Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of MADS-box genes associated with reproductive development in Momordica dioica Roxb.
ABSTRACT: The repertoire and functions of MADS-box family transcription factors (TFs) largely remains unexplored with respect to floral organogenesis of Momordica dioica Roxb. Degenerative PCR followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends was employed in the present study to clone and characterize 17 MADS-box genes (designated as MdMADS01 to MdMADS17) from the floral buds of M. dioica. The cloned genes were clustered into three subgroups (11 MIKCC, 4 MIKC* and 2 M?) based on phylogenetic relationships with the MADS-box genes from Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo and Arabidopsis thaliana. Southern hybridization showed that all the isolated genes were represented by single copy locus in the M. dioica genome. Gene structure analysis revealed 1-8 exons in MdMADS-box genes with the number of exons in MIKC greatly exceeding from that in M-type genes. Motif elicitation of the MdMADS-box genes indicated the presence of additional domains with MIKC type, suggesting that they had more complex structures. Expression analysis of MdMADS genes in six M. dioica transcriptome suggested that, 11 MIKCC-type genes are associated with floral homeotic functions, 4 MIKC*-type genes (MdMADS12 to MdMADS15) controlled the growth of male gametophyte, while the two M-type genes (MdMADS16 and MdMADS17) played significant role in female gametogenesis and seed development. Overall, these are the first set of MADS-box genes from M. dioica exhibiting a differential expression pattern during floral development. The results from this study will provide valuable information for further functional studies of candidate MADS-box genes in the sexual dimorphism of this economically important dioecious cucurbit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are known to be involved in several aspects of plant growth and development, especially in floral organ specification. To date, the comprehensive analysis of potato MADS-box gene family is still lacking after the completion of potato genome sequencing. A genome-wide characterization, classification, and expression analysis of MADS-box transcription factor gene family was performed in this study. RESULTS:A total of 153 MADS-box genes were identified and categorized into MIKC subfamily (MIKCC and MIKC*) and M-type subfamily (M?, M?, and M?) based on their phylogenetic relationships to the Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes. The potato M-type subfamily had 114 members, which is almost three times of the MIKC members (39), indicating that M-type MADS-box genes have a higher duplication rate and/or a lower loss rate during potato genome evolution. Potato MADS-box genes were present on all 12 potato chromosomes with substantial clustering that mainly contributed by the M-type members. Chromosomal localization of potato MADS-box genes revealed that MADS-box genes, mostly MIKC, were located on the duplicated segments of the potato genome whereas tandem duplications mainly contributed to the M-type gene expansion. The potato MIKC subfamily could be further classified into 11 subgroups and the TT16-like, AGL17-like, and FLC-like subgroups found in Arabidopsis were absent in potato. Moreover, the expressions of potato MADS-box genes in various tissues were analyzed by using RNA-seq data and verified by quantitative real-time PCR, revealing that the MIKCC genes were mainly expressed in flower organs and several of them were highly expressed in stolon and tubers. StMADS1 and StMADS13 were up-regulated in the StSP6A-overexpression plants and down-regulated in the StSP6A-RNAi plant, and their expression in leaves and/or young tubers were associated with high level expression of StSP6A. CONCLUSION:Our study identifies the family members of potato MADS-box genes and investigate the evolution history and functional divergence of MADS-box gene family. Moreover, we analyze the MIKCC expression patterns and screen for genes involved in tuberization. Finally, the StMADS1 and StMADS13 are most likely to be downstream target of StSP6A and involved in tuber development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MADS-box genes play crucial roles in plant floral organ formation and plant reproductive development. However, there is still no information on genome-wide identification and classification of MADS-box genes in some representative plant species. A comprehensive investigation of MIKC-type genes in the orchid Dendrobium officinale is still lacking. RESULTS:Here we conducted a genome-wide analysis of MADS-box proteins from 29 species. In total, 1689 MADS-box proteins were identified. Two types of MADS-box genes, termed type I and II, were found in land plants, but not in liverwort. The SQUA, DEF/GLO, AG and SEP subfamilies existed in all the tested flowering plants, while SQUA was absent in the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba, and no genes of the four subfamilies were found in a charophyte, liverwort, mosses, or lycophyte. This strongly corroborates the notion that clades of floral organ identity genes led to the evolution of flower development in flowering plants. Nine subfamilies of MIKCC genes were present in two orchids, D. officinale and Phalaenopsis equestris, while the TM8, FLC, AGL15 and AGL12 subfamilies may be lost. In addition, the four clades of floral organ identity genes in both orchids displayed a conservative and divergent expression pattern. Only three MIKC-type genes were induced by cold stress in D. officinale while 15 MIKC-type genes showed different levels of expression during seed germination. CONCLUSIONS:MIKC-type genes were identified from streptophyte lineages, revealing new insights into their evolution and development relationships. Our results show a novel role of MIKC-type genes in seed germination and provide a useful clue for future research on seed germination in orchids.
