Indicators for prediction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis positivity detected with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in clinic, especially for sputum negative pulmonary TB. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has higher sensitivity than sputum for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, bronchoscopy is invasive and costly, and not suitable for all patients. In order to make TB patients get more benefit from BALF for diagnosis, we explore which indicator might be used to optimize the choice of bronchoscopy.A total of 1539 sputum-smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects who underwent bronchoscopy were recruited for evaluation. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Mtb detection in sputum and BALF were compared. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess variables that associated with positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, Mtb culture and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) of BALF in sputum-negative and non-sputum-producing pulmonary TB suspects.BALF has significantly higher sensitivity (63.4%) than sputum (43.5%) for Mtb detection by culture and NAAT. 19.7% (122/620) sputum-negative and 40.0% (163/408) non-sputum-producing suspects had positive bacteriological results in BALF. Among sputum-negative and non-sputum-producing pulmonary TB suspects, the positivity of Mtb detection in BALF is associated with a younger age, the presence of pulmonary cavities and a positive result of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Sputum-negative patients under 35 years old with positive IGRA and pulmonary cavity had 84.8% positivity of Mtb in BALF.Our study indicated that combination of age, the presence of pulmonary cavity, and the result of IGRA is useful to predict the positivity of Mtb detection in BALF among sputum-negative and non-sputum producing pulmonary TB suspects. Those who are under 35 years old, positive for the presence of pulmonary cavity and IGRA, should undergo bronchoscopy to collect BAFL for Mtb tests, as they have the highest possibility to get bacteriologically confirmation of TB.
Project description:PURPOSE: We investigated the value of an interferon-? release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among sputum smear negative PTB suspects in an environment with intermediate burden of PTB and high Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed IGRA, medical records, chest PA and CT scan of PTB suspects seen at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2013. "Active PTB" was diagnosed when 1) M. tuberculosis culture positive, 2) confirmation by pathologic examination; or 3) clinical findings compatible with TB. RESULTS: Of 224 sputum smear negative PTB suspects, 94 were confirmed as having active PTB. There were no statistically significant differences in the diagnostic yield of IGRA between immunocompromised and immunocompetent sputum smear negative PTB suspects. IGRA did show superior sensitivity [81.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI); 74.13-89.70%] in the diagnosis of sputum smear negative PTB when compared with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), tuberculin skin test (TST), and chest X-ray (p<0.001). Also, IGRA showed highest negative predictive value (82.7%, 95% CI; 75.16-90.15%) when compared with HRCT, TST and chest X-ray (p=0.023). However, combining the results of IGRA with those of HRCT, TST, or both did not increase any diagnostic parameters. CONCLUSION: Failure to increase diagnostic yields by combination with other diagnostic modalities suggests that additional enforcement with IGRA may be insufficient to exclude other diagnoses in sputum smear negative PTB suspects and to screen active PTB in an environment with intermediate TB prevalence and a high BCG vaccination rate.
Project description:The accuracy and impact of new tuberculosis (TB) tests, such as Xpert MTB/RIF, when performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from patients with sputum-scarce or smear-negative TB is unclear.South African patients with suspected pulmonary TB (n=160) who were sputum-scarce or smear-negative underwent bronchoscopy. MTB/RIF was performed on uncentrifuged BALF (1 ml) and/or a resuspended pellet of centrifuged BALF (?10 ml). Time to TB detection and anti-TB treatment initiation were compared between phase one, when MTB/RIF was performed as a research tool, and phase two, when it was used for patient management.27 of 154 patients with complete data had culture-confirmed TB. Of these, a significantly lower proportion were detected by smear microscopy compared with MTB/RIF (58%, 95% CI 39% to 75% versus 93%, 77% to 98%; p<0.001). Of the 127 patients who were culture negative, 96% (91% to 98%) were MTB/RIF negative. When phase two was compared with phase one, MTB/RIF reduced the median days to TB detection (29 (18-41) to 0 (0-0); p<0.001). However, more patients initiated empirical therapy (absence of a positive test in those commencing treatment) in phase one versus phase two (79% (11/14) versus 28% (10/25); p=0.026). Consequently, there was no detectable difference in the overall proportion of patients initiating treatment (26% (17/67; 17% to 37%) versus 36% (26/73; 26% to 47%); p=0.196) or the days to treatment initiation (10 (1-49) versus 7 (0-21); p=0.330). BALF centrifugation, HIV coinfection and a second MTB/RIF did not result in detectable changes in accuracy.MTB/RIF detected TB cases more accurately and more rapidly than smear microscopy and significantly reduced the rate of empirical treatment.
