The Clinical Significance of O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Promoter Methylation Status in Adult Patients With Glioblastoma: A Meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Background and objective:Promoter status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been widely established as a clinically relevant factor in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. However, in addition to varied therapy schedule, the prognosis of GBM patients is also affected by variations of age, race, primary or recurrent tumor. This study comprehensively investigated the association between MGMT promoter status and prognosis in overall GBM patients and in different GBM subtype including new diagnosed patients, recurrent patients and elderly patients. Methods:A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases to identify literatures (published from January 1, 2005 to April 1, 2017) that evaluated the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and prognosis of GBM patients. Results:Totally, 66 studies including 7,886 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall GBM patients with a methylated status of MGMT receiving temozolomide (TMZ)-containing treatment had better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) [OS: hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.52, p?
Project description:Many physicians are reluctant to treat elderly glioblastoma (GBM) patients as aggressively as younger patients, which is not evidence based due to the absence of validated data from primary studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide valid evidence for the use of the aggressive combination of radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ) in elderly GBM patients.A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Studies comparing combined RT/TMZ with RT alone in elderly patients (?65 years) with newly diagnosed GBM were eligible for inclusion.No eligible randomized trials were identified. Alternatively, a meta-analysis of nonrandomized studies (NRSs) was performed, with 16 studies eligible for overall survival (OS) analysis and nine for progression-free survival (PFS) analysis. Combined RT/TMZ was shown to reduce the risk of death and progression in elderly GBM patients compared with RT alone (OS hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.72; PFS: HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.84). Evaluable patients were reported to tolerate combined treatment but certain toxicities, and especially hematological toxicities, were more frequently observed. Limited data on O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter status and quality of life were reported.The meta-analysis of NRSs provided level 2a evidence (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine) that combined RT/TMZ conferred a clear survival benefit on a selection of elderly GBM patients who had a favorable prognosis (e.g., extensive resection, favorable KPS). Toxicities were more frequent but acceptable. Future randomized trials are warranted to justify a definitive conclusion.
Project description:Background:The current standard of care for the management of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) includes maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). While it is well established that TMZ has better efficacy in patients with MGMT promoter methylation, it remains an area of debate whether TMZ should be omitted when treating GBM patients with unmethylated MGMT. Methods:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide separate estimates of median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with methylated and unmethylated GBM treated with RT with or without TMZ. We searched multiple databases from inception to January 13, 2020. Results:The median OS for patients with unmethylated GBM treated with RT/TMZ pooled from 5 phase III studies (N = 655) was 14.11 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.18-15.04) with a median PFS of 4.99 months (95% CI, 4.25-5.72). In contrast, the median OS for patients with methylated GBM pooled from 6 studies (N = 753) was 24.59 months (95% CI, 22.19-26.99) with a median PFS pooled from 7 studies (N = 805) of 9.51 months (95% CI, 7.41-11.61). There is a paucity of prospective data pertaining to OS/PFS in unmethylated patients treated with RT only and therefore a direct comparison was not possible. Conclusions:This meta-analysis provides estimates of survival for patients with MGMT methylated or unmethylated GBM treated with RT/TMZ. Further research is needed to delineate whether TMZ should be withheld for patients with unmethylated GBM outside of the setting of clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are controversial results concerning the prognostic implication of TERT promoter mutation in glioma patients concerning MGMT status. In this meta-analysis, we investigated whether there are any interactions of these two genetic markers on the overall survival (OS) of glioma patients. METHODS:Electronic databases including PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. Hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for OS adjusted for selected covariates were calculated from the individual patient data (IPD), Kaplan-Meier curve (KMC), or directly obtained from the included studies. RESULTS:A total of nine studies comprising 2819 glioma patients were included for meta-analysis. Our results showed that TERT promoter mutation was associated with a superior outcome in MGMT-methylated gliomas (HR?