05) in the fatigue condition. It seems that better responses to impact under a fatigue condition are observed among women. Further studies should confirm whether these changes represent a strategy to optimize shock attenuation, prevent running injuries and improve running economy.
Project description:Background:Higher peak external knee flexion moments (KFM) during running has been observed in healthy people wearing athletic footwear compared to barefoot, which may increase risk of knee pathologies such as patellofemoral pain. Currently, no studies have examined whether stability and neutral style athletic shoes influence the peak KFM differently, or explored the underlying biomechanical mechanisms by which footwear alters peak KFM in young females. Methods:Lower limb biomechanics of sixty girls aged between 10 and 25?years old were collected while running in footwear (both stability and neutral) and barefoot. The external peak KFM, sagittal plane kinematics, sagittal plane knee ground reaction force (GRF) lever arm and sagittal plane resultant GRF magnitude were analysed by repeated measures Analysis of Variance. Linear mixed models were fit to identify predictors of a change in peak KFM, and to determine if the effects of these predictors differed between footwear conditions. Results:The peak KFM was higher wearing both shoe styles compared to barefoot (p?<?0.001), while no between-shoe differences were found (p?>?0.05). Both shoes also increased kinematic variables at the hip, knee, and ankle (p?<?0.05). When all these variables were entered into the mixed model, only a change in the knee-GRF lever arm was predictive of a change in peak KFM wearing shoes compared to barefoot (p?<?0.001). Conclusion:These findings provide evidence that stability and neutral shoes increase peak KFM compared to barefoot, which is associated with a change in the knee-GRF lever arm rather than a change in lower limb kinematics. Future studies may consider manipulating footwear characteristics to reduce the knee-GRF lever arm in an effort to reduce peak KFM and the potential risk of patellofemoral pain.
Project description:Introduction During cyclical steady state ambulation, such as walking, variability in stride intervals can indicate the state of the system. In order to define locomotor system function, observed variability in motor patterns, stride regulation and gait complexity must be assessed in the presence of a perturbation. Common perturbations, especially for military populations, are load carriage and an imposed locomotion pattern known as forced marching (FM). We examined the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on motor variability, stride regulation and gait complexity during bipedal ambulation in recruit-aged females. Methods Eleven healthy physically active females (18–30 years) completed 1-min trials of running and FM at three load conditions: no additional weight/bodyweight (BW), an additional 25% of BW (BW + 25%), and an additional 45% of BW (BW + 45%). A goal equivalent manifold (GEM) approach was used to assess motor variability yielding relative variability (RV; ratio of “good” to “bad” variability) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to determine gait complexity on stride length (SL) and stride time (ST) parameters. DFA was also used on GEM outcomes to calculate stride regulation. Results There was a main effect of load (p = 0.01) on RV; as load increased, RV decreased. There was a main effect of locomotion (p = 0.01), with FM exhibiting greater RV than running. Strides were regulated more tightly and corrected quicker at BW + 45% compared (p < 0.05) to BW. Stride regulation was greater for FM compared to running. There was a main effect of load for gait complexity (p = 0.002); as load increased gait complexity decreased, likewise FM had less (p = 0.02) gait complexity than running. Discussion This study is the first to employ a GEM approach and a complexity analysis to gait tasks under load carriage. Reduction in “good” variability as load increases potentially exposes anatomical structures to repetitive site-specific loading. Furthermore, load carriage magnitudes of BW + 45% potentially destabilize the system making individuals less adaptable to additional perturbations. This is further evidenced by the decrease in gait complexity, which all participants demonstrated values similarly observed in neurologically impaired populations during the BW + 45% load condition.