Project description:At present, tuberculosis remains a serious threat to human health. The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is still difficult, and the prominent challenge for diagnosis is the lack of a highly sensitive and specific method. In order to explore the diagnostic value of parallel tests, this study prospectively enrolled 258 patients with smear-negative PTB from May 2, 2015 to December 31, 2016. The sputum specimens and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from all patients were assessed for MTB detection by culture, Xpert MTB/RIF, and simultaneous amplification and testing method for TB (SAT-TB). Overall, the sensitivity of any single test using culture, Xpert MTB/RIF, or SAT-TB was lower than that for parallel tests (<i>p</i> < 0.05), and the sensitivity rates for MTB detection in BALF were significantly higher than those in sputum samples. There were lower agreements in the detection results between sputum samples and BALF for all tests (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The parallel tests models of using culture plus Xpert MTB/RIF plus SAT-TB, culture plus Xpert, or culture plus SAT-TB achieved higher sensitivities compared with all three single test models (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Additionally, joint detection using sputum and BALF samples achieved a high sensitivity (0.8566, 95% CI: 0.8086-0.8941). In conclusion, the parallel tests model using culture, Xpert MTB/RIF, and SAT-TB in sputum plus BALF significantly increases the diagnostic performance of smear-negative PTB; thus, this method should be applied clinically when PTB is suspected but smear results are negative.
Project description:Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is critical for timely initiation of treatment and interruption of transmission. Yet, despite recent advances, many patients remain undiagnosed. Culture, usually considered the most sensitive diagnostic method, is sub-optimal for paucibacillary disease.We evaluated the Totally Optimized PCR (TOP) TB assay, a new molecular test that we hypothesize is more sensitive than culture. After pre-clinical studies, we estimated TOP's per-patient sensitivity and specificity in a convenience sample of 261 HIV-infected pulmonary TB suspects enrolled into a TB diagnostic study in Mbarara, Uganda against MGIT culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and a composite reference standard. We validated results with a confirmatory PCR used for sequencing M. tuberculosis.Using culture as reference, TOP had 100% sensitivity but 35% specificity. Against a composite reference standard, the sensitivity of culture (27%) and Xpert MTB/RIF (27%) was lower than TOP (99%), with similar specificity (100%, 98% and 87%, respectively). In unadjusted analyses, culture-negative/TOP-positive patients were more likely to be older (P<0·001), female (P<0·001), have salivary sputum (P = 0·05), sputum smear-negative (P<0.001) and less advanced disease on chest radiograph (P = 0.05). M. tuberculosis genotypes identified in sputum by DNA sequencing exhibit differential growth in culture.These findings suggest that the TOP TB assay is accurately detecting M. tuberculosis DNA in the sputum of culture-negative tuberculosis suspects. Our results require prospective validation with clinical outcomes. If the operating characteristics of the TOP assay are confirmed in future studies, it will be justified as a "TB rule out" test.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that is designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex and rifampin resistance. However, there are relatively few studies on this method in China. Xpert has been routinely used at Peking University People's Hospital (PKUPH) since November 2016. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Xpert, and provide a reference and guidance for the detection and diagnosis of TB in non-TB specialized hospitals. METHODS:The medical records of inpatients simultaneously tested with Xpert, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, by T-SPOT®.TB) at PKUPH from November 2016 to October 2018 were reviewed. Active TB cases were considered according to a composite reference standard (CRS). Then, the three methods were evaluated and compared. RESULTS:In total, 787 patients simultaneously tested with Xpert, AFB, and IGRA were enrolled; among them 11.3% (89/787) were diagnosed and confirmed active pulmonary TB (PTB, 52 cases), extrapulmonary TB (EPTB, 17 cases), and tuberculous pleurisy (TP, 20 cases). The sensitivity of Xpert in detecting PTB, EPTB, and TP was 88.5, 76.5, and 15.0%, respectively, which was slightly lower than IGRA (96.2, 82.4, and 95.0%, respectively), but higher than AFB (36.5, 11.8, and 0%, respectively); IGRA showed the highest sensitivity, but its specificity (55.9, 67.1, and 45.2%, respectively) was significantly lower than Xpert (99.6, 99.4, and 100%, respectively) and AFB (99.0, 99.4, and 100%, respectively) (P?<?0.001). The sensitivity of Xpert in detecting lung tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph nodes, and joint fluid was 100%, followed by sputum (88.5%), alveolar lavage (85.7%), and bronchoscopy secretion (81.2%); the pleural fluid sensitivity was the lowest, only 15.0%. For AFB negative patients, the sensitivity of Xpert in detecting PTB, EPTB, and TP was 84.9, 73.3, and 15.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Xpert showed both high sensitivity and high specificity, and suggested its high value in TB diagnosis; however, the application of pleural fluid is still limited, and should be improved. Owing to the high sensitivity of IGRA, it is recommended for use as a supplementary test, especially for assisting in the diagnosis of TP and EPTB.
