Efficient anchoring of alien chromosome segments introgressed into bread wheat by new Leymus racemosus genome-based markers.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The tertiary gene pool of bread wheat, to which Leymus racemosus belongs, has remained underutilized due to the current limited genomic resources of the species that constitute it. Continuous enrichment of public databases with useful information regarding these species is, therefore, needed to provide insights on their genome structures and aid successful utilization of their genes to develop improved wheat cultivars for effective management of environmental stresses. RESULTS:We generated de novo DNA and mRNA sequence information of L. racemosus and developed 110 polymorphic PCR-based markers from the data, and to complement the PCR markers, DArT-seq genotyping was applied to develop additional 9990 SNP markers. Approximately 52% of all the markers enabled us to clearly genotype 22 wheat-L. racemosus chromosome introgression lines, and L. racemosus chromosome-specific markers were highly efficient in detailed characterization of the translocation and recombination lines analyzed. A further analysis revealed remarkable transferability of the PCR markers to three other important Triticeae perennial species: L. mollis, Psathyrostachys huashanica and Elymus ciliaris, indicating their suitability for characterizing wheat-alien chromosome introgressions carrying chromosomes of these genomes. CONCLUSION:The efficiency of the markers in characterizing wheat-L. racemosus chromosome introgression lines proves their reliability, and their high transferability further broadens their scope of application. This is the first report on sequencing and development of markers from L. racemosus genome and the application of DArT-seq to develop markers from a perennial wild relative of wheat, marking a paradigm shift from the seeming concentration of the technology on cultivated species. Integration of these markers with appropriate cytogenetic methods would accelerate development and characterization of wheat-alien chromosome introgression lines.
Project description:Developing wheat-alien chromosome introgression lines to improve bread wheat's resistance to stresses, such as drought, salinity stress and diseases, requires reliable markers to identify and characterize the alien chromatins. Leymus mollis is a wild relative of bread wheat resistant to salinity and economically important diseases of wheat, but its genome sequence and cytological markers are not available. We devised a molecular marker-assisted strategy for L. mollis chromosome identification and applied it to produce 10 wheat-L. mollis chromosome addition lines. Using 47?L. racemosus genome polymorphic PCR markers and DArTseq genotyping, we distinguished the L. mollis chromosomes and differentiated disomic and monosomic lines by progeny test. DArTseq genotyping generated 14,530?L. mollis SNP markers and the chromosome-specific SNP markers were used to determine the homoeologous groups of L. mollis chromosomes in the addition lines. To validate the marker-based results, genomic in situ hybridization was applied to confirm the presence and cytological status of L. mollis chromosomes in the lines. This study demonstrates that adequate molecular markers allow the production and characterization of wheat-alien addition lines without in situ hybridization, which saves considerable time and effort.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Leaf and stripe rusts are two major wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses. The preferred way for protecting wheat from rust pathogens is by introgression of rust resistance traits from wheat-related wild species. To avoid genetic drag due to replacement of large wheat chromosomal segments by the alien chromatin, it is necessary to shorten the alien chromosome segment in primary recombinants.<h4>Results</h4>Here we report on shortening of an alien chromosome segment in wheat that carries leaf and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis). Rust resistant wheat introgression lines were selected and the alien region was mapped using genotyping by sequencing. Single polymorphic nucleotides (SNP) were identified and used to generate diagnostic PCR markers. Shortening of the alien fragment was achieved by induced homoeologous pairing and lines with shortened alien chromosome were identified using the PCR markers. Further reduction of the segment was achieved in tertiary recombinants without losing the rust resistance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Alien chromatin in wheat with novel rust resistance genes was characterized by SNP markers and shortened by homoeologous recombination to avoid deleterious traits. The resulting wheat lines are resistant to highly virulent races of leaf and stripe rust pathogens and can be used as both resistant wheat in the field and source for gene transfer to other wheat lines/species.
Project description:Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the key factor limiting wheat production in acid soils. Soil liming has been used widely to increase the soil pH, but due to its high cost, breeding tolerant cultivars is more cost-effective mean to mitigate the problem. Tolerant cultivars could be developed by traditional breeding, genetic transformation or introgression of genes from wild relatives. We used 30 wheat alien chromosome addition lines to identify new genetic resources to improve wheat tolerance to Al and to identify the chromosomes harboring the tolerance genes. We evaluated these lines and their wheat background Chinese Spring for Al tolerance in hydroponic culture at various Al concentrations. We also investigated Al uptake, oxidative stress and cell membrane integrity. The L. racemosus chromosomes A and E significantly enhanced the Al tolerance of the wheat in term of relative root growth. At the highest Al concentration tested (200 ?M), line E had the greatest tolerance. The introgressed chromosomes did not affect Al uptake of the tolerant lines. We attribute the improved tolerance conferred by chromosome E to improved cell membrane integrity. Chromosome engineering with these two lines could produce Al-tolerant wheat cultivars.
Project description:This study characterized and evaluated a set of wheat-Aegilops comosa introgression lines, including six additions and one substitution. A total of 47 PLUG markers and a set of cytogenetic markers specific for Ae. comosa chromosomes were established after screening 526 PLUG primer pairs and performing FISH using oligonucleotides as probes. Marker analysis confirmed that these lines were wheat-Ae. comosa 2M-7M addition lines and a 6M(6A) substitution line. The molecular and cytogenetic markers developed herein could be used to trace Ae. comosa chromatin in wheat background. In order to evaluate the breeding value of the material, disease resistance tests and agronomical trait investigations were carried out on these alien chromosome introgression lines. Disease resistance tests showed that chromosomes 2M and 7M of Ae. comosa might harbor new stripe rust and powdery mildew resistance genes, respectively, therefore, they could be used as resistance sources for wheat breeding. Investigations into agronomical traits showed that all chromosomes 2M to 7M had detrimental effects on the agronomic performance of wheat, therefore, the selection of plants with relatively negative effects should be avoided when inducing wheat-A. comosa chromosome translocations using chromosome engineering procedures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Monitoring alien introgressions in crop plants is difficult due to the lack of genetic and molecular mapping information on the wild crop relatives. The tertiary gene pool of wheat is a very important source of genetic variability for wheat improvement against biotic and abiotic stresses. By exploring the 5Mg short arm (5MgS) of Aegilops geniculata, we can apply chromosome genomics for the discovery of SNP markers and their use for monitoring alien introgressions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). RESULTS: The short arm of chromosome 5Mg of Ae. geniculata Roth (syn. Ae. ovata L.; 2n = 4x = 28, UgUgMgMg) was flow-sorted from a wheat line in which it is maintained as a telocentric chromosome. DNA of the sorted arm was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 with ~45x coverage. The sequence data was used for SNP discovery against wheat homoeologous group-5 assemblies. A total of 2,178 unique, 5MgS-specific SNPs were discovered. Randomly selected samples of 59 5MgS-specific SNPs were tested (44 by KASPar assay and 15 by Sanger sequencing) and 84% were validated. Of the selected SNPs, 97% mapped to a chromosome 5Mg addition to wheat (the source of t5MgS), and 94% to 5Mg introgressed from a different accession of Ae. geniculata substituting for chromosome 5D of wheat. The validated SNPs also identified chromosome segments of 5MgS origin in a set of T5D-5Mg translocation lines; eight SNPs (25%) mapped to TA5601 [T5DL?·?5DS-5MgS(0.75)] and three (8%) to TA5602 [T5DL?·?5DS-5MgS (0.95)]. SNPs (gsnp_5ms83 and gsnp_5ms94), tagging chromosome T5DL?·?5DS-5MgS(0.95) with the smallest introgression carrying resistance to leaf rust (Lr57) and stripe rust (Yr40), were validated in two released germplasm lines with Lr57 and Yr40 genes. CONCLUSION: This approach should be widely applicable for the identification of species/genome-specific SNPs. The development of a large number of SNP markers will facilitate the precise introgression and monitoring of alien segments in crop breeding programs and further enable mapping and cloning novel genes from the wild relatives of crop plants.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:Using COS markers, the study reveals homeologous relationships between tetraploid Agropyron cristatum and bread wheat to support alien introgression breeding of wheat. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L. Gaertn.) is a wild relative of wheat that possesses many genes that are potentially useful in wheat improvement. The species comprises a complex of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid forms. In this study, wheat-A. cristatum chromosome, telosome and translocation lines were used to characterize syntenic relationships between tetraploid A. cristatum and bread wheat. Prior to mapping COS markers, the cytogenetic stock lines were characterized for fertility and by FISH and GISH for karyotype stability. Out of 328 COS markers selected for the study, 279 consistently amplified products in tetraploid A. cristatum, and, out of these, 139 were polymorphic between tetraploid crested wheatgrass and wheat. Sixty-nine markers were found to be suitable for the detection of tetraploid A. cristatum chromosomes 1P-6P in wheat, ranging from 6 to 17 markers per chromosome. BLASTn of the source ESTs resulted in significant hits for 67 markers on the wheat pseudomolecules. Generally, COS markers of the same homeologous group were detected on similar arms in both Agropyron and wheat. However, some intragenomic duplications and chromosome rearrangements were detected in tetraploid A. cristatum. These results provide new insights into the structure and evolution of the tetraploid A. cristatum genome and will facilitate the exploitation of the wild species for introgression breeding of bread wheat.
Project description:Powdery mildew (PM) is a very destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line CH7086 was shown to possess powdery mildew resistance possibly originating from Th. ponticum. Genomic in situ hybridization and molecular characterization of the alien introgression failed to identify alien chromatin. To study the genetics of resistance, CH7086 was crossed with susceptible genotypes. Segregation in F2 populations and F2:3 lines tested with Chinese Bgt race E09 under controlled conditions indicated that CH7086 carries a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance. Fourteen SSR and EST-PCR markers linked with the locus were identified. The genetic distances between the locus and the two flanking markers were 1.5 and 3.2 cM, respectively. Based on the locations of the markers by nullisomic-tetrasomic and deletion lines of 'Chinese Spring', the resistance gene was located in deletion bin 2BL-0.89-1.00. Conserved orthologous marker analysis indicated that the genomic region flanking the resistance gene has a high level of collinearity to that of rice chromosome 4 and Brachypodium chromosome 5. Both resistance specificities and tests of allelism suggested the resistance gene in CH7086 was different from previously reported powdery mildew resistance genes on 2BL, and the gene was provisionally designated PmCH86. Molecular analysis of PmCH86 compared with other genes for resistance to Bgt in the 2BL-0.89-1.00 region suggested that PmCH86 may be a new PM resistance gene, and it was therefore designated as Pm51. The closely linked flanking markers could be useful in exploiting this putative wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line for rapid transfer of Pm51 to wheat breeding programs.
Project description:Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat-Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.
Project description:Powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS), the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection) and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants. Thus, in addition to PM resistance, these progeny might also carry resistance to stem rust race Ug99.
Project description:Wild wheat species Aegilops peregrina (UpUpSpSp), harbours resistance to various diseases including leaf rust and stripe rust. Inheritance studies in a recombinant inbred line population of wheat-Ae. peregrina introgression line IL pau16061 revealed the transfer of a single major dominant gene conditioning all stage resistance, herein temporarily designated as LrAp. Genomic in situ hybridisation of IL pau16061, resistant and susceptible RILs with U- and S-genome DNA probes confirmed that the introgression with leaf rust resistance is from the Up genome of Ae. peregrina. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation using chromosome specific probes identified Up genome introgression to be on the long arm of wheat chromosome 6B. To genetically map LrAp, bulked segregant analysis was combined with resistance gene enrichment sequencing (MapRenSeq). Five nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat contigs distinguished resistant and susceptible bulks and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from these contigs co-segregated with LrAp. All five RenSeq NB_ARC contigs showed identity with the long arm of wheat chromosome 6B confirming the introgression on 6BL which we propose is a compensating translocation from Ae. peregrina chromosome 6UpL due to homoeology between the alien and wheat chromosomes. The SNP markers developed in this study will aid in cloning and marker assisted gene pyramiding of LrAp.