=?0.73; 95% CI?=?0.55-0.98; p-value?=?0.04), whereas this mutation was associated with poorer survival in gliomas without MGMT methylation (HR?=?1.86; 95% CI?=?1.54-2.26; p-value <?0.001). TERT-mutated glioblastoma (GBM) patients with MGMT methylation benefited from temozolomide (TMZ) treatment (HR?=?0.33; 95% CI?=?0.23-0.47; p-value <?0.001). MGMT methylation was not related with any improvement in OS in TERT-wild type GBMs (HR?=?0.80; 95% CI?=?0.56-1.15; p-value?=?0.23). CONCLUSIONS:The prognostic value of TERT promoter mutation may be modulated by MGMT methylation status. Not all MGMT-methylated GBM patients may benefit from TMZ; it is possible that only TERT-mutated GBM with MGMT methylation, in particular, may respond.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the safety and efficacy of upfront treatment using bortezomib combined with standard radiation therapy (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ), followed by adjuvant bortezomib and TMZ for ?24 cycles, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS AND MATERIALS:Twenty-four patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled. The patients received standard external beam regional RT with concurrent TMZ beginning 3 to 6 weeks after surgery, followed by adjuvant TMZ and bortezomib for ?24 cycles or until tumor progression. During RT, bortezomib was given at 1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 29, 32, 36, and 39. After RT, bortezomib was given at 1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 4 weeks. RESULTS:No unexpected adverse events occurred from the addition of bortezomib. The efficacy analysis showed a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 6.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7-8.8), with promising PFS rates at ?18 months compared with historical norms (25.0% at 18 and 24 months; 16.7% at 30 months). In terms of overall survival (OS), the median OS was 19.1 months (95% CI 6.7-31.4), with improved OS rates at ?12 months (87.5% at 12, 50.0% at 24, 34.1% at 36-60 months) compared with the historical norms. The median PFS was 24.7 months (95% CI 8.5-41.0) in 10 MGMT methylated and 5.1 months (95% CI 3.9-6.2) in 13 unmethylated patients. The estimated median OS was 61 months (95% CI upper bound not reached) in the methylated and 16.4 months (95% CI 11.8-21.0) in the unmethylated patients. CONCLUSIONS:The addition of bortezomib to current standard radiochemotherapy in newly diagnosed GBM patients was tolerable. The PFS and OS rates appeared promising, with more benefit to MGMT methylated patients. Further clinical investigation is warranted in a larger cohort of patients.
Project description:Abstract <h4>BACKGROUND</h4> Standard treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is focal radiation with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) for 6 cycles. The GEINO-14-01 trial (NCT02209948) investigated the role of extending adjuvant TMZ to 12 cycles in a randomized multicenter study. <h4>MATERIAL AND METHODS</h4> Between Aug/2014 and Nov/2018, 166 patients (p) were screened and 159 randomized to extend (80p) or not (79p) TMZ treatment to 12 cycles after proving stable disease in the MRI performed before inclusion. The trial was stratified by MGMT status and presence or absence of residual disease (defined as a residual enhancement larger than 1cm on the MRI). The primary endpoint was differences in 6monthsPFS, secondary endpoints were differences in PFS, OS, toxicity, between arms and per stratification factors. <h4>RESULTS</h4> Median age was 60.4 (range 29–83), 97p (61%) were methylated and 83 p (52.2%) were reported with residual disease. Median (m) PFS was 7.9 months (95%CI: 6.1–9.8) and mOS: 20.9 (95%CI: 17.6–24.1). A methylated status was a factor of better PFS (HR=0.29, 95% CI 0.46–0.95; p=0.029) and better OS (HR= 0.43: 95% CI 0.28–0.66; p=0.000) as well as the absence of residual disease (PFS: HR = 0.84: 95% CI =0.71–1.01; p=0.068; OS: HR=0.77, 95%CI 0.63–0.96; p=0.019). We didn’t find any difference in PFS (HR=1.02, 95%CI 0.85–1.21; p=0.82), or OS (HR=0.90; 0.73–1.11; p=0.34) on extending treatment with temozolomide longer than 6 cycles. <h4>CONCLUSION</h4> There is no benefit of continuing TMZ treatment for more than 6 cycles in the adjuvant treatment of glioblastoma. Final data will be presented at the congress. Supported by a Grant of the ISCIII: PI13/01751
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor treating fields (TTFields) is a non-invasive, antimitotic therapy. In the EF-14 phase 3 trial in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, TTFields plus temozolomide (TTFields/TMZ) improved progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) versus TMZ alone. Previous data indicate a ??75% daily compliance improves outcomes. We analyzed compliance data from TTFields/TMZ patients in the EF-14 study to correlate TTFields compliance with PFS and OS and identify potential lower boundary for compliance with improved clinical outcomes. METHODS:Compliance was assessed by usage data from the NovoTTF-100A device and calculated as percentage per month of TTFields delivery. TTFields/TMZ patients were segregated into subgroups by percent monthly compliance. A Cox proportional hazard model controlled for sex, extent of resection, MGMT methylation status, age, region, and performance status was used to investigate the effect of compliance on PFS and OS. RESULTS:A threshold value of 50% compliance with TTFields/TMZ improved PFS (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47-1.05) and OS (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.99) versus TMZ alone with improved outcome as compliance increased. At compliance?>?90%, median survival was 24.9 months (28.7 months from diagnosis) and 5-year survival rate was 29.3%. Compliance was independent of gender, extent of resection, MGMT methylation status, age, region and performance status (HR 0.78; p?=?0.031; OS at compliance ??75% vs.?<?75%). CONCLUSION:A compliance threshold of 50% with TTFields/TMZ correlated with significantly improved OS and PFS versus TMZ alone. Patients with compliance >?90% showed extended median and 5-year survival rates. Increased compliance with TTFields therapy is independently prognostic for improved survival in glioblastoma.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal and aggressive malignant tumor of the central nervous system. The World Health Organization classifies it as a grade IV astrocytoma. Controlling seizures is essential during GBM treatment because they are often present and closely associated with the quality of life of GBM patients. Some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antitumor effects and could decrease the mortality of patients with GBM. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined 418 patients treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) at Severance Hospital in South Korea, per the current protocol. Median overall survival (OS) was 21 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 18.1-23.9] in the levetiracetam (LEV) treatment group, whereas it was 16 months [95% CI: 14.1-17.9] in the group without LEV, exhibiting a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Of nine AED groups, only LEV treatment [P = 0.001; hazard ratio (HR), 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51-0.83] exhibited a statistically significant difference in the OS, in the univariate analysis. In the risk analysis of the baseline characteristics, age, administration of LEV, and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter status correlated with OS. The use of LEV in the group with a methylated MGMT promoter resulted in a positive impact on the OS [P = 0.006; HR, 0.174; 95% CI: 0.050-0.608], but the effect of LEV on the OS was not statistically significant in the unmethylated MGMT promoter group (P = 0.623). This study suggests that, compared with other AEDs, the administration of LEV may prolong the survival period in GBM patients with methylated MGMT promoters, who are undergoing chemotherapy with TMZ.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The clinical implication of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter status is ill-defined in elderly glioblastoma patients. Here we report a meta-analysis to seek valid evidence for its clinical relevance in this subpopulation. METHODS: Literature were searched and reviewed in a systematic manner using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Studies investigating the association between MGMT promoter status and survival data of elderly patients (?65 years) were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Totally 16 studies were identified, with 13 studies included in the final analyses. The aggregate proportion of MGMT promoter methylation in elderly patients was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 42-52%), which was similar to the value for younger patients. The analyses showed differential effects of MGMT status on overall survival (OS) of elderly patients according to assigned treatments: methylated vs. unmethylated: (1) temozolomide (TMZ)-containing therapies: hazard ratio [HR] 0.49, 95% CI 0.41-0.58; (2) TMZ-free therapies: HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.77-1.21. More importantly, a useful predictive value was observed by an interaction analysis: TMZ-containing therapies vs. RT alone: (1) methylated tumors: HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36-0.65; (2) unmethylated tumors: HR 1.14; 95% CI 0.90-1.44. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis reports an age-independent presence of MGMT promoter methylation. More importantly, the study encouraged routine testing of MGMT promoter status especially in elderly glioblastoma patients by indicating a direct linkage between biomarker test and individual treatment decision. Future studies are needed to justify the mandatory testing in younger patients.
Project description:Abstract BACKGROUND Optimal treatment and role of O6-methylguanine DNA-methyl transferase (MGMT) status in elderly patients is still not defined. METHODS This is the long-term update (LT) of the NOA-08 trial (NCT01502241) that compared efficacy and safety of RT to TMZ in elderly patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma (GB) using overall survival (OS) as primary endpoint and event-free survival (EFS) as well as efficacy according to MGMT status as major secondary endpoints. FINDINGS: In the LT with a data cut-off Apr 1 2018 median OS was 8·2 [7·0–10·0] months for TMZ treatment versus 9·4 [8·1–10·4] months for RT; hazard ratio (HR)=0·93 (95% CI: 0·76-1·15)] of TMZ versus RT did not differ between both arms. Also, median EFS [3·4 [3·2–4·1] months versus 4·6 [4·2–5·0] months 3did not differ with a HR=1·02 (0·83-1·25)]. MGMT promoter methylation tested in tumor tissue (82/221 patients, 37·1%) was associated with prolonged OS [13·6 [10·1–16·5] versus 8·0 [6·9-9·9] months; HR=0·53 (0·40-0·70), p<0·0001]. Patients with MGMT promoter methylation had longer OS and EFS when treated with TMZ (18·4 [13·9–24·4] months and 8·5 [6·9–13·3] months) versus RT (9·6 [6·4–13·7] months and 4·8 [4·3–6·2] months, HR 0·44 [0.27–0.70], p<0·001 for OS and 0·46 [0.29–0.73], p=0·001 for EFS). Patients without MGMT promoter methylation had shorter EFS and a shorter OS with the usual testing not significant when treated with TMZ (6·7 [5·6–8·2] months and 3·0 [2·6-3·3] months) versus with RT (10·2 [8·0–12·0] months and 4·6 [3·7-6·4] months), HR 1·33 [0·95-1·87], p=0·099 for OS and 1·86 [1·32-2·62], p<0·001 for EFS). INTERPRETATION: LT of NOA-08 confirms the non-inferiority of TMZ compared with RT in the treatment of elderly patients with AA or GB. To improve OS and EFS, MGMT promoter methylation is a strong predictive biomarker for the choice between RT and TMZ and offers unexpectedly favorable long-term outcome with initial TMZ monotherapy.
Project description:Introduction Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over age 65 represent nearly half of those diagnosed per annum. They have a different tumor markers profile, physiologic reserve, and a median survival as low as three to four months. An optimal treatment strategy in older GBM patients remains undefined, with many patients receiving radiation in 30 treatments over six weeks, a regimen based on trials originally excluding patients over age 70. Recent studies have suggested reducing the number of treatments to 10-15 over two to three weeks with similar efficacy. We present an elderly population of patients treated with six radiation treatments. Methods After IRB approval, we reviewed the electronic medical records of 20 consecutive patients over the age 60 at diagnosis with GBM, treated with maximally safe neurosurgical resection, and adjuvant hypofractionated radiation (HFRT) and temozolomide (TMZ) between 2012 and 2015. HFRT was given every other weekday for two weeks, in a total of six fractions (6 × 6 Gy to contrast-enhancing tumor +5 mm and 6 × 4 Gy to fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) +2 cm) with concurrent TMZ (75 mg/m2 daily), followed by adjuvant TMZ (150-200 mg/m2 in 5/28 days). The response was assessed using the Macdonald and Revised Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria, radiology reports, physician notes, and tumor board consensus notes. Descriptive statistics, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, and steroid use were calculated and compared to the historical controls of patients treated with a six-week radiation regimen of 60 Gy in 30 fractions with TMZ. Results The median age at diagnosis was 70.5 years (range: 61 - 82 years). Median pre-radiation Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) was 60 (range: 40 - 90). The median preoperative maximum gross tumor diameter on MRI was 3.6 cm (range: 1.8 - 6 cm). Six patients (30%) had a gross total resection (GTR), eight (40%) had a subtotal resection (STR), and six (30%) had biopsy only. The median progression-free survival was five months (95% (confidence interval) CI: 2.8, 16.4) and median OS of 14 months (95% CI: 5.0, upper limit not estimable). Of the 19 patients tested for isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH), 100% were negative. Of the eight patients who had MGMT methylation status results, four (50%) were positive for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation. In the 18 patients who completed radiation, the HFRT treatment was well tolerated without any Grade 3/4 acute toxicities. Conclusions The accelerated adjuvant course of HFRT with TMZ used for the elderly with GBM decreases radiation treatment days to six. It was well tolerated in patients over 60 years of age and provided similar OS, PFS, minimal toxicity, and decreased steroid usage compared to historical controls treated with six or even two to three weeks of radiotherapy.