Long-Term Evaluation of the Effects of Aclidinium Bromide on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and COPD Exacerbations in Patients with Moderate to Very Severe COPD: Rationale and Design of the ASCENT COPD Study.
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous illness characterized by persistent airflow obstruction and exacerbations. Patients typically experience a decline in lung function, increasingly impaired health-related quality of life, and high mortality. Poor lung function and exacerbations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular events, and approximately 30% of patients with COPD die from CV?related disease. Treatment with inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, such as long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), is recommended; however, some studies have suggested that LAMAs may increase the risk of CV events. As patients with CV and cerebrovascular conditions are often excluded from clinical trials, an evaluation of the safety of COPD treatments in an at-risk population is vital. Aclidinium bromide is a LAMA approved for the long-term maintenance treatment of COPD. Methods and Objectives: The Phase 4, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group Aclidinium Bromide on Long-Term Cardiovascular Safety and COPD Exacerbations in PatieNTs with Moderate to Very Severe COPD (ASCENT COPD) study (NCT01966107) is being conducted at 500 sites in the United States and Canada. The primary objectives are to evaluate the long-term effects of twice-daily aclidinium bromide 400 µg on CV safety and exacerbations in patients with moderate to very severe COPD with a history of cerebrovascular, coronary, or peripheral artery disease, or the presence of ?2 atherothrombotic risk factors. The primary safety and efficacy variables are time to first major adverse CV event (MACE) (on-study analysis) and rate of moderate to severe COPD exacerbations during the first year of treatment (on-treatment analysis), respectively. The study will be terminated after approximately 122 MACE have occurred.
Project description:Background: Aclidinium bromide, an M3-receptor-selective, twice-daily (BID), long-acting muscarinic antagonist, is rapidly hydrolyzed in human plasma, resulting in low systemic exposure and urinary excretion. We evaluated the overall and cardiovascular (CV) safety of aclidinium in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by pooling data from 6 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of ?1 month's duration. METHODS:Patients were current/former smokers aged ?40 years with no history of clinically significant CV conditions. Treatment was administered (morning and evening) via GenuairTM/Pressair.®a Adverse events (AEs), major adverse CV events (MACE), cardiac and cerebrovascular AEs, and serious AEs (SAEs) were analyzed. Results: The pooled population included 2781 patients (aclidinium: n=1529; placebo: n=1252). The incidence of AEs was similar with aclidinium (53.5%) and placebo (55.4%), as was the incidence of cardiac (aclidinium: 5.0%; placebo: 4.4%) and cerebrovascular (aclidinium: 0.4%; placebo: 0.5%) events. The incidence of MACE was low (AEs: 0.7%; SAEs: 0.5%) and comparable between groups. The incidence of cardiac and cerebrovascular events was similar for patients with CV risk factors with aclidinium and placebo (rate ratio [RR] [95 %confidence interval (CI)]=1.01[.074, 1.39]). In patients with mild to severe renal impairment, the incidence of cardiac events was similar between groups (RR [95% CI]=0.87 [0.56, 1.36]). Conclusion: Aclidinium 400µg BID has a good safety profile and this pooled analysis found no evidence of increased CV or cerebrovascular risk compared with placebo in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Further studies are needed in high-risk patients.
Project description:Three long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are now available in Europe, providing clinicians and patients with a choice of interventions, which is important in COPD, which is clinically a heterogeneous disease. The first LAMA, tiotropium, has been widely used over the last decade as a once-daily maintenance therapy in stable COPD to improve patients' health-related quality of life and to reduce the risk of exacerbations. Administered via the HandiHaler(®) device, it is safe and well tolerated. Another new once-daily LAMA, glycopyrronium, has also been shown to improve health status and reduce exacerbations, and is well tolerated. The subject of this review is a third LAMA, aclidinium bromide, which was approved as a twice-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment. In the pivotal Phase III clinical trials, patients receiving aclidinium achieved significantly greater improvements in lung function, reductions in breathlessness, and improvements in health status compared with placebo, for up to 24 weeks. In continuation studies, these improvements were sustained for up to 52 weeks. Pooled data showed exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced with aclidinium versus placebo. Preclinical and pharmacological studies demonstrating low systemic bioavailability and a low propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias were translated into a favorable tolerability profile in the clinical trial program - the adverse event profile of aclidinium was similar to placebo, with a low incidence of anticholinergic and cardiac adverse events. While additional studies are needed to evaluate its full clinical potential, aclidinium is an important part of this recent expansion of LAMA therapeutic options, providing clinicians and patients with an effective and well-tolerated COPD treatment.
