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Chromothripsis and ring chromosome 22: a paradigm of genomic complexity in the Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13 deletion syndrome).
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is caused by SHANK3 haploinsufficiency. Its wide phenotypic variation is attributed partly to the type and size of 22q13 genomic lesion (deletion, unbalanced translocation, ring chromosome), partly to additional undefined factors. We investigated a child with severe global neurodevelopmental delay (NDD) compatible with her distal 22q13 deletion, complicated by bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP) and urticarial rashes, unreported in PMS. METHODS:Following the cytogenetic and array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) detection of a r(22) with SHANK3 deletion and two upstream duplications, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in blood and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in blood and saliva were performed to highlight potential chromothripsis/chromoanagenesis events and any possible BPP-associated variants, even in low-level mosaicism. RESULTS:WGS confirmed the deletion and highlighted inversion and displaced order of eight fragments, three of them duplicated. The microhomology-mediated insertion of partial Alu-elements at one breakpoint junction disrupted the topological associating domain joining NFAM1 to the transcriptional coregulator TCF20. WES failed to detect BPP-associated variants. CONCLUSIONS:Although we were unable to highlight the molecular basis of BPP, our data suggest that SHANK3 haploinsufficiency and TCF20 misregulation, both associated with intellectual disability, contributed to the patient's NDD, while NFAM1 interruption likely caused her skin rashes, as previously reported. We provide the first example of chromoanasynthesis in a constitutional ring chromosome and reinforce the growing evidence that chromosomal rearrangements may be more complex than estimated by conventional diagnostic approaches and affect the phenotype by global alteration of the topological chromatin organisation rather than simply by deletion or duplication of dosage-sensitive genes.
Project description:Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS, OMIM#606232), or 22q13 deletion syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder caused by deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22 with a variety of clinical features that display considerably heterogeneous degrees of severity. The SHANK3 gene is understood to be the critical gene for the neurological features of this syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION:We describe one pair of boy-girl twins with a 22q13 deletion not involving the SHANK3 gene. Interestingly, the clinical and molecular findings of the two patients were identical, likely resulting from germline mosaicism in a parent. The boy-girl twins showed intellectual disability, speech absence, facial dysmorphism, cyanosis, large fleshy hands and feet, dysplastic fingernails and abnormal behaviors, and third-generation sequencing showed an identical de novo interstitial deletion of 6.0?Mb in the 22q13.31-q13.33 region. CONCLUSIONS:Our case suggests that prenatal diagnosis is essential for normal parents with affected children due to the theoretical possibility of parental germline mosaicism. Our results also indicated that other genes located in the 22q13 region may have a role in explaining symptoms in individuals with PMS. In particular, we propose that four candidate genes, CELSR1, ATXN10, FBLN1 and WNT7B, may also be involved in the etiology of the clinical features of PMS. However, more studies of smaller interstitial deletions with 22q13 are needed to corroborate our hypothesis and better define the genotype-phenotype correlation. Our findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of PMS.
Project description:Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a terminal deletion affecting chromosome 22 (22q13) that results in the loss of function of the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 has also been identified in gene-linkage studies to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diagnosis of ASD in individuals with PMS is complicated by the presence of moderate to profound global developmental delay/intellectual disability as well as other co-morbid systemic and neurological symptoms.The current study aimed to characterize the symptoms of ASD in patients with PMS and to do a preliminary exploration of genotype-ASD phenotype correlations. We conducted a standardized interview with 40 parents/guardians of children with PMS. Further, we conducted analyses on the relationship between disruption of SHANK3 and adjacent genes on specific characteristic symptoms of ASD in PMS in small subset of the sample.The majority of PMS participants in our sample displayed persistent deficits in Social communication, but only half met diagnostic criteria under the restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities domain. Furthermore, logistic regressions indicated that general developmental delay significantly contributed to the ASD diagnosis. The analyses relating the PMS genotype to the behavioral phenotype revealed additional complex relationships with contributions of genes in both deleted and preserved SHANK3 regions to the ASD phenotype and other neurobehavioral impairments.There appears to be a unique behavioral phenotype associated with ASD in individuals with PMS. There also appears to be contributions of genes in both deleted and preserved SHANK3 regions to the ASD phenotype and other neurobehavioral impairments. Better characterization of the behavioral phenotype using additional standardized assessments and further analyses exploring the relationship between the PMS genotype and behavioral phenotype in a larger sample are warranted.