Project description:MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that participate in various plant growth and development processes, particularly floral organogenesis. To date, MADS-box genes have been reported in many species, the completion of the sequence of the willow genome provides us with the opportunity to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the willow MADS-box gene family. Here, we identified 60 willow MADS-box genes using bioinformatics-based methods and classified them into 22 M-type (11 M?, seven M? and four M?) and 38 MIKC-type (32 MIKCc and six MIKC*) genes based on a phylogenetic analysis. Fifty-six of the 60 SsMADS genes were randomly distributed on 19 putative willow chromosomes. By combining gene structure analysis with evolutionary analysis, we found that the MIKC-type genes were more conserved and played a more important role in willow growth. Further study showed that the MIKC* type was a transition between the M-type and MIKC-type. Additionally, the number of MADS-box genes in gymnosperms was notably lower than that in angiosperms. Finally, the expression profiles of these willow MADS-box genes were analysed in five different tissues (root, stem, leave, bud and bark) and validated by RT-qPCR experiments. This study is the first genome-wide analysis of the willow MADS-box gene family, and the results establish a basis for further functional studies of willow MADS-box genes and serve as a reference for related studies of other woody plants.
Project description:MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in plant development control (particularly in floral organogenesis) and signal transduction pathways, though a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is still missing. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Chinese jujube. Based on phylogenetic analyses, 52 jujube MADS-box genes were classified into 25 MIKCC-type, 3 MIKC*-type, 16 M?, 5 M? and 3 M? genes. 37 genes were randomly distributed across all 12 putative chromosomes. We found that the type II genes are more complex than the type I genes and that tandem duplications have occurred in three groups of MADS-box genes. Meanwhile, some gene pairs in the same clade displayed similar or distinct expression profiles, suggesting possible functional redundancy or divergence. MIKCC-type genes exhibited typical temporal and spatial expression patterns in the four whorls of floral tissues. The expressions of B, C/D and E-type genes were significantly suppressed in phyllody as compared to flower, providing valuable evidence for their involvement in flower development. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the MADS-box family in jujube, and provides valuable information for elucidating molecular regulation mechanism of jujube flower development.
Project description:Plant life critically depends on the function of MADS-box genes encoding MADS-domain transcription factors, which are present to a limited extent in nearly all major eukaryotic groups, but constitute a large gene family in land plants. There are two types of MADS-box genes, termed type I and type II, and in plants these groups are distinguished by exon-intron and domain structure, rates of evolution, developmental function and degree of functional redundancy. The type I genes are further subdivided into three groups - M alpha, M beta and M gamma - while the type II genes are subdivided into the MIKCC and MIKC* groups. The functional diversification of MIKCC genes is closely linked to the origin of developmental and morphological novelties in the sporophytic (usually diploid) generation of seed plants, most spectacularly the floral organs and fruits of angiosperms. Functional studies suggest different specializations for the different classes of genes; whereas type I genes may preferentially contribute to female gametophyte, embryo and seed development and MIKC*-group genes to male gametophyte development, the MIKCC-group genes became essential for diverse aspects of sporophyte development. Beyond the usual transcriptional regulation, including feedback and feed-forward loops, various specialized mechanisms have evolved to control the expression of MADS-box genes, such as epigenetic control and regulation by small RNAs. In future, more data from genome projects and reverse genetic studies will allow us to understand the birth, functional diversification and death of members of this dynamic and important family of transcription factors in much more detail.