Project description:Obesity is considered as a worldwide problem in both males and females. Although many studies have demonstrated the efficiency of oxytocin (Oxt) as an anti-obesity peptide, there is no comparative study of its effect in males and females. This study aims to determine factors (sex, initial body weight, and fat distribution) that may affect the ability of Oxt to regulate body weight (BW). With regard to sex, Oxt reduced BW similarly in males and females under both high fat diet (HFD) and standard chow-fed condition. The BW reduction induced by Oxt correlated with initial BW in male and female mice under HFD conditions. Oxt showed an equal efficacy in fat degradation in both the visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in both males and females fed with HFD. The effect of Oxt on BW reduction was attenuated in standard chow-fed male and female mice. Therefore, our results suggest that administration of Oxt is more effective in reducing BW in subjects with a high initial BW with increased fat accumulation. The present data contains important information for the possible clinical application of Oxt for the treatment of obesity.
Project description:Objective:To explore the relationship among serum uric acid (SUA) levels in different states of disease, human cognition, and spontaneous brain activities by resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Methods:We prospectively recruited 100 subjects (age 58 ± 11 years, 55 females) who underwent fasting blood sampling, cognitive tests and rs-fMRI scans. The subjects were divided into two groups by sex and each sex group was further stratified into three subgroups according to SUA level in different states of disease. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method was applied to assess spontaneous brain activity among groups. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the mean ALFF values (mALFF) and cognitive tests. Results:A total of 97 patients completed the study protocol successfully. Significant differences in age, education level, number connection test (NCT), and word fluency were observed among the three subgroups in males (all P < 0.05). Results of group-by-sex interaction were distributed in bilateral pallidum and putamen [voxel P-value < 0.001, cluster P-value < 0.05, Gaussian random field (GRF)-corrected]. The tendency of the SUA effect on mALFF was different in males and females, particularly in corresponding High SUA subgroups (that is pre-hyperuricemia, both P < 0.001). Among the male subjects, mALFF values of the bilateral pallidum and putamen negatively correlated with attention/executive function. Conclusion:Our results suggest that elevated SUA levels have different effects on spontaneous brain activities and cognitive function in males and females. Males with pre-hyperuricemia and hyperuricemia are more susceptible to changes in spontaneous brain activities and lower neuropsychological assessment scores, particularly in word fluency tests and NCT, compared to females.
Project description:In quadrupeds, there have been limited comparisons of gait timing events detection (e.g., paw contact, PC and paw-off, PO) determined from kinematics and forceplates. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of different slopes (0, -27, +27°), recovery times after ankle extensor nerve injury and repair (2, 6, 12 weeks), subjects and detection methods on accuracy of kinematically derived PC and PO timings during feline walking. Right hindlimb kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 4 cats walking along a sloped walkway with embedded forceplates were recorded. A total of 963 walking cycles were analyzed. Gait timings were determined from five kinematic methods based on displacements, velocities or accelerations of hindlimb markers. GRF based 'gold standard' timings for PC and PO were used to determine the systematic and random error of kinematic timing. Systematic errors between the kinematic methods differed significantly (p<0.05). Methods based on vertical paw peak acceleration and velocity gave the smallest systematic errors for PC and PO, respectively. The smallest random errors (standard deviations) for PC and PO were demonstrated by method based on paw horizontal displacement relative to greater trochanter: 13.4ms and 6.6ms, respectively. Effects of slope and subject on systematic errors of kinematic methods were significant, whereas effects of recovery time after nerve injury were not. It was concluded that timing of gait events can be determined consistently using kinematics, although adjustments must be made to account for the systematic error which varies according to subject and slope condition.
