NHLBI Working Group Recommendations to Reduce Lipoprotein(a)-Mediated Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Aortic Stenosis.
ABSTRACT: Pathophysiological, epidemiological, and genetic studies provide strong evidence that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a causal mediator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). Specific therapies to address Lp(a)-mediated CVD and CAVD are in clinical development. Due to knowledge gaps, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute organized a working group that identified challenges in fully understanding the role of Lp(a) in CVD/CAVD. These included the lack of research funding, inadequate experimental models, lack of globally standardized Lp(a) assays, and inadequate understanding of the mechanisms underlying current drug therapies on Lp(a) levels. Specific recommendations were provided to facilitate basic, mechanistic, preclinical, and clinical research on Lp(a); foster collaborative research and resource sharing; leverage expertise of different groups and centers with complementary skills; and use existing National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute resources. Concerted efforts to understand Lp(a) pathophysiology, together with diagnostic and therapeutic advances, are required to reduce Lp(a)-mediated risk of CVD and CAVD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between lipoprotein(a) gene (LPA) polymorphisms and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Han Chinese. METHODS:A total of 148 patients were recruited (n?=?71 with CAVD and n?=?77 with CHD) based on a diagnosis achieved using color Doppler echocardiography, coronary angiography, or computed tomography angiography. Seventy-one control individuals without CAVD or CHD were also recruited. Biomarkers including levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B were tested. LPA polymorphisms rs10455872, rs6415084, rs3798221, and rs7770628 were analyzed using SNaPshot SNP. RESULTS:Lp(a) levels were significantly higher in CAVD and CHD groups compared with controls. There was no significant difference in the allelic frequency distribution of rs3798221, rs7770628, or rs6415084 between CHD, CAVD, and control groups. Linear regression showed that rs3798221, rs7770628, and rs6415084 were associated with increased Lp(a) concentrations. Two CAVD patients among the 219 participants carried AG minor alleles at rs10455872, while the remainder carried AA minor alleles. CONCLUSION:rs3798221, rs6415084, and rs7770628 polymorphisms within LPA are associated with higher Lp(a) plasma levels, which correlate with increased CAVD and CHD risks.
Project description:Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a multifactorial condition. Both environmental andgenetic factors play an important role in its etiology. CAVD exhibits a broad spectrum, varying frommild valve thickening to severe valve calcification and stenosis. Progression of the disease consistsof chronic inflammation, lipoprotein deposition, and active leaflet calcification. It is a process similarto coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated Lp(a) levels and gene polymorphismsassociated with calcific aortic stenosis from blood samples after echocardiography in the evaluationof 75 patients diagnosed with CAVD and 77 controls. Blood tests were run in our laboratory to ruleout certain risk factors before echocardiography examination. A significant association amongsmoking, elevated LDL level and creatinine, low albumin levels, Lp(a) level, rs10455872, andrs3798220 polymorphisms may be considered genetic risk factors for the development of calcificaortic stenosis.
Project description:Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a complex trait disorder characterized by calcific remodeling of leaflets. Genome-wide association (GWA) study and Mendelian randomization (MR) have highlighted that LPA, which encodes for apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], is causally associated with CAVD. Apo(a) is the protein component of Lp(a), a LDL-like particle, which transports oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs). Autotaxin (ATX), which is encoded by ENPP2, is a member of the ecto-nucleotidase family of enzymes, which is, however, a lysophospholipase. As such, ATX converts phospholipids into lysophosphatidic acid (LysoPA), a metabolite with potent and diverse biological properties. Studies have recently underlined that ATX is enriched in the Lp(a) lipid fraction. Functional experiments and data obtained in mouse models suggest that ATX mediates inflammation and mineralization of the aortic valve. Recent findings also indicate that epigenetically-driven processes lower the expression of phospholipid phosphatase 3 (PLPP3) and increased LysoPA signaling and inflammation in the aortic valve during CAVD. These recent data thus provide novel insights about how lipoproteins mediate the development of CAVD. Herein, we review the implication of lipoproteins in CAVD and examine the role of ATX in promoting the osteogenic transition of valve interstitial cells (VICs).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a risk factor for calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) but has not been evaluated across multiple races/ethnicities. This study aimed to determine whether Lp(a) cutoff values used in clinical laboratories to assess risk of cardiovascular disease identify subclinical CAVD and its severity and whether significant relations are observed across race/ethnicity. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Lp(a) concentrations were measured using a turbidimetric immunoassay, and subclinical CAVD was measured by quantifying aortic valve calcification (AVC) through computed tomographic scanning in 4678 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Relative risk and ordered logistic regression analysis determined cross-sectional associations of Lp(a) with AVC and its severity, respectively. The conventional 30 mg/dL Lp(a) clinical cutoff was associated with AVC in white (relative risk: 1.56; confidence interval: 1.24-1.96) and was borderline significant (P=0.059) in black study participants (relative risk: 1.55; confidence interval: 0.98-2.44). Whites with levels ?50 mg/dL also showed higher prevalence of AVC (relative risk: 1.72; confidence interval: 1.36-2.17) than those below this level. Significant associations were observed between Lp(a) and degree of AVC in both white and black individuals. The presence of existing coronary artery calcification did not affect these associations of Lp(a) and CAVD. There were no significant findings in Hispanics or Chinese. CONCLUSIONS:Lp(a) cutoff values that are currently used to assess cardiovascular risk seem to be applicable to CAVD, but our results suggest race/ethnicity may be important in cutoff selection. Further studies are warranted to determine whether race/ethnicity influences Lp(a) and risk of CAVD incidence and its progression.