Project description:Importance:There is concern that long-acting muscarinic antagonists increase cardiovascular morbidity or mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective:To determine the cardiovascular safety (noninferiority) and efficacy (superiority) of aclidinium bromide, 400 ?g twice daily, in patients with COPD and cardiovascular disease or risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-design study conducted at 522 sites in North America. A total of 3630 patients with moderate to very severe COPD and either a history of cardiovascular disease or at least 2 atherothrombotic risk factors were randomized; follow-up occurred for up to 3 years until at least 122 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) occurred. The first patient was enrolled on October 16, 2013 and the last on August 22, 2016. The final patient completed follow-up on September 21, 2017. Interventions:Patients were randomized to receive aclidinium (n = 1812) or placebo (n = 1818) by dry-powder inhaler, twice daily for up to 3 years. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary safety end point was time to first MACE over up to 3 years (hazard ratio [HR] 1-sided 97.5% CI noninferiority margin?=?1.8). The primary efficacy end point was the annual COPD exacerbation rate during the first year of treatment. Secondary outcomes included an expanded MACE definition (time to first MACE or serious cardiovascular event of interest) and annual rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Results:Among 3589 patients analyzed (mean age, 67.2 years; 58.7% male), 2537 (70.7%) completed the study. Of these, 69 (3.9%) aclidinium and 76 (4.2%) placebo patients had a MACE (HR, 0.89; 1-sided 97.5% CI, 0-1.23); the expanded MACE definition included 168 (9.4%) aclidinium vs 160 (8.9%) placebo patients with events (HR, 1.03; 1-sided 97.5% CI, 0-1.28). Annual moderate to severe exacerbation rates (aclidinium, 0.44; placebo, 0.57; rate ratio, 0.78; 2-sided 95% CI, 0.68-0.89; P?<?.001) and rate of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (aclidinium, 0.07; placebo, 0.10; rate ratio, 0.65; 2-sided 95% CI, 0.48-0.89; P?=?.006) decreased significantly with aclidinium vs placebo. The most common adverse events were pneumonia (aclidinium, 109 events [6.1%]; placebo, 105 events [5.8%]), urinary tract infection (aclidinium, 93 events [5.2%]; placebo, 89 events [5.0%]), and upper respiratory tract infection (aclidinium, 86 events [4.8%]; placebo, 101 events [5.6%]). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with COPD and increased cardiovascular risk, aclidinium was noninferior to placebo for risk of MACE over 3 years. The rate of moderate to severe COPD exacerbations was reduced over the first year. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01966107.
Project description:The pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes persistent airflow limitation, altered gas exchange, and enhanced chronic inflammatory response. According to disease severity in individual patients, exacerbations and comorbidities frequently occur. The overall nocturnal and daily symptoms have a strong impact on patient quality of life and clinical outcomes. Bronchodilators, by targeting two important aspects of COPD pathophysiology, ie, bronchoconstriction and lung hyperinflation, are the mainstay of therapy for COPD. Aclidinium bromide in particular is an anticholinergic molecule, approved for maintenance bronchodilator treatment of stable COPD, that combines high antimuscarinic activity with strong kinetic selectivity for the M3 receptor subtype. Moreover, the elevated plasma clearance of aclidinium has been related to low systemic bioavailability and low incidence of anticholinergic adverse events, whereas the reduced residence time at M2 receptors provides good cardiovascular safety. Altogether, these characteristics result in a high safety and tolerability profile. This review aims to reappraise the contribution of symptoms and of the level of quality of life determinants on COPD severity and to evaluate how therapeutic strategies with aclidinium may positively impact on these specific determinants of disease severity.