Project description:Running practice could generate musculoskeletal adaptations that modify the body mechanics and generate different biomechanical patterns for individuals with distinct levels of experience. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether foot-ankle kinetic and kinematic patterns can be used to discriminate different levels of experience in running practice of recreational runners using a machine learning approach. Seventy-eight long-distance runners (40.7 ± 7.0 years) were classified into less experienced (n = 24), moderately experienced (n = 23), or experienced (n = 31) runners using a fuzzy classification system, based on training frequency, volume, competitions and practice time. Three-dimensional kinematics of the foot-ankle and ground reaction forces (GRF) were acquired while the subjects ran on an instrumented treadmill at a self-selected speed (9.5-10.5 km/h). The foot-ankle kinematic and kinetic time series underwent a principal component analysis for data reduction, and combined with the discrete GRF variables to serve as inputs in a support vector machine (SVM), to determine if the groups could be distinguished between them in a one-vs.-all approach. The SVM models successfully classified all experience groups with significant crossvalidated accuracy rates and strong to very strong Matthew's correlation coefficients, based on features from the input data. Overall, foot mechanics was different according to running experience level. The main distinguishing kinematic factors for the less experienced group were a greater dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and a larger plantarflexion angles between the calcaneus and metatarsals, whereas the experienced runners displayed the opposite pattern for the same joints. As for the moderately experienced runners, although they were successfully classified, they did not present a visually identifiable running pattern, and seem to be an intermediate group between the less and more experienced runners. The results of this study have the potential to assist the development of training programs targeting improvement in performance and rehabilitation protocols for preventing injuries.
Project description:Physical fatigue and pronated feet constitute two risk factors for running-related lower limb injuries. Accordingly, different running shoe companies designed anti-pronation shoes with medial support to limit over pronation in runners. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness and clinical relevance of anti-pronation shoes. This study examined lower limb kinematics and kinetics in young female runners with pronated feet during running with anti-pronation versus regular (neutral) running shoes in unfatigued and fatigued condition. Twenty-six female runners aged 24.1±5.6 years with pronated feet volunteered to participate in this study. Kinetic (3D Kistler force plate) and kinematic analyses (Vicon motion analysis system) were conducted to record participants' ground reaction forces and joint kinematics when running with anti-pronation compared with neutral running shoes. Physical fatigue was induced through an individualized submaximal running protocol on a motorized treadmill using rate of perceived exertion and heart rate monitoring. The statistical analyses indicated significant main effects of "footwear" for peak ankle inversion, peak ankle eversion, and peak hip internal rotation angles (p<0.03; d = 0.46-0.95). Pair-wise comparisons revealed a significantly greater peak ankle inversion angle (p<0.03; d = 0.95; 2.70°) and smaller peak eversion angle (p<0.03; d = 0.46; 2.53°) when running with anti-pronation shoes compared with neutral shoes. For kinetic data, significant main effects of "footwear" were found for peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak hip flexor moment, peak hip extensor moment, peak hip abductor moment, and peak hip internal rotator moment (p<0.02; d = 1.00-1.79). For peak positive hip power in sagittal and frontal planes and peak negative hip power in horizontal plane, we observed significant main effects of "footwear" (p<0.03; d = 0.92-1.06). Pairwise comparisons revealed that peak positive hip power in sagittal plane (p<0.03; d = 0.98; 2.39 w/kg), peak positive hip power in frontal plane (p = 0.014; d = 1.06; 0.54 w/kg), and peak negative hip power in horizontal plane (p<0.03; d = 0.92; 0.43 w/kg) were greater with anti-pronation shoes. Furthermore, the statistical analyses indicated significant main effects of "Fatigue" for peak ankle inversion, peak ankle eversion, and peak knee external rotation angles. Pair-wise comparisons revealed a fatigue-induced decrease in peak ankle inversion angle (p<0.01; d = 1.23; 2.69°) and a fatigue-induced increase in peak knee external rotation angle (p<0.05; d = 0.83; 5.40°). In addition, a fatigue-related increase was found for peak ankle eversion (p<0.01; d = 1.24; 2.67°). For kinetic data, we observed a significant main effect of "Fatigue" for knee flexor moment, knee internal rotator moment, and hip extensor moment (p<0.05; d = 0.83-1.01). The statistical analyses indicated significant a main effect of "Fatigue" for peak negative ankle power in sagittal plane (p<0.01; d = 1.25). Finally, we could not detect any significant footwear by fatigue interaction effects for all measures of joint kinetics and kinematics. Running in anti-pronation compared with neutral running shoes produced lower peak moments and powers in lower limb joints and better control in rear foot eversion. Physical fatigue increased peak moments and powers in lower limb joints irrespective of the type of footwear.
