Translational systems pharmacology-based predictive assessment of drug-induced cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: Drug-induced cardiomyopathy contributes to drug attrition. We compared two pipelines of predictive modeling: (1) applying elastic net (EN) to differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of drugs; (2) applying integer linear programming (ILP) to construct each drug's signaling pathway starting from its targets to downstream proteins, to transcription factors, and to its DEGs in human cardiomyocytes, and then subjecting the genes/proteins in the drugs' signaling networks to EN regression. We classified 31 drugs with availability of DEGs into 13 toxic and 18 nontoxic drugs based on a clinical cardiomyopathy incidence cutoff of 0.1%. The ILP-augmented modeling increased prediction accuracy from 79% to 88% (sensitivity: 88%; specificity: 89%) under leave-one-out cross validation. The ILP-constructed signaling networks of drugs were better predictors than DEGs. Per literature, the microRNAs that reportedly regulate expression of our six top predictors are of diagnostic value for natural heart failure or doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. This translational predictive modeling might uncover potential biomarkers.
Project description:Across the animal kingdom, the involvement of insulin-like peptide (ILP) signaling in sex-related differentiation processes is attracting increasing attention. Recently, a gender-specific ILP was identified as the androgenic sex hormone in Crustacea. However, moieties modulating the actions of this androgenic insulin-like growth factor were yet to be revealed. Through molecular screening of an androgenic gland (AG) cDNA library prepared from the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, we have identified a novel insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) termed Cq-IGFBP. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the deduced Cq-IGFBP was shown to share high sequence homology with IGFBP family members from both invertebrates and vertebrates. The protein also includes a sequence determinant proven crucial for ligand binding, which according to three-dimensional modeling is assigned to the exposed outer surface of the protein. Recombinant Cq-IGFBP (rCq-IGFBP) protein was produced and, using a "pulldown" methodology, was shown to specifically interact with the insulin-like AG hormone of the crayfish (Cq-IAG). Particularly, using both mass spectral analysis and an immunological tool, rCq-IGFBP was shown to bind the Cq-IAG prohormone. Furthermore, a peptide corresponding to residues 23-38 of the Cq-IAG A-chain was found sufficient for in vitro recognition by rCq-IGFBP. Cq-IGFBP is the first IGFBP family member shown to specifically interact with a gender-specific ILP. Unlike their ILP ligands, IGFBPs are highly conserved across evolution, from ancient arthropods, like crustaceans, to humans. Such conservation places ILP signaling at the center of sex-related phenomena in early animal development.
Project description:Lamin A/C (LMNA) gene mutations are a known cause of familial dilated cardiomyopathy, but the precise mechanisms triggering disease progression remain unknown. We hypothesize that analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) throughout the course of Lmna knockout (Lmna-/-)-induced cardiomyopathy may reveal novel Lmna-mediated alterations of signaling pathways leading to dilated cardiomyopathy. Although Lmna was the only DEG down-regulated at 1 week of age, we identified 730 and 1004 DEGs in Lmna-/- mice at 2 weeks and 1 month of age, respectively. At 2 weeks, Lmna-/- mice demonstrated both down- and up-regulation of the key genes involving cell cycle control, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative phosphorylation, as well as down-regulated genes governing DNA damage repair and up-regulated genes involved in oxidative stress response, cell survival, and cardiac hypertrophy. At 1 month, the down-regulated genes included those involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, nutrient metabolism, cardiac ?-adrenergic signaling, action potential generation, and cell survival. We also found 96 overlapping DEGs at both ages involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial function, and calcium signaling. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation was observed at early disease stage, even before the appearance of disease phenotypes, and worsened with disease progression, suggesting its importance in the pathogenesis and progression of LMNA cardiomyopathy. Reduction of oxidative stress might therefore prevent or delay the development from Lmna mutation to LMNA cardiomyopathy.
Project description:The individualized learning plan (ILP) is a tool that promotes self-directed learning. The aim of this pilot study was to look at the perception of the ILPs in United States senior medical school students as a way to improve their learning experience during their advanced practice clerkship. We conducted a survey of graduating medical students that contained both quantitative and open-ended questions regarding the students' experiences with the ILP during their advanced practice clerkship from July 2014 to March 2016. We systematically identified and compiled themes among the qualitative responses. Responses from 294 out of 460 subjects were included for analysis (63.9%). Ninety students (30.6%) reported that the ILP was definitely reviewed at the midpoint and 88 (29.9%) at the final evaluation. One hundred sixty one students (54.8%) felt the ILP provided a framework for learning. One hundred sixty one students (61.6%) felt it was a useful tool in helping open a discussion between the student and faculty. The qualitative data was grouped by areas most mentioned and these areas of concern centered on lack of faculty knowledge about ILP, time to complete ILP, and uncertainty of appropriate goal setting. The majority of students perceive the ILP to be helpful. Our results suggest that active intervention is needed by dedicated and trained faculty to improve ILP utilization. It is recommended that faculty gives students examples of learning goals to create their own learning framework and encourages them to discuss and review the ILP.