Project description:We investigated the effect of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist aclidinium bromide on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations by pooling data from five randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group Phase III studies of 3-6 months' duration. Data were pooled from the aclidinium 400 ?g twice-daily (BID) and placebo arms (N = 2,521) and stratified by Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group (A, B, C and D). Results showed that fewer patients experienced ?1 exacerbation with aclidinium (any severity: 12.5%; moderate to severe: 10.9%) compared with placebo (any severity: 15.7%; moderate to severe: 13.3%) and the odds of experiencing ?1 exacerbation of any severity were reduced in patients receiving aclidinium (odds ratio = 0.78, p = 0.039). Furthermore, aclidinium reduced the rate of exacerbations compared with placebo (any severity: rate ratio = 0.79, p = 0.026; moderate to severe: 0.80, p = 0.044). The time to first exacerbation of any severity was delayed with aclidinium compared with placebo (hazard ratio = 0.79, p = 0.026) and there was a numerical delay in time to first moderate-to-severe exacerbation. Finally, the effects of aclidinium on exacerbations versus placebo were greater in patients in GOLD Groups B and D; however, it is of note that only 10.7% of patients were classified in Group A or C. In summary, the results indicate that aclidinium 400 ?g BID reduces the frequency of COPD exacerbations compared with placebo and that these effects are greater in symptomatic patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The combination of aclidinium bromide, a long-acting anticholinergic, and formoterol fumarate, a long-acting beta2-agonist (400/12 ?g twice daily) achieves improvements in lung function greater than either monotherapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is approved in the European Union as a maintenance treatment. The effect of this combination on symptoms of COPD and exacerbations is less well established. We examined these outcomes in a pre-specified analysis of pooled data from two 24-week, double-blind, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled, multicentre, randomised Phase III studies (ACLIFORM and AUGMENT). METHODS:Patients ?40 years with moderate to severe COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]/forced vital capacity <70 % and FEV1??30 % but <80 % predicted normal) were randomised (ACLIFORM: 2:2:2:2:1; AUGMENT: 1:1:1:1:1) to twice-daily aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g or 400/6 ?g, aclidinium 400 ?g, formoterol 12 ?g or placebo via Genuair™/Pressair®. Dyspnoea (Transition Dyspnoea Index; TDI), daily symptoms (EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool [EXACT]-Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS] questionnaire), night-time and early-morning symptoms, exacerbations (Healthcare Resource Utilisation [HCRU] and EXACT definitions) and relief-medication use were assessed. RESULTS:The pooled intent-to-treat population included 3394 patients. Aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g significantly improved TDI focal score versus placebo and both monotherapies at Week 24 (all p?<?0.05). Over 24 weeks, significant improvements in E-RS total score, overall night-time and early-morning symptom severity and limitation of early-morning activities were observed with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g versus placebo and both monotherapies (all p?<?0.05). The rate of moderate or severe HCRU exacerbations was significantly reduced with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g compared with placebo (p?<?0.05) but not monotherapies; the rate of EXACT-defined exacerbations was significantly reduced with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g versus placebo (p?<?0.01) and aclidinium (p?<?0.05). Time to first HCRU or EXACT exacerbation was longer with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g compared with placebo (all p?<?0.05) but not the monotherapies. Relief-medication use was reduced with aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g versus placebo and aclidinium (p?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g significantly improves 24-hour symptom control compared with placebo, aclidinium and formoterol in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Furthermore, aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 ?g reduces the frequency of exacerbations compared with placebo. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01462942 and NCT01437397 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
Project description:Randomized, controlled trials comparing long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) efficacy in COPD are limited. This network meta-analysis (NMA) assessed the relative efficacy of tiotropium 18 µg once-daily (OD) and newer agents (aclidinium 400 µg twice-daily, glycopyrronium 50 µg OD, and umeclidinium 62.5 µg OD).A systematic literature review identified randomized, controlled trials of adult COPD patients receiving LAMAs. A NMA within a Bayesian framework examined change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), transitional dyspnea index focal score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score, and rescue medication use.Twenty-four studies (n=21,311) compared LAMAs with placebo/each other. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium, tiotropium, and umeclidinium, respectively, demonstrated favorable results versus placebo, for change from baseline (95% credible interval) in 12-week trough FEV1 (primary endpoint: 101.40 mL [77.06-125.60]; 117.20 mL [104.50-129.90]; 114.10 mL [103.10-125.20]; 136.70 mL [104.20-169.20]); 24-week trough FEV1 (128.10 mL [84.10-172.00]; 135.80 mL [123.10-148.30]; 106.40 mL [95.45-117.30]; 115.00 mL [74.51-155.30]); 24-week St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score (-4.60 [-6.76 to -2.54]; -3.14 [-3.83 to -2.45]; -2.43 [-2.92 to -1.93]; -4.69 [-7.05 to -2.31]); 24-week transitional dyspnea index score (1.00 [0.41-1.59]; 1.01 [0.79-1.22]; 0.82 [0.62-1.02]; 1.00 [0.49-1.51]); and 24-week rescue medication use (data not available; -0.41 puffs/day [-0.62 to -0.20]; -0.52 puffs/day [-0.74 to -0.30]; -0.30 puffs/day [-0.81 to 0.21]). For 12-week trough FEV1, differences in change from baseline (95% credible interval) were -12.8 mL (-39.39 to 13.93), aclidinium versus tiotropium; 3.08 mL (-7.58 to 13.69), glycopyrronium versus tiotropium; 22.58 mL (-11.58 to 56.97), umeclidinium versus tiotropium; 15.90 mL (-11.60 to 43.15), glycopyrronium versus aclidinium; 35.40 mL (-5.06 to 76.07), umeclidinium versus aclidinium; and 19.50 mL (-15.30 to 54.38), umeclidinium versus glycopyrronium. Limitations included inhaler-related factors and safety; longer-term outcomes were not considered.The new LAMAs studied had at least comparable efficacy to tiotropium, the established class standard. Choice should depend on physician's and patient's preference.
