ADAM10 and ?-secretase regulate sensory regeneration in the avian vestibular organs.
ABSTRACT: The loss of sensory hair cells from the inner ear is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders. The mammalian ear has a very limited ability to replace lost hair cells, but the inner ears of non-mammalian vertebrates can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after injury. Prior studies have shown that replacement hair cells are derived from epithelial supporting cells and that the differentiation of new hair cells is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The present study examined molecular influences on regeneration in the avian utricle, which has a particularly robust regenerative ability. Chicken utricles were placed in organotypic culture and hair cells were lesioned by application of the ototoxic antibiotic streptomycin. Cultures were then allowed to regenerate in vitro for seven days. Some specimens were treated with small molecule inhibitors of ?-secretase or ADAM10, proteases which are essential for transmission of Notch signaling. As expected, treatment with both inhibitors led to increased numbers of replacement hair cells. However, we also found that inhibition of both proteases resulted in increased regenerative proliferation. Subsequent experiments showed that inhibition of ?-secretase or ADAM10 could also trigger proliferation in undamaged utricles. To better understand these phenomena, we used RNA-Seq profiling to characterize changes in gene expression following ?-secretase inhibition. We observed expression patterns that were consistent with Notch pathway inhibition, but we also found that the utricular sensory epithelium contains numerous ?-secretase substrates that might regulate cell cycle entry and possibly supporting cell-to-hair cell conversion. Together, our data suggest multiple roles for ?-secretase and ADAM10 in vestibular hair cell regeneration.
Project description:Hearing loss due to damage to auditory hair cells is normally irreversible because mammalian hair cells do not regenerate. Here, we show that new hair cells can be induced and can cause partial recovery of hearing in ears damaged by noise trauma, when Notch signaling is inhibited by a ?-secretase inhibitor selected for potency in stimulating hair cell differentiation from inner ear stem cells in vitro. Hair cell generation resulted from an increase in the level of bHLH transcription factor Atoh1 in response to inhibition of Notch signaling. In vivo prospective labeling of Sox2-expressing cells with a Cre-lox system unambiguously demonstrated that hair cell generation resulted from transdifferentiation of supporting cells. Manipulating cell fate of cochlear sensory cells in vivo by pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling is thus a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of deafness.
Project description:Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is a basic helix-loop-helix 9 (bHLH) transcription factor acting downstream of Notch and is required for the differentiation of sensory hair cells in the inner ear and the specification of secretory cells during the intestinal crypt cell regeneration. Motivated by the observations that the upregulation of Atoh1 gene expression, through genetic manipulation or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling (e.g. ?-secretase inhibitors, GSIs), induces ectopic hair cell growth in the cochlea of the inner ear and partially restores hearing after injuries in experimental models, we decided to identify small molecule modulators of the Notch-Atoh1 pathway, which could potentially regenerate hair cells. However, the lack of cellular models of the inner ear has precluded the screening and characterization of such modulators. Here we report using a colon cancer cell line LS-174T, which displays Notch inhibition-dependent Atoh1 expression as a surrogate cellular model to screen for inducers of Atoh1 expression. We designed an Atoh1 promoter-driven luciferase assay to screen a target-annotated library of ~6000 compounds. We further developed a medium throughput, real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay measuring the endogenous Atoh1 gene expression to confirm the hits and eliminate false positives from the reporter-based screen. This strategy allowed us to successfully recover GSIs of known chemotypes. This LS-174T cell-based assay directly measures Atoh1 gene expression induced through Notch-Hes1 inhibition, and therefore offers an opportunity to identify novel cellular modulators along the Notch-Atoh1 pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hair cell loss in the cochlea is caused by ototoxic drugs, aging, and environmental stresses and could potentially lead to devastating pathophysiological effects. In adult mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and may result in hearing and balance deficits. In contrast, nonmammalian vertebrates, including birds, can regenerate hair cells through differentiation of supporting cells and restore inner ear function, suggesting that hair cell progenitors are present in the population of supporting cells. RESULTS:In the present study, we aimed to identify novel genes related to regeneration in the chicken utricle by gene expression profiling of supporting cell and hair cell populations obtained by laser capture microdissection. The volcano plot identified 408 differentially expressed genes (twofold change, p = 0.05, Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction), 175 of which were well annotated. Among these genes, we focused on Musashi-1 (MSI1), a marker of neural stem cells involved in Notch signaling, and the downstream genes in the Notch pathway. Higher expression of these genes in supporting cells compared with that in hair cells was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that MSI1 was mainly localized at the basal side of the supporting cell layer in normal chick utricles. During the regeneration period following aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced damage of chicken utricles, the expression levels of MSI1, hairy and enhancer of split-5, and cyclin D1 were increased, and BrdU labeling indicated that cell proliferation was enhanced. CONCLUSIONS:The findings of this study suggested that MSI1 played an important role in the proliferation of supporting cells in the inner ear during normal and damaged conditions and could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of vestibular defects.