Project description:Background:Diabetes mellitus is becoming a significant health problem with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) expecting a startling 642 million diabetes patients by 2040. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, is reported to protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy by binding to the receptor, GLP-1R. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be clarified. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and the effects of liraglutide on diabetic patient's cardiac muscles. Methods:GSE102194 genetic expression profiles were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses were carried out. Next, Cytoscape software was used to construct the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DEGs were mapped onto a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network that comprised 249 nodes and 776 edges. Results:A total of 520 DEGs were discovered, including 159 down-regulated genes and 361 up-regulated genes. DEGs that were upregulated were notably enriched in biological processes (BP) such as muscle system process, muscle system process, muscle structure development and anatomical structure morphogenesis while DEGs that were downregulated were rich in detection of chemical stimulus and neurological system process. KEGG pathway analysis showed the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in adrenergic signaling for cardiomyocytes, dopaminergic synapse, and circadian entrainment, while the down-regulated DEGs were enriched for factory transduction in 249 of the 520 tested samples. The modular analysis identified 4 modules that participated in some pathways associated with cardiac muscle contraction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusions:Our data showed that Glp-1 could decrease the protein expression of p38, JNK, ERK1/2, and MARS proteins induced by high glucose (22 mM, 72 h). This study highlights the potential physiological processes that take place in diabetic cardiac muscles exposed to liraglutide. Our findings elucidated the regulatory network in diabetic cardiomyopathy and might provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Particulate matter (PM) pollutants, including nanoscale particles (NPs), have been considered serious threats to public health. In this work, a self-powered air filter that can be used in high-efficiency removal of PM, including NPs, is presented. An ionic liquid-polymer (ILP) composite is irregularly distributed onto a sponge network to form an ILP@MF filter. Enabled by its unique electrochemical properties, the ILP@MF filter can remove PM2.5 and PM10 with high efficiencies of 99.59% and 99.75%, respectively, after applying a low voltage. More importantly, the charged ILP@MF filter realizes a superior removal for NPs with an efficiency of 93.77%. A micro-button lithium cell or silicon-based solar panel is employed as a power supply platform to fabricate a portable and self-powered face mask, which exhibits excellent efficacy in particulate removal compared to commercial masks. This work shows a great promise for high-performance purification devices and facile mask production to remove particulate pollutants.
Project description:Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex inherited cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the long noncoding (lnc)RNA/microRNA (mi)RNA/mRNA expression pattern of patients with HCM and aimed to identify key molecules involved in the development of this condition. An integrated strategy was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs), differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on the GSE36961 (mRNA), GSE36946 (miRNA), GSE68316 (lncRNA/mRNA) and GSE32453 (mRNA) expression profiles downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. Bioinformatics tools were employed to perform function and pathway enrichment analysis, protein‑protein interaction, lncRNA‑miRNA‑mRNA and hub gene networks. Subsequently, DEGs were used as targets to predict drugs. The results indicated that a total of 2,234 DElncs (1,120 upregulated and 1,114 downregulated), 5 DEmiRs (2 upregulated and 3 downregulated) and 42 DEGs (35 upregulated and 7 downregulated) were identified in 4 microarray profiles. Gene ontology analysis revealed that DEGs were mainly involved in actin filament and stress fiber formation and in calcium ion binding, whereas Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis identified the hypoxia inducible factor‑1, transforming growth factor‑β and tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways as the main pathways involved in these processes. The hub genes were screened using cytoHubba. A total of 1,086 lncRNA‑miRNA‑mRNA interactions including 67 lncRNAs, 5 miRNAs and 25 mRNAs were mined in the present study based on prediction websites. Drug prediction indicated that the targeted drugs mainly included angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or β‑blockers. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of the molecular regulatory lncRNA‑miRNA‑mRNA network was performed and potential therapeutic applications of drugs were predicted in HCM patients. The data may unravel the future molecular mechanism of HCM.
Project description:We consider the problem of finding a minimum common string partition (MCSP) of two strings, which is an NP-hard problem. The MCSP problem is closely related to genome comparison and rearrangement, an important field in Computational Biology. In this paper, we map the MCSP problem into a graph applying a prior technique and using this graph, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation for the problem. We implement the ILP formulation and compare the results with the state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature. The experimental results are found to be promising.