Project description:Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by varying degrees of intellectual disability, severely delayed language development and specific facial features, and is caused by a deletion within chromosome 22q13.3. SHANK3, which is located at the terminal end of this region, has been repeatedly implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders and deletion of this gene specifically is thought to cause much of the neurologic symptoms characteristic of PMS. However, it is still unclear to what extent SHANK3 deletions contribute to the PMS phenotype, and what other genes nearby are causal to the neurologic disease. In an effort to better understand the functional landscape of the PMS region during normal neurodevelopment, we assessed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) expression data collected from post-mortem brain tissue from developmentally normal subjects over the course of prenatal to adolescent age and analyzed expression changes of 65 genes on 22q13. We found that the majority of genes within this region were expressed in the brain, with ATNX10, MLC1, MAPK8IP2, and SULT4A1 having the highest overall expression. Analysis of the temporal profiles of the highest expressed genes revealed a trend towards peak expression during the early post-natal period, followed by a drop in expression later in development. Spatial analysis revealed significant region specific differences in the expression of SHANK3, MAPK8IP2, and SULT4A1. Region specific expression over time revealed a consistently unique gene expression profile within the cerebellum, providing evidence for a distinct developmental program within this region. Exon-specific expression of SHANK3 showed higher expression within exons contributing to known brain specific functional isoforms. Overall, we provide an updated roadmap of the PMS region, implicating several genes and time periods as important during neurodevelopment, with the hope that this information can help us better understand the phenotypic heterogeneity of PMS.
Project description:In this study, we used deletions at 22q13, which represent a substantial source of human pathology (Phelan/McDermid syndrome), as a model for investigating the molecular mechanisms of terminal deletions that are currently poorly understood. We characterized at the molecular level the genomic rearrangement in 44 unrelated patients with 22q13 monosomy resulting from simple terminal deletions (72%), ring chromosomes (14%), and unbalanced translocations (7%). We also discovered interstitial deletions between 17-74 kb in 9% of the patients. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene, confirmed in all rearrangements, is very likely the cause of the major neurological features associated with PMS. SHANK3 mutations can also result in language and/or social interaction disabilities. We determined the breakpoint junctions in 29 cases, providing a realistic snapshot of the variety of mechanisms driving non-recurrent deletion and repair at chromosome ends. De novo telomere synthesis and telomere capture are used to repair terminal deletions; non-homologous end-joining or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication is probably involved in ring 22 formation and translocations; non-homologous end-joining and fork stalling and template switching prevail in cases with interstitial 22q13.3. For the first time, we also demonstrated that distinct stabilizing events of the same terminal deletion can occur in different early embryonic cells, proving that terminal deletions can be repaired by multistep healing events and supporting the recent hypothesis that rare pathogenic germline rearrangements may have mitotic origin. Finally, the progressive clinical deterioration observed throughout the longitudinal medical history of three subjects over forty years supports the hypothesis of a role for SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in neurological deterioration, in addition to its involvement in the neurobehavioral phenotype of PMS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and mild dysmorphisms associated with several comorbidities caused by SHANK3 loss-of-function mutations. Although SHANK3 haploinsufficiency has been associated with the major neurological symptoms of PMS, it cannot explain the clinical variability seen among individuals. Our goals were to characterize a Brazilian cohort of PMS individuals, explore the genotype-phenotype correlation underlying this syndrome, and describe an atypical individual with mild phenotype. METHODOLOGY:A total of 34 PMS individuals were clinically and genetically evaluated. Data were obtained by a questionnaire answered by parents, and dysmorphic features were assessed via photographic evaluation. We analyzed 22q13.3 deletions and other potentially pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and also performed genotype-phenotype correlation analysis to determine whether comorbidities, speech status, and ASD correlate to deletion size. Finally, a Brazilian cohort of 829 ASD individuals and another independent cohort of 2297 ID individuals was used to determine the frequency of PMS in these disorders. RESULTS:Our data showed that 21% (6/29) of the PMS individuals presented an additional rare CNV, which may contribute to clinical variability in PMS. Increased pain tolerance (80%), hypotonia (85%), and sparse eyebrows (80%) were prominent clinical features. An atypical case diagnosed with PMS at 18 years old and IQ within the normal range is here described. Among Brazilian ASD or ID individuals referred to CNV analyses, the frequency of 22q13.3 deletion was 0.6% (5/829) and 0.61% (15/2297), respectively. Finally, renal abnormalities, lymphedema, and language impairment were found to be positively associated with deletion sizes, and the minimum deletion to cause these abnormalities is here suggested. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first work describing a cohort of Brazilian individuals with PMS. Our results confirm the impact of 22q13 deletions on ASD and several comorbidities, such as hypotonia. The estimation of a minimal deletion size for developing lymphedema and renal problem can assist prediction of prognosis in PMS individuals, particularly those diagnosed in early infancy. We also identified one atypical individual carrying SHANK3 deletion, suggesting that resilience to such mutations occurs. This case expands the clinical spectrum of variability in PMS and opens perspectives to identify protective mechanisms that can minimize the severity of this condition.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) can be caused by mutations in a large number of genes. One example is SHANK3 on the terminal end of chromosome 22q. Loss of one functional copy of SHANK3 results in 22q13 deletion syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) and causes a monogenic form of ASD and/or ID with a frequency of 0.5% to 2% of cases. SHANK3 is the critical gene in this syndrome, and its loss results in disruption of synaptic function. With chromosomal microarray analyses now a standard of care in the assessment of ASD and developmental delay, and with the emergence of whole exome and whole genome sequencing in this context, identification of PMS in routine clinical settings will increase significantly. However, PMS remains a rare disorder, and the majority of physicians have never seen a case. While there is agreement about core deficits of PMS, there have been no established parameters to guide evaluation and medical monitoring of the syndrome. Evaluations must include a thorough history and physical and dysmorphology examination. Neurological deficits, including the presence of seizures and structural brain abnormalities should be assessed as well as motor deficits. Endocrine, renal, cardiac, and gastrointestinal problems all require assessment and monitoring in addition to the risk of recurring infections, dental and vision problems, and lymphedema. Finally, all patients should have cognitive, behavioral, and ASD evaluations. The objective of this paper is to address this gap in the literature and establish recommendations to assess the medical, genetic, and neurological features of PMS.