Project description:This work sought to determine the crosstalk between the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways in regulating supporting cell (SC) proliferation and hair cell (HC) regeneration in mouse utricles. We cultured postnatal day (P)3 and P60 mouse utricles, damaged the HCs with gentamicin, and treated the utricles with the ?-secretase inhibitor DAPT to inhibit the Notch pathway and with the Wnt agonist QS11 to active the Wnt pathway. We also used Sox2-CreER, Notch1-flox (exon 1), and Catnb-flox (exon 3) transgenic mice to knock out the Notch pathway and activate the Wnt pathway in Sox2+ SCs. Notch inhibition alone increased SC proliferation and HC number in both undamaged and damaged utricles. Wnt activation alone promoted SC proliferation, but the HC number was not significantly increased. Here we demonstrated the cumulative effects of Notch inhibition and Wnt activation in regulating SC proliferation and HC regeneration. Simultaneously inhibiting Notch and overexpressing Wnt led to significantly greater SC proliferation and greater numbers of HCs than manipulating either pathway alone. Similar results were observed in the transgenic mice. This study suggests that the combination of Notch inhibition and Wnt activation can significantly promote SC proliferation and increase the number of regenerated HCs in mouse utricle.
Project description:Recruitment of endogenous progenitors is critical during tissue repair. The inner ear utricle requires mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) to detect linear acceleration. After damage, non-mammalian utricles regenerate HCs via both proliferation and direct transdifferentiation. In adult mammals, limited transdifferentiation from unidentified progenitors occurs to regenerate extrastriolar Type II HCs. Here we show that HC damage in neonatal mouse utricle activates the Wnt target gene Lgr5 in striolar supporting cells. Lineage tracing and time-lapse microscopy reveal that Lgr5+ cells transdifferentiate into HC-like cells in vitro. In contrast to adults, HC ablation in neonatal utricles in vivo recruits Lgr5+ cells to regenerate striolar HCs through mitotic and transdifferentiation pathways. Both Type I and II HCs are regenerated, and regenerated HCs display stereocilia and synapses. Lastly, stabilized ß-catenin in Lgr5+ cells enhances mitotic activity and HC regeneration. Thus Lgr5 marks Wnt-regulated, damage-activated HC progenitors and may help uncover factors driving mammalian HC regeneration.
Project description:Notch signaling is active during the development of mosaic epithelial sheets and during their turnover and regeneration. After the loss of hair cells in the mosaic sheet of the vestibular sensory epithelium, new hair cells can be spontaneously generated by transdifferentiation of supporting cells. This regenerative process involves downregulation of the Hes5 gene and is known to be limited and incomplete, especially when the lesion is severe. Here, we test whether further downregulation of Hes5 gene accomplished by the use of siRNA after a severe lesion induced by an aminoglycoside in the mouse utricle can enhance the transdifferentiation of supporting cells and lead to the increased production of new hair cells. We demonstrate that Hes5 levels in the utricle decreased after the application of siRNA and that the number of hair cells in these utricles was significantly larger than following control treatment. The data suggest that siRNA technology may be useful for inducing repair and regeneration in the inner ear and that the Notch signaling pathway is a potentially useful target for specific gene expression inhibition.