Project description:Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and most pediatric TB cannot be diagnosed using sputum-based assays. The epidemiological impact of different strategies to diagnose EPTB and pediatric TB is unclear.We developed a dynamic epidemic model of TB in a hypothetical population with epidemiological characteristics similar to India. We evaluated the impact of four alternative diagnostic test platforms on adult EPTB and pediatric TB mortality over 10 years: (1) Nucleic acid amplification test optimized for diagnosis of EPTB ("NAAT-EPTB"); (2) NAAT optimized for pediatric TB ("NAAT-Peds"); (3) more deployable NAAT for sputum-based diagnosis of adult pulmonary TB ("point-of-care (POC) sputum NAAT"); and (4) more deployable NAAT capable of diagnosing all forms of TB using non-invasive, non-sputum specimens ("POC non-sputum NAAT").NAAT-EPTB lowered adult EPTB mortality by a projected 7.6% (95% uncertainty range [UR]: 6.5-8.8%). NAAT-Peds lowered pediatric TB mortality by 6.8% (UR: 4.9-8.4%). POC sputum NAAT, though only able to diagnose pulmonary TB, reduced projected pediatric TB deaths by 13.3% (UR: 4.6-15.7%) and adult EPTB deaths by 8.4% (UR 2.0-9.3%) simply by averting transmission of disease. POC non-sputum NAAT had the greatest effect, lowering pediatric TB mortality by 34.7% (UR: 26.8-38.7), and adult EPTB mortality by 38.5% (UR: 30.7-41.2). The relative impact of a POC sputum NAAT (i.e., enhanced deployability) versus NAAT-EPTB (i.e., enhanced ability to specifically diagnose TB-NSP) on adult EPTB mortality depends most strongly on factors that influence transmission, with settings of higher transmission (e.g., higher per-person transmission rate, lower diagnostic rate) favoring POC sputum NAAT.Although novel tests for pediatric TB and EPTB are likely to reduce TB mortality, major reductions in pediatric and EPTB incidence and mortality also require better diagnostic tests for adult pulmonary TB that reach a larger population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted in bioaerosols containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Despite being central to ongoing TB transmission, no routine diagnostic assay exists to measure Mtb in bioaerosols. Furthermore, published studies of Mtb in bioaerosol samples have been limited to individuals with sputum-positive pulmonary TB. Notably, TB diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and sputum laboratory findings. This is despite the fact that approximately half of all patients commencing TB treatment are sputum-negative, resulting in a high proportion of presumptive treatments. Here, we propose to use a sensitive air sampling protocol to investigate the prevalence of Mtb-containing bioaerosols in both sputum-positive and sputum-negative TB suspects, at the same time evaluating the potential to identify unrecognized transmitters of TB. METHODS:Our parallel-group design will identify viable Mtb in bioaerosols produced by individuals attending a TB clinic in South Africa. Sampling will be performed on eligible individuals presenting with symptoms indicative of TB and repeated at 14?days if initially positive. Participants will be prospectively classified into three distinct groups based on National TB Control Program (NTBCP) criteria: Group A, TB notification with sputum-based laboratory confirmation; Group B, TB notification with empiric diagnosis; and Group C, individuals not notified. Group C individuals with detectable Mtb bioaerosol will be monitored until resolution of clinical and laboratory status. Collection of bioaerosol specimens will be via two consecutive sampling modalities: (1) direct sampling following a specific respiratory manoeuvre; and (2) indirect sampling during passive respiratory activity. Bioaerosol specimens will be analyzed for viable Mtb using DMN-trehalose staining and live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Mtb genomes and mycobacterial and host lipids will be detected using droplet digital PCR and mass spectrometry analyses, respectively. The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of Mtb bioaerosols in all TB clinic attendees and in each of the groups. Secondary objectives are to investigate differences in prevalence of Mtb bioaerosol by HIV status and current isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) use; we will also determine the impact of anti-TB chemotherapy on Mtb-containing bioaerosol production. DISCUSSION:Respiratory bioaerosol has a potential role in non-invasive TB diagnosis, infectivity measurement and treatment monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04241809 . Date of Registration: 27/1/2020.