Project description:Aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate (AB/FF) 400/12 µg is a twice-daily long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist and long-acting ?2 agonist (LAMA/LABA) dual-bronchodilator maintenance therapy used to relieve symptoms and reduce future risk of exacerbations in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To date, there have been several clinical studies and post hoc analyses of AB/FF, assessing treatment outcomes in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. These studies have looked at a range of outcomes, including lung function parameters, patient-reported symptom scores, quality-of-life measures assessing impaired health and perceived well-being, and the frequency, duration, and severity of exacerbations. In light of the major 2017 revision to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) recommendations, and the subsequent updates, we present an update on the latest evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of AB/FF. This review discusses the clinical relevance of the improvements in lung function, symptoms, quality of life, and exacerbations in patients with COPD reported in the phase III and IV trials of AB/FF. Given the current concerns over unnecessary inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use in COPD, we also touch briefly on the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker for identifying those patients with COPD already using LAMA/LABA therapy for whom the addition of ICS might be of benefit.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. Bronchodilator therapy is the cornerstone in COPD treatment. Bronchodilation in COPD is mainly achieved via administration of long- and ultralong-acting ?2-agonists and with long-acting muscarinic antagonists. New combinations of bronchodilators with dual-acting muscarinic antagonist and ?2-agonist properties have been licensed, and others are currently being developed with the aim of achieving once-daily dosing, and therefore may improve the likelihood of treatment compliance. These combination bronchodilators include glycopyrronium bromide/indacaterol maleate, umeclidinium (UMEC) bromide/vilanterol trifenatate (VI), aclidinium bromide/formoterol and tiotropium bromide/olodaterol (Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany). This review will focus mainly on studies and clinical trials involving the novel fixed-dose combination of UMEC/VI at doses of 125/25 ?g and 62.5/25 ?g in patients with COPD. Data from large clinical trials involving more than 4,500 COPD patients indicate that UMEC/VI is an effective once-daily treatment in COPD with improved pulmonary function. Future studies assessing the impact of this combination on exacerbations, delay in disease progression, and health status in patients with COPD are warranted.
Project description:Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are natural events in the progression of the disease, and are characterised by acute worsening of symptoms, especially dyspnoea. These heterogeneous events follow increased airway inflammation, often due to infection, and lead to decreased airflow and increased lung hyperinflation relative to stable COPD. Although exacerbation frequency generally increases as COPD progresses, some patients experience frequent exacerbations (≥ 2 per year) independently of disease severity. Exacerbations, especially frequent exacerbations, are associated with impaired health-related quality of life, reduced physical activity and poor disease prognosis. The cornerstone of pharmacotherapy for stable COPD is long-acting bronchodilators, including the long-acting β(2)-agonists (LABAs) and long-acting anti-muscarinic agents (LAMAs) alone or combined with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). While ICS treatment can potentially reduce the risk of exacerbations, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of LABAs and LAMAs in reducing COPD symptoms, primarily by reducing lung hyperinflation secondary to reduced airway resistance. Sustained reduction in lung hyperinflation may in turn lessen dyspnoea during an exacerbation. Indeed, recent studies suggest that bronchodilators may also reduce the incidence of, or prevent, exacerbations. Using data from recent studies, this review explores the evidence and possible mechanisms through which bronchodilators may prevent exacerbations.