Project description:Sex differences are an important component of National Institutes of Health rigor. The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that female mice have greater exercise capacity than male mice, and that it is due to estrogen, nitric oxide, and myosin heavy chain expression. Female C57BL6/J wild-type mice exhibited greater (P < 0.05) maximal exercise capacity for running distance (489?±?15 m) than age-matched male counterparts (318?±?15 m), as well as 20% greater work to exhaustion. When matched for weight or muscle mass, females still maintained greater exercise capacity than males. Increased type I and decreased type II myosin heavy chain fibers in the soleus muscle from females are consistent with fatigue resistance and better endurance in females compared with males. After ovariectomy, female mice no longer demonstrated enhanced exercise, and treatment of male mice with estrogen resulted in exercise capacity similar to that of intact females (485?±?37 m). Nitric oxide synthase, a downstream target of estrogen, exhibited higher activity in female mice compared with male mice, P < 0.05, whereas ovariectomized females exhibited nitric oxide synthase levels similar to males. Nitric oxide synthase activity also increased in males treated with chronic estrogen to levels of intact females. Nitric oxide synthase blockade with N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester eliminated the sex differences in exercise capacity. Thus estrogen, nitric oxide, and myosin heavy chain expression are important mechanisms mediating the enhanced exercise performance in females.
Project description:This meta-analysis compared the gait patterns of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) patients and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients during level walking by evaluating the kinetics, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they assessed the vertical ground reaction force (GRF), joint moment at stance, flexion at initial contact, flexion at swing, overall range of motion (ROM), coronal knee angle at stance, walking speed, cadence, and stride length in UKA patients or TKA patients. Seven non-randomized studies met the criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis. UKA patients and TKA patients were similar in terms of vertical GRF (95% CI: -0.36 to 0.20; P = 0.60), joint moment (95% CI: -0.55 to 0.63; P = 0.90), kinematic outcomes (95% CI: -0.72 to 1.02; P = 0.74), walking speed (95% CI: -0.27 to 0.81; P = 0.32), and cadence (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.68; P = 0.20). In contrast, the stride length (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80; P = 0.04) differed significantly between groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that the pooled data were similar between the groups: 1st maximum (heel strike), -0.18 BW (P = 0.53); 1st minimum (mid-stance), -0.43 BW (P = 0.08); and 2nd maximum (toe off), -0.03 BW (P = 0.87). On gait analysis, there were no significant differences in vertical GRF, joint moment at stance, overall kinematics, walking speed, or cadence between UKA patients and TKA patients during level walking. However, the TKA group had significantly shorter stride length than UKA patients. Although the comparison was inconclusive in determining which types of knee arthroplasty offered the closest approximation to normal gait, we consider it important to provide better rehabilitation programs to reduce the abnormal stride length in TKA patients compared to UKA patients.
Project description:The reproductive performance of Octopus vulgaris broodstocks fed two different diets (mixed fish [F group, BW 1,048.14 g] or mixed crustaceans [C group, BW 998.44 g]) was analyzed using an experimental recirculating aquaculture system consisting of a tank equipped with spawning and incubation chambers. A total of 8 females (F1-4; C1-4), and 8 males (M1-M8) were selected. DI of the C group females was significantly (p?<?0.05) higher (3.0?±?0.29%) than the F group (2.16?±?0.67%). SGR in C group was significantly higher (1.43?±?0.12%) than the F group (1.18?±?0.25%). Egg clusters, number of clusters, number of clusters/kg BW, and total length were more favorable in the C group than the F group. The number of clusters/kg BW of C females was 2.5 times higher than that of F females (78.1?±?6.5 vs 31.1?±?13.3). The total eggs number, number of eggs/cm, number of eggs/kg BW in the C group were significantly (p?<?0.05) higher compared with the F group; the number of eggs/kg BW and paralarvae/kg BW were 5 times higher in the C group (115,928?±?12,513 C vs 22,109?±?7912 F and 114,953?±?12,591 vs 20,729?±?7104, respectively). Hatching rate of the C group was significantly (p?<?0.05) higher compared to the F group.