Project description:The Orchidaceae family, which is one of the most species-rich flowering plant families, includes species with highly diversified and specialized flower shapes. The aim of this study was to analyze the MADS-box genes expressed in the inflorescence of Orchis italica, a wild Mediterranean orchid species. MADS-box proteins are transcription factors involved in various plant biological processes, including flower development. In the floral tissues of O. italica, 29 MADS-box genes are expressed that are classified as both class I and II. Class I MADS-box genes include one M?-type gene, thereby confirming the presence of this type of MADS-box genes in orchids. The class II MIKC* gene is highly expressed in the column, which is consistent with the conserved function of the MIKC* genes in gametophyte development. In addition, homologs of the SOC, SVP, ANR1, AGL12 and OsMADS32 genes are expressed. Compared with previous knowledge on class II MIKCC genes of O. italica involved in the ABCDE model of flower development, the number of class B and D genes has been confirmed. In addition, 4 class A (AP1/FUL) transcripts, 2 class E (SEP) transcripts, 2 new class C (AG) transcripts and 1 new AGL6 transcript have been identified. Within the AP1/FUL genes, the sequence divergence, relaxation of purifying selection and expression profiles suggest a possible functional diversification within these orchid genes. The detection of only two SEP transcripts in O. italica, in contrast with the 4 genes found in other orchids, suggests that only two SEP genes could be present in the subfamily Orchidoideae. The expression pattern of the MIKCC genes of O. italica indicates that low levels at the boundary of the domain of a given MADS-box gene can overlap with the expression of genes belonging to a different functional A-E class in the adjacent domain, thereby following a "fading borders" model.
Project description:The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 M?, 12 M? and 25M?) and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC?). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.
Project description:In flowering plants, arguably the most significant transcription factors regulating development are MADS-domain proteins, encoded by Type I and Type II MADS-box genes. Type II genes are divided into the MIKC(C) and MIKC* groups. In angiosperms, these types and groups play distinct roles in the development of female gametophytes, embryos, and seeds (Type I); vegetative and floral tissues in sporophytes (MIKC(C)); and male gametophytes (MIKC*), but their functions in other plants are largely unknown. The complete set of MADS-box genes has been described for several angiosperms and a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Our examination of the complete genome sequence of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, revealed 19 putative MADS-box genes (13 Type I, 3 MIKC(C), and 3 MIKC*). Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of vascular plants possessed at least two Type I and two Type II genes. None of the S. moellendorffii MIKC(C) genes were identified as orthologs of any floral organ identity genes. This strongly corroborates the view that the clades of floral organ identity genes originated in a common ancestor of seed plants after the lineage that led to lycophytes had branched off, and that expansion of MIKC(C) genes in the lineage leading to seed plants facilitated the evolution of their unique reproductive organs. The number of MIKC* genes and the ratio of MIKC* to MIKC(C) genes is lower in S. moellendorffii and angiosperms than in P. patens, correlated with reduction of the gametophyte in vascular plants. Our data indicate that Type I genes duplicated and diversified independently within lycophytes and seed plants. Our observations on MADS-box gene evolution echo morphological evolution since the two lineages of vascular plants appear to have arrived independently at similar body plans. Our annotation of MADS-box genes in S. moellendorffii provides the basis for functional studies to reveal the roles of this crucial gene family in basal vascular plants.
Project description:Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS)-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC?, M?, and M?. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The classical (C) MIKC-type MADS-box transcription factors comprise one gene family that plays diverse roles in the flowering process ranging from floral initiation to the development of floral organs. Despite their importance in regulating developmental processes that impact crop yield, they remain largely unexplored in the major legume oilseed crop, soybean.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 57 MIKC(c)-type transcription factors from soybean and determined the in silico gene expression profiles of the soybean MIKC(c)-type genes across different tissues. Our study implicates three MIKC(c)-type transcription factors as novel members of the AGAMOUS LIKE 6 (AGL6) subfamily of the MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes, and we named this sister clade PsMADS3. While similar genes were identified in other legume species, poplar and grape, no such gene is represented in Arabidopsis thaliana or rice. RT-PCR analysis on these three soybean PsMADS3 genes during early floral initiation processes revealed their temporal expression similar to that of APETALA1, a gene known to function as a floral meristem identity gene. However, RNA in situ hybridisation showed that their spatial expression patterns are markedly different from those of APETALA1.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Legume flower development system differs from that in the model plant, Arabidopsis. There is an overlap in the initiation of different floral whorls in soybean, and inflorescent meristems can revert to leaf production depending on the environmental conditions. MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes have been shown to play key regulatory roles in different stages of flower development. We identified members of the PsMADS3 sub-clade in legumes that show differential spatial expression during floral initiation, indicating their potential novel roles in the floral initiation process. The results from this study will contribute to a better understanding of legume-specific floral developmental processes.