Project description:Background:Among adults with signs and symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), recognition of transmissible TB has implications for airborne infection isolation and public health activities. Sputum smear-negative TB patients account for around one-fifth of tuberculosis transmission. The tuberculosis transmission risk of TB patients with negative results on nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) of respiratory specimens has not been established. We sought to estimate the tuberculosis transmission risk of NAAT-negative TB patients. Methods:We retrospectively reviewed Maryland TB program data collected from 2004 to 2009, during which time NAAT using the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) was performed routinely. Patients with sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolates having matching genotypes were assigned to clusters. Transmission sequence was approximated by collection order of individuals' first culture-positive specimens. Minimum transmission risks of NAAT (MTD)-negative TB patients and of smear-negative TB patients were estimated based on individuals' positions within clusters. Results:Among 809 patients with culture-confirmed TB, M.tb genotypes were available for 782 (96.7%). For NAA-negative TB patients, the minimum transmission risk estimate was 5.1% (95% CI 0-11.4). For smear-negative TB patients, the minimum transmission risk estimate was 11.2% (95% CI 7.2-15.3). Conclusions:Minimum transmission risk of NAAT-negative TB patients was lower than that of smear-negative TB patients. However, transmission risk of NAA-negative TB patients appears to not be negligible.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is extremely recalcitrant to antimicrobial chemotherapy requiring 6 months to treat drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB). Despite this, 4-10% of cured patients will develop recurrent disease within 12 months after completing therapy. Reasons for relapse in cured TB patients remains speculative, attributed to both pathogen and host factors. Populations of dormant bacilli are hypothesized to cause relapse in initially cured TB patients however, development of tests to convincingly demonstrate their presence at the end of anti-TB treatment has been challenging. Previous studies have indicated the utility of culture filtrate supplemented media (CFSM) to detect differentially culturable tubercle bacilli (DCTB). Here, we show that 3/22 of clinically cured patients retained DCTB in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), with one DCTB positive patient relapsing within the first year of completing therapy. We also show a correlation of DCTB status with "unresolved" end of treatment FDG PET-CT imaging. Additionally, 19 end of treatment induced sputum samples from patients not undergoing bronchoscopy were assessed for DCTB, identifying a further relapse case with DCTB. We further show that induced sputum is a less reliable source for the DCTB assay at the end of treatment, limiting the utility of this assay in a clinical setting. We next investigated the host proteome at the site of disease (BALF) using multiplexed proteomic analysis and compared these to active TB cases to identify host-specific factors indicative of cure. Distinct signatures stratified active from cured TB patients into distinct groups, with a DCTB positive, subsequently relapsing, end of treatment patient showing a proteomic signature closer to active TB disease than cure. This exploratory study offers evidence of live Mtb, undetectable with conventional culture methods, at the end of clinically successful treatment and putative host protein biomarkers of active disease and cure. These findings have implications for the assessment of true sterilizing cure in TB patients and opens new avenues for targeted approaches to monitor treatment response.
Project description:We present a prototype for conducting rapid, inexpensive and point-of-care-compatible nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for tuberculosis (TB). The fluorescent isothermal paper-and-plastic NAAT (FLIPP-NAAT) uses paper-based loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for DNA detection. The cost of materials required to build a 12-test-zone device is $0.88 and the cost of reagents per reaction is $0.43. An inexpensive imaging platform enables filter-free fluorescence detection of amplified DNA using a cell-phone camera. FLIPP-NAAT can be operated by an untrained user and only requires a regular laboratory incubator as ancillary equipment. All reagents can be dry-stored in the device, facilitating storage and transportation without cold chains. The device design is modular and the assay demonstrated high specificity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), analytical sensitivity of the order of 10 copies of Mtb gDNA, and tolerance to complex samples. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of sputum-based FLIPP NAAT tests were 100% (zero false negatives) and 68.75% (five false positives), respectively (N?=?30), using Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the reference standard. FLIPP-NAAT has the potential to provide affordable and accessible molecular diagnostics for TB in low- and middle-income countries, when used in conjunction with an appropriate sample preparation technique. Although demonstrated for the detection of TB, FLIPP-NAAT is a platform technology for amplification of any nucleic acid sequence.