Project description:Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous disorder caused by chromosomal abnormalities, monogenic factors and environmental factors. 22q13 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by severe ID. Although the frequency of 22q13 deletions in ID is unclear, it is believed to be largely underestimated. To address this issue, we used Affymetrix Human SNP 6.0 array to detect the 22q13 deletions in 234 Chinese unexplained ID patients and 103 controls. After the Quality Control (QC) test of raw data, 22q13 deletions were found in four out of 230 cases (1.7%), while absent in parents of the cases and 101 controls. A review of genome-wide microarray studies in ID was performed and the frequency of 22q13 deletions from the literatures was 0.24%, much lower than our report. The overlapping region shared by all 4 cases encompasses the gene SHANK3. A heterozygous de novo nonsense mutation Y1015X of SHANK3 was identified in one ID patient. Cortical neurons were prepared from embryonic mice and were transfected with a control plasmid, shank3 wild-type (WT) or mutant plasmids. Overexpression of the Y1015 mutant in neurons significantly affected neurite outgrowth compared with shank3 WT. These findings suggest that 22q13 deletions may be a more frequent cause for Chinese ID patients than previously thought, and the SHANK3 gene is involved in the neurite development.
Project description:The 22q13.3 deletion causes a neurodevelopmental syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome (MIM #606232), characterized by developmental delay and severe delay or absence of expressive speech. Two patients with hemizygous chromosome 22q13.3 telomeric deletion were referred to us when brain-imaging studies revealed cerebellar vermis hypoplasia (CBVH). To determine whether developmental abnormalities of the cerebellum are a consistent feature of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, we examined brain-imaging studies for 10 unrelated subjects with 22q13 terminal deletion. In seven cases where the availability of DNA and array technology allowed, we mapped deletion boundaries using comparative intensity analysis with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. Approximate deletion boundaries for three additional cases were derived from clinical or published molecular data. We also examined brain-imaging studies for a patient with an intragenic SHANK3 mutation. We report the first brain-imaging data showing that some patients with 22q13 deletions have severe posterior CBVH, and one individual with a SHANK3 mutation has a normal cerebellum. This genotype-phenotype study suggests that the 22q13 deletion phenotype includes abnormal posterior fossa structures that are unlikely to be attributed to SHANK3 disruption. Other genes in the region, including PLXNB2 and MAPK8IP2, display brain expression patterns and mouse mutant phenotypes critical for proper cerebellar development. Future studies of these genes may elucidate their relationship to 22q13.3 deletion phenotypes.
Project description:METHODS:The 22q13 deletion syndrome (MIM 606232) is characterised by moderate to profound mental retardation, delay/absence of expressive speech, hypotonia, normal to accelerated growth, and mild dysmorphic features. We have determined the deletion size and parent of origin in 56 patients with this syndrome. RESULTS:Similar to other terminal deletion syndromes, there was an overabundance of paternal deletions. The deletions vary widely in size, from 130 kb to over 9 Mb; however all 45 cases that could be specifically tested for the terminal region at the site of SHANK3 were deleted for this gene. The molecular structure of SHANK3 was further characterised. Comparison of clinical features to deletion size showed few correlations. Some measures of developmental assessment did correlate to deletion size; however, all patients showed some degree of mental retardation and severe delay or absence of expressive speech, regardless of deletion size. CONCLUSION:Our analysis therefore supports haploinsufficiency of the gene SHANK3, which codes for a structural protein of the postsynaptic density, as a major causative factor in the neurological symptoms of 22q13 deletion syndrome.