Project description:Epidemiological, genetic association, and Mendelian randomization studies have provided strong evidence that lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent causal risk factor for CVD, including myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and calcific aortic valve stenosis. Lp(a) levels >50 mg/dl are highly prevalent (20% of the general population) and are overrepresented in patients with CVD and aortic stenosis. These data support the notion that Lp(a) should be a target of therapy for CVD event reduction and to reduce progression of aortic stenosis. However, effective therapies to specifically reduce plasma Lp(a) levels are lacking. Recent animal and human studies have shown that Lp(a) can be specifically targeted with second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that inhibit apo(a) mRNA translation. In apo(a) transgenic mice, an apo(a) ASO reduced plasma apo(a)/Lp(a) levels and their associated oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) levels by 86 and 93%, respectively. In cynomolgus monkeys, a second generation apo(a) ASO, ISIS-APO(a)Rx, significantly reduced hepatic apo(a) mRNA expression and plasma Lp(a) levels by >80%. Finally, in a phase I study in normal volunteers, ISIS-APO(a)Rx ASO reduced Lp(a) levels and their associated OxPL levels up to 89 and 93%, respectively, with minimal effects on other lipoproteins. ISIS-APO(a)Rx represents the first specific and potent drug in clinical development to lower Lp(a) levels and may be beneficial in reducing CVD events and progression of calcific aortic valve stenosis.
Project description:Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a common heart valve disease, yet its underlying mechanism remains pooly understood. We aimed to explore the microRNAs funtion in CAVD and to develop novel miRNA therapy for CAVD. Overall design: noncalcified aortic valves 3 vs. calcified aortic valves 2
Project description:Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a highly prevalent cardiovascular disorder accounting for a rising economic and social burden on aging populations. In spite of continuing study on the pathophysiology of disease, there remain no medical therapies to prevent the progression of CAVD. The discovery of biomarkers represents a potentially complementary approach in stratifying risk and timing of intervention in CAVD and has the advantage of providing insight into causal factors for the disease. Biomarkers have been studied extensively in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, with success as additive for clinical and scientific purposes. Similar research in CAVD is less robust; however, the available studies of biomarkers in CAVD show promise for enhanced clinical decision making and identification of causal factors for the disease. This comprehensive review summarizes available established and novel biomarkers in CAVD, their contributions toward an understanding of pathophysiology, their potential clinical utility, and provides an outline to direct future research in the field.
Project description:Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most prevalent type of heart valve disease, affecting ?2% of the US population. CAVD is characterized by the presence of calcific nodules, resulting in aortic valve (AoV) stenosis; however, the underlying mechanisms driving disease remain unknown. Studies of human diseased AoV provide initial evidence that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, essential for normal bone formation, is activated during CAVD. Mice deficient in Klotho, an FGF23 transmembrane coreceptor, exhibit premature aging and develop AoV calcific nodules as occurs in human CAVD. The role of BMP signaling in the development of CAVD was examined in porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (VICs) and Klotho(-/-) mice.We show that activation of BMP signaling, as indicated by pSmad1/5/8 expression, precedes and later localizes with AoV calcification in Klotho(-/-) mice. In addition, cellular and extracellular matrix changes resembling features of normal bone formation are accompanied by increased osteochondrogenic gene induction in calcified Klotho(-/-) AoV. Likewise, osteogenic media treatment of porcine VICs results in BMP pathway activation, increased osteochondrogenic gene induction, and formation of calcific nodules in vitro. We demonstrate that genetic inactivation of the BMP type IA receptor in Klotho(-/-) aortic VICs, as well as BMP pathway inhibition of osteogenic media-treated aortic VICs in vitro, results in the inhibition of AoV calcification.BMP signaling and osteochondrogenic gene induction are active in calcified Klotho(-/-) AoV in vivo and calcified porcine aortic VICs in vitro. Importantly, BMP signaling is required for the development of AoV calcification in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Calcification of the aortic valve leads to increased leaflet stiffness resulting in development of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD); however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of calcification are poorly understood. Here, we investigated gene expressions in relation to valvular calcification and promotion of CAVD progression. Overall design: 3 samples of aortic valve from patients with calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) were compared with 3 samples of aortic valve from age-matched normal subjects
Project description:Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder, yet its mechanism remains poorly understood. Valve interstitial cells (VICs) are the prevalent cells in aortic valve and their osteogenic differentiation may be responsible for calcific nodule formation in CAVD pathogenesis. Emerging evidence shows microRNA (miRNA, or miR) can function as important regulators of many pathological processes, including osteogenic differentiation. Here, we aimed to explore the function of miR-449c-5p in CAVD pathogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated the role of miR-449c-5p in VICs osteogenesis. MiRNA microarray assay and qRT-PCR results revealed miR-449c-5p was significantly down-regulated in calcified aortic valves compared with non-calcified valves. MiR-449c-5p overexpression inhibited VICs osteogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas down-regulation of miR-449c-5p enhanced the process. Target prediction analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed Smad4 was a direct target of miR-449c-5p. Furthermore, knockdown of Smad4 inhibited VICs osteogenic differentiation, similar to the effect observed in up-regulation miR-449c-5p. In addition, animal experiments proved indirectly miR-449c-5p could alleviate aortic valve calcification. Our data suggested miR-449c-5p could function as a new inhibitory regulator of VICs osteogenic differentiation, which may act by targeting Smad4. MiR-449c-5p may be a potential therapeutic target for CAVD.