Project description:The infectious form of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i), which is morphologically similar to the developmentally arrested dauer larva in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We hypothesize that the molecular pathways regulating C. elegans dauer development also control L3i arrest and activation in S. stercoralis. This study aimed to determine the factors that regulate L3i activation, with a focus on G protein-coupled receptor-mediated regulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway signaling, including its modulation of the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS) pathway. We found that application of the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP potently activated development of S. stercoralis L3i, as measured by resumption of feeding, with 85.1 ± 2.2% of L3i feeding in 200 µM 8-bromo-cGMP in comparison to 0.6 ± 0.3% in the buffer diluent. Utilizing RNAseq, we examined L3i stimulated with DMEM, 8-bromo-cGMP, or the DAF-12 nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) ligand ?7-dafachronic acid (DA)--a signaling pathway downstream of IIS in C. elegans. L3i stimulated with 8-bromo-cGMP up-regulated transcripts of the putative agonistic insulin-like peptide (ILP) -encoding genes Ss-ilp-1 (20-fold) and Ss-ilp-6 (11-fold) in comparison to controls without stimulation. Surprisingly, we found that ?7-DA similarly modulated transcript levels of ILP-encoding genes. Using the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, we demonstrated that 400 nM ?7-DA-mediated activation (93.3 ± 1.1% L3i feeding) can be blocked using this IIS inhibitor at 100 µM (7.6 ± 1.6% L3i feeding). To determine the tissues where promoters of ILP-encoding genes are active, we expressed promoter::egfp reporter constructs in transgenic S. stercoralis post-free-living larvae. Ss-ilp-1 and Ss-ilp-6 promoters are active in the hypodermis and neurons and the Ss-ilp-7 promoter is active in the intestine and a pair of head neurons. Together, these data provide evidence that cGMP and DAF-12 NHR signaling converge on IIS to regulate S. stercoralis L3i activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Identify genes probably associated with chronic heart failure and predict potential target genes for dilated cardiomyopathy using bioinformatics analyses. METHODS:Gene expression profiles (series number GSE3585 and GSE42955) of cardiomyopathy patients and healthy controls were downloaded from the Expression Omnibus Gene (GEO) database. Differential expression of genes (DEGS) between the two groups of total 14 cardiomyopathy patients and 10 healthy controls were subsequently identified by limma package of R. Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID Tool), which is an analysis of enriched biological processes. Search Tool for the Retrieval Interacting Genes (STRING) was used as well for the analysis of protein-protein interaction network (PPI). Prediction of the potential drugs was suggested based on the preliminarily identified genes using Connectivity Map (CMap). RESULTS:Eighty-nine DEGs were identified (57 up-regulated and 32 down-regulated). The most enrichment Gene Ontology (GO) terms (P < 0.05) contain genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) and biological adhesion signal pathways (P < 0.05, ES > 1.5) such as ECM-receptors, focal adhesion and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), etc. Fifty-one differentially expressed genes were found to encode interacting proteins. Eleven key genes along with related transcription factors were identified including CTGF, POSTN, CORIN, FIGF, etc. CONCLUSION: Bioinformatics-based analyses reveal the targeted genes probably associated with cardiomyopathy, which provide clues for pharmacological therapies aiming at the targets.
Project description:BACKGROUND Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. In a previous study, we found that for two patients who had a high risk of lymphatic metastasis, lymphatic metastasis did not occur; whereas, for two patients who had a low risk of lymphatic metastasis, lymphatic metastasis did occur. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the differential gene expressions of these four patients by RNA-sequence. The data (HRNM_T versus HRNM_N, LRYM_T versus LRYM_N, and HRNM_T versus LRYM_T) was then processed using differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis, functional analysis for DEGs, and PPI network construct. RESULTS For HRNM_T versus HRNM_N, there were 224 DEGs. There were 504 DEGs for LRYM_T versus LRYM_N, and 88 DEGs for LRYM_T versus LRYM_N. For HRNM_T versus HRNM_N, DEGs were up-regulated mainly in the cell cycle, the IL-17 signaling pathway, and the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation; DEGs were down-regulated mainly in the IL-17 signaling pathway. For LRYM_T versus LRYM_N, DEGs were up-regulated mainly in protein digestion and absorption, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction; DEGs were down-regulated mainly in ECM-receptor interaction. For HRNM_T versus LRYM_T, DEGs were up-regulated mainly in the PPAR signaling pathway; DEGs were downregulated mainly in the adipocytokine signaling pathway. The DEGs were screened to construct PPI networks. CONCLUSIONS The GO and KEGG functional enrichments of HRNM_T versus HRNM_N, and LRYM_T versus LRYM_N were consistent with earlier studies. For HRNM_T versus LRYM_T, DEGs were up-regulated mainly in PPAR signaling; DEGs were down-regulated mainly in the adipocytokine pathway.