Project description:ADAM10 is involved in the proteolytic processing and shedding of proteins such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP), cadherins, and the Notch receptors, thereby initiating the regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of these proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the sheddase ADAM10 is also subject to RIP. We identify ADAM9 and -15 as the proteases responsible for releasing the ADAM10 ectodomain, and Presenilin/gamma-Secretase as the protease responsible for the release of the ADAM10 intracellular domain (ICD). This domain then translocates to the nucleus and localizes to nuclear speckles, thought to be involved in gene regulation. Thus, ADAM10 performs a dual role in cells, as a metalloprotease when it is membrane-bound, and as a potential signaling protein once cleaved by ADAM9/15 and the gamma-Secretase.
Project description:Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the two proteases ?- and ?-secretases controls the generation of the amyloid ? peptide (A?), a key player in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. The ?-secretase ADAM10 and the ?-secretase BACE1 have opposite effects on A? generation and are assumed to compete for APP as a substrate, such that their cleavages are inversely coupled. This concept was mainly demonstrated in studies using activation or overexpression of ?- and ?-secretases. Here, we report that this inverse coupling is not seen to the same extent upon inhibition of the endogenous proteases. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of ADAM10 and BACE1 revealed that the endogenous, constitutive ?-secretase cleavage of APP is largely uncoupled from ?-secretase cleavage and A? generation in neuroglioma H4 cells and in neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, inverse coupling was observed in primary cortical neurons. However, this coupling was not bidirectional. Inhibition of BACE1 increased ADAM10 cleavage of APP, but a reduction of ADAM10 activity did not increase the BACE1 cleavage of APP in the neurons. Our analysis shows that the inverse coupling of the endogenous ?- and ?-secretase cleavages depends on the cellular model and suggests that a reduction of ADAM10 activity is unlikely to increase the AD risk through increased ?-secretase cleavage.
Project description:The adult mammalian inner ear lacks the capacity to divide or regenerate. Damage to inner ear generally leads to permanent hearing loss in humans. Here, we present that reprogramming of the adult inner ear induces renewed proliferation and regeneration of inner ear cell types. Co-activation of cell cycle activator Myc and inner ear progenitor gene Notch1 induces robust proliferation of diverse adult cochlear sensory epithelial cell types. Transient MYC and NOTCH activities enable adult supporting cells to respond to transcription factor Atoh1 and efficiently transdifferentiate into hair cell-like cells. Furthermore, we uncover that mTOR pathway participates in MYC/NOTCH-mediated proliferation and regeneration. These regenerated hair cell-like cells take up the styryl dye FM1-43 and are likely to form connections with adult spiral ganglion neurons, supporting that Myc and Notch1 co-activation is sufficient to reprogram fully mature supporting cells to proliferate and regenerate hair cell-like cells in adult mammalian auditory organs.
Project description:In mammals, auditory hair cells are generated only during embryonic development and loss or damage to hair cells is permanent. However, in non-mammalian vertebrate species, such as birds, neighboring glia-like supporting cells regenerate auditory hair cells by both mitotic and non-mitotic mechanisms. Based on work in intact cochlear tissue, it is thought that Notch signaling might restrict supporting cell plasticity in the mammalian cochlea. However, it is unresolved how Notch signaling functions in the hair cell-damaged cochlea and the molecular and cellular changes induced in supporting cells in response to hair cell trauma are poorly understood. Here we show that gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in early postnatal mouse cochlear tissue induces rapid morphological changes in supporting cells, which facilitate the sealing of gaps left by dying hair cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that Notch signaling is active in the hair cell damaged cochlea and identify Hes1, Hey1, Hey2, HeyL, and Sox2 as targets and potential Notch effectors of this hair cell-independent mechanism of Notch signaling. Using Cre/loxP based labeling system we demonstrate that inhibition of Notch signaling with a ?- secretase inhibitor (GSI) results in the trans-differentiation of supporting cells into hair cell-like cells. Moreover, we show that these hair cell-like cells, generated by supporting cells have molecular, cellular, and basic electrophysiological properties similar to immature hair cells rather than supporting cells. Lastly, we show that the vast majority of these newly generated hair cell-like cells express the outer hair cell specific